Overview

Brief Summary

Algae are photosynthetic organisms that occur in most habitats, ranging from marine and freshwater to desert sands and from hot boiling springs to snow and ice. Algae are important ecologically, as they represent half of the photosynthetic production of global organic material. Phycology is the scientific term for the study of algae.

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Comprehensive Description

Description of Haptophytes

Circumscription: Marine flagellates, almost all with plastids with chlorophylls a and c, with two flagella and one additional locomotor/feeding organelle, the haptonema. Some mixotrophic, one species exclusively heterotrophic. Many with inorganic (calcareous) scales (coccoliths). Some with polymorphic life cycles. Cytological organization similar in many respects to stramenopiles with chloroplasts, and they have been classified with that group by some. They lack the synapomorphy of stramenopiles, and at this time molecular evidence does not support derivation from that group. Ultrastructural identity: Mitochondria with tubular cristae. Dictyosomes present. Plastids with lamellae comprised of three thylakloids, no stigma; plastid in an extension of endoplasmic reticulum-the periplastidial endoplasmic reticulum. Haptonema with enclosed microtubules not in 9 + 2 arrangement. Two flagella, without hairs, scales, or other excrescences, with up to four major microtubular roots and some non-microtubular materials. Mitosis with spindle nucleating in cytoplasm and nuclear envelope breaking down. Synapomorphy: Tubulocristate flagellates with haptonema. Composition: Several hundred species, with some dispute as to the status of one subset, the Pavlovales.
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Ecology

Associations

Known predators

algae is prey of:
Streblospio
Capitella
Manayunkia
Littorina
Modiolus
Sesarma
Paracentrotus
Gibbula eineraria
Acmaea testudinalis
limpets
Tegula
Neoloricata
Gastropoda
algal feeders
omnivores
Actinopterygii
protozoa
Entomostraca
Rotifera
Diptera
Tardigrada
Nematoda
Oligochaeta
Cichlidae
Barbus innocens
Anura
Barbus paludinosus
Culicomorpha
Cyclopoida
Caridina nilotica
Oreochromis shiranus
Oreochromis saka
Gyraulus costulatus
Cladocera
Chironomidae
Trichoptera
Baetidae
Micronecta
Segmentorbis angustus
Limnaea
Haplochromis similis
Haplochromis johnstoni
Barbus johnstoni
Ostracoda
Corbicula africana
Haplochromis moori
Labeo mesops
Haplochromis chrysonotus
micro-benthos and meio-benthos
Mollusca
Callinectes
Penaeus
herbivorous vertebrate harvesters
Testudines
Cyprinidae
Tonicella
Acmaea mitra
