Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

A small, very warty Hyperolius from Serengeti, Tanzania. Female 21 mm. Dorsum silvery grey with a white hour-glass pattern. Fingers, toes and ventral surface of hind limbs dark orange, throat and ventrum white. Pupil horizontal.

Only one female and two juveniles are known, collected in the dry season.This form is remarkable on account of its very warty dorsum. From its brief snout, chalky white colour and transverse gular fold in females it would appear to be a member of the H. viridiflavus group but it has been collected together with H. v. goetzei. The known female of H. orkarkarri is small and could well be a subadult. It is relevant that for other members of the viridiflavus group (H. v. nitidulus, Rödel 1996), it is known that juveniles and subadults have very granulated skin in the dry season, while adults have smooth skin. Observations in the wet season would be most desirable to see whether this form is different from the sympatric H. v. goetzei.

This account was taken from "Treefrogs of Africa" by Arne Schiøtz with kind permission from Edition Chimaira publishers, Frankfurt am Main.

  • Schiøtz, A. (1999). Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.
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Description

A small, very warty Hyperolius from Serengeti, Tanzania. Female 21 mm. Dorsum silvery grey with a white hour-glass pattern. Fingers, toes and ventral surface of hind limbs dark orange, throat and ventrum white. Pupil horizontal.

Only one female and two juveniles are known, collected in the dry season.This form is remarkable on account of its very warty dorsum. From its brief snout, chalky white colour and transverse gular fold in females it would appear to be a member of the H. viridiflavus group but it has been collected together with H. v. goetzei. The known female of H. orkarkarri is small and could well be a subadult. It is relevant that for other members of the viridiflavus group (H. v. nitidulus, Rödel 1996), it is known that juveniles and subadults have very granulated skin in the dry season, while adults have smooth skin. Observations in the wet season would be most desirable to see whether this form is different from the sympatric H. v. goetzei.

This account was taken from "Treefrogs of Africa" by Arne Schiøtz with kind permission from Edition Chimaira publishers, Frankfurt am Main.

  • Schiøtz, A. (1999). Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.
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© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

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Taxonomic Notes

Hyperolius glandicolor is part of the Hyperolius viridiflavus superspecies which consists of around 45 ‘subspecies’ that all have similar calls, morphology and natural history, but differ in their dorsal patterns and tend not to co-occur. The taxonomy of the Hyperolius viridiflavus complex is still not well resolved. Harper et al. (2010) use the name H. glandicolor to refer to the form endemic to the Taita Hills and surrounding area.

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Distribution

Distribution and Habitat

Collected on rocks on an inselberg, Moru Kopjes, surrounded by grassland in Serengeti N. P., Tanzania.

  • Schiøtz, A. (1999). Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.
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Distribution and Habitat

Collected on rocks on an inselberg, Moru Kopjes, surrounded by grassland in Serengeti N. P., Tanzania.

  • Schiøtz, A. (1999). Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.
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Physical Description

Size

Males are 30 – 33 mm in snout-vent length, and females are 30 – 33 mm (Harper et al., 2010).

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Diagnostic Description

The reed frog is probably one of the most familiar amphibian species in the Taita Hills of Kenya. This species is distinctive due to its coloration and its smooth plastic-like shiny skin. Its toes and fingers end in discs which help the animal climb and stick to reeds and grasses. The insides of the legs and ends of the toes are often tinged pink or red. Males have two colour patterns, a normal brown and black with yellow reticulation, which is the pattern more typical of females (Text from Measey et al. 2009, © SANBI).

Females have a distinctive reticulate patterning of black on yellow, while males may take one of two forms, either female-like or a plain brown form. The ventrum in both sexes is pale, occasionally with red axial pigmentation (Text from Harper et al., 2010).

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Look Alikes

Comparisons

This species can be confused with Leptopelis concolor and Chiromantis petersii. However, it is smaller than both these species and is the only one with black and yellow patterned females (Text from Measey et al. 2009, © SANBI).

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

It lives close to permanent water or temporary pools, although adults and juveniles can be found at some distance in forest and shambas alike (Text from Measey et al. 2009, © SANBI).

This species inhabits savannas, grasslands, and shrublands at elevations between 800 and 1800 m. It is typically found on vegetation at the edge of water bodies, including swamps, lakes and ponds (Harper et al., 2010).

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Activity and Special Behaviors

During the day these frogs are able to withstand full sun by sitting with their legs close to their bodies to minimise water loss and even turn a very pale colour to reflect the heat (Text from Measey et al. 2009, © SANBI).

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Life Cycle

Metamorphosis

The tadpoles develop over a period of weeks until the young metamorphs leave the water and move off into the surrounding area to grow (Text from Measey et al. 2009, © SANBI).

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Reproduction

Advertisement Call

During evening hours or after rainfall they come alive, males sit close to the water on reeds or grasses, extend their large vocal sac and emit a very distinctive ‘bwoep’. When many males are singing in a chorus the noise can become almost deafening. Calling males are territorial and if another male comes too close they emit a distinctive warning ‘croak’ (Text from Measey et al. 2009, © SANBI).

Channing and Howell (2006) describe the call as a “brief click.”

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The reed frog breeds in both rainy seasons, and males can be heard calling throughout the year, especially after rain.

Females can be found in the surrounding area until they are ready to mate. They then move towards and select amongst calling males and once in amplexus move to lay their eggs in a cluster on leaves close to the water surface. The eggs develop out of the water and tadpoles finally drop into the water once hatched (Text from Measey et al. 2009, © SANBI).

Eggs are deposited on vegetation under water in ditches, puddles and permanent water bodies (Text from Harper et al., 2010).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Phylogenetics

Wieczorec et al. (2001) analyzed the mitochondrial DNA of 24 of the 45 recognized subspecies. They concluded that of these 24,10 should be considered separate species, including H. glandicolor and H. goetzei. More work is needed to assess the status of the subspecies that were not included in Wieczorec et al. (2001).

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Wikipedia

Hyperolius orkarkarri

Hyperolius orkarkarri is a species of frog in the Hyperoliidae family. It is endemic to Tanzania. Its natural habitats are dry savanna, intermittent freshwater marshes, and rocky areas.

References

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Hyperolius glandicolor

Hyperolius glandicolor is a species of frog in the Hyperoliidae family. It is found in Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania, possibly Democratic Republic of the Congo, possibly Malawi, and possibly Mozambique. Its natural habitats are dry savanna, moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, subtropical or tropical moist shrubland, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland, subtropical or tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grassland, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, rivers, swamps, freshwater lakes, intermittent freshwater lakes, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, arable land, pastureland, rural gardens, urban areas, water storage areas, ponds, open excavations, irrigated land, seasonally flooded agricultural land, and canals and ditches.

References

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