Echinodermata
Macrobrachium
Psectrocladius
bog and intertidal invertebrates
Ephemerella
Ecdyonuridae
Plecoptera
Stenopsyche
Hydropsyche
Micrasema
Plecoglossus altivelis
Crustacea
roach
Alburnus alburnus
Asellus
Valvata herb
Hypsibius augusti
Tanypus punctipennis
Blicca bjorkna
zooplankton
Oreochromis leucostictus
Tilapia nilotica
Sigara
Discoglossus
Baetis vernus
Baetis rhodani
Rheotanytarsus
Heptagenia
Amphinemura
Simuliidae
Cricotopus
Orthocladius
Agraylea multipunctata
Hydroptila tineoides
Haliplus
nerites
littorines
Decapoda
Echinoidea
Acmaea
Fissurellidae
Crepidula
Littorina saxatilis
Littorina littorea
Littorina obtusata
Onoba
Melampus
Insecta
Labeo altivelis
Sarortherdon macrochir
Tilapia rendalli
Diaptomus
Cyclops
decomposer
detritus
Lepidurus
Procladius
Polychaeta
Bivalvia
Cumacea
Gambusia
Heterandria formosa
Tilapia
Segmentorbis angustum
Baetis binoculatus
Baetis pumilus
Ecdyurus venosus
Rhithrogena semicolorata
Heptagenia sulphurea
Caenis rivulorum
Ephemerella ignita
Perla cephalotes
Chloroperla grammatica
Leuctra hippopus
Leuctra klapaleki
Halesus auricollis
Rhyacophila dorsalis
Agapetus fuscipes
Glossosoma vernale
Psychomyia pusilla
Tinodes waeneri
Hydroptila
Orthocladiariae
Tanypodinae
Tanytarsus
Simulium reptans
Hexatoma
Nais
Limnaea peregra
Ancylus fluviatilis
Helmis
Physa
Sphaerium
Pisidium
Chydorus
Bosmina
Pleuroxus
Najna consiliorum
Araneidae
Semotilus atromaculatus
Eupomotis gibbosus
Notropis cornutus
Gammarus pulex
Perla carlukiana
Ecdyonurus venosus
Notidobia
Stenophylax stellatus
Simulium
Salmo salar
Phoxinus phoxinus
Leuctra
Plectoptera
Caracolus caracolla
Stylomatophora
Amphitritidae
Pectanaridae
Hylina veliei
Syllidae
Orbiniidae
Paraonidae
Spionidae
Cirratulidae
Capitellidae
Maldanidae
Aricidea
Jaspidella jaspidea
Anchoa mitchilli
Menidia beryllina
Lagodon rhomboides
Leiostomus xanthurus
Syngnathus scovelli
Hippocampus zosterae
Laridae
Cyprinodon variegatus
dissolved organic carbon
sediment POC
Elasmopus levis
Lembos rectangularis
Acunmindeutopus naglei
Synchelidium
Ampithoe longimana
Cymadusa compta
Batea catharinensis
Listriella barnardi
Lysianopsis alba
Caprella penantis
Microfauna
meiofauna
Amphipoda
Tanaeidae
Mysidopsis
Ampelisca
Corophium
Cerapus tubularis
Gammarus mucronatus
Pagurus
Pagurus maclaughlinae
Libinia dubia
Ophioderma brevispinum
Acteon punctostriatus
Cadulus carolinesis
Swartziella catesbyana
Acetocina candei
Truncatella pulchella
Nassarius vibex
Olivella mutica
Haminoea succinea
Centropyge potteri
Amphiprion percula
Rana okaloosae
Cygnus olor
Branta canadensis
Anas strepera
Gallinula chloropus
Cygnus atratus
Pomacanthus annularis
Scarus fasciatus

Based on studies in:
USA: Georgia (Marine)
USA: New England (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Washington (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Alaska, Torch Bay (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Washington, Cape Flattery (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Maine, Gulf of Maine (Littoral, Rocky shore)
Ireland (River)
Pacific: Bay of Panama (Littoral, Rocky shore)
Chile, central Chile (Littoral, Rocky shore)
Polynesia (Reef)
Malawi, Lake Nyasa (Lake or pond)
England, River Thames (River)
Africa, Lake McIlwaine (Lake or pond)
Marshall Islands (Reef)
Mexico: Guerrero (Coastal)
USA: Texas (Lake or pond)
Uganda (Lake or pond)
USA: Massachusetts, Cape Ann (Marine)
USA: Florida, Everglades (Estuarine)
UK: Yorkshire, Aire, Nidd & Wharfe Rivers (River)
Norway: Spitsbergen (Coastal)
New Zealand (Grassland)
Russia (Agricultural)
Scotland (Lake or pond)
unknown (Temporary pool)
Japan (River)
Puerto Rico, El Verde (Rainforest)
USA: Florida (Estuarine)
Malawi (River)
Africa, Crocodile Creek, Lake Nyasa (Lake or pond)
Scotland, Loch Leven (Lake or pond)
Wales, Dee River (River)
Canada: Ontario, Mad River (River)
Finland (River)
Austria, Neusiedler Lake (Lake or pond)
Norway: Oppland, Ovre Heimdalsvatn Lake (Lake or pond)
Canada: Ontario (River)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat.
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat. 110(973):351-369, from p. 360 (1976).
  • R. Hiatt and D. W. Strasburg, Ecological relationships of the fish fauna on coral reefs of the Marshall Islands, Ecol. Monogr. 30(1):65-127, from p. 125 (1960).
  • G. Fryer, The trophic interrelationships and ecology of some littoral communities of Lake Nyasa, Proc. London Zool. Soc. 132:153-229, from p. 219 (1959).
  • G. Fryer, The trophic interrelationships and ecology of some littoral communities of Lake Nyasa, Proc. London Zool. Soc. 132:153-281, from p. 218 (1959).
  • A. Yanez-Arancibia, Taxonomia, ecologia y estructura de las comunidades de peces en lagunas costeras con bocas efimeras del Pacifico de Mexico.
  • R. T. Paine, Food webs: linkage, interaction strength and community infrastructure, J. Anim. Ecol. 49:667-685, from p. 670 (1980).
  • A. Yanez-Arancibia, Taxonomia, ecologia y estructura de las comunidades de peces en lagunas costeras con bocas efimeras del Pacifico de Mexico. Cent. Cienc. del Mar y Limnol. Univ. Nal. Auton. Mex. Publ. Espec. 2:1-306 (1978).
  • N. N. Smirnov, Food cycles in sphagnous bogs, Hydrobiologia 17:175-182, from p. 179 (1961).
  • V. S. Summerhayes and C. S. Elton, Further contributions to the ecology of Spitzbergen, J. Ecol. 16:193-268, from p. 217 (1928).
  • K. H. Mann, R. H. Britton, A. Kowalczewski, T. J. Lack, C. P. Mathews and I. McDonald, Productivity and energy flow at all trophic levels in the River Thames, England. In: Productivity Problems of Freshwaters, Z. Kajak and A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, Eds. (P
  • N. C. Morgan and D. S. McLusky, A summary of the Loch Leven IBP results in relation to lake management and future research, Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh Series B 74:407-416, from p. 408 (1972).
  • M. J. Burgis, I. G. Dunn, G. G. Ganf, L. M. McGowan and A. B. Viner, Lake George, Uganda: Studies on a tropical freshwater ecosystem. In: Productivity Problems of Freshwaters, Z. Kajak and A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, Eds. (Polish Scientific, Warsaw, 1972), p
  • P. Ohm and H. Remmert, Etudes sur les rockpools des Pyrenees-Orientales, Vie et Milieu 6:194-209, from p. 208 (Fig. 5.) (1955).
  • K. Kuusela, Early summer ecology and community structure of the macrozoobenthos on stones in the Javajankoski rapids on the river Lestijoki, Finland, Acta Universitatis Ouluensis (Ser. A, no. 87, Oulu, Finland, 1979).
  • P. Ohm and H. Remmert, Etudes sur les rockpools des Pyrenees-Orientales, Vie et Milieu 6:194-209, from p. 208 (Fig. 4.) (1955).
  • B. A. Menge, J. Lubchenco, S. D. Gaines and L. R. Ashkenas, A test of the Menge-Sutherland model of community organization in a tropical rocky intertidal food web, Oecologia (Berlin) 71:75-89, from p. 85 (1986).
  • D. C. Edwards, D. O. Conover, F. Sutter, Mobile predators and the structure of marine intertidal communities, Ecology 63(4):1175-1180, from p. 1178 (1982).
  • J. C. Castilla, Perspectivas de investigacion en estructura y dinamica de communidades intermareales rocosas de Chile Central. II. Depredadores de alto nivel trofico, Medio Ambiente 5(1-2):190-215, from p. 203 (1981).
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 278 (1947).
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 284 (1947).
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 287 (1947).
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 288 (1947).
  • B. E. Marshall, The fish of Lake McIlwaine. In Lake McIlwaine: the eutrophication and recovery of a tropical man-made lake (J. A. Thornton, Ed.) Vol 49 Monographia Biologicae, D. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, pp. 156-188, from p. 180 (1982).
  • S. H. Hurlbert, M. S. Mulla, and H. R. Willson, Effects of an organophosphorus insecticide on the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and insect populations of freshwater ponds, Ecol. Monog. 42(1):269-299, from p. 293 (1972).
  • M. E. Blindloss, A. V. Holden, A. E. Bailey-Watts and I. R. Smith, Phytoplankton production, chemical and physical conditions in Loch Leven. Productivity Problems of Freshwaters (Eds. Z. Kajak and A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska), Polish Scientific Publishers, War
  • P. Larson, J. E. Brittain, L. Lein, A. Lillehammer and K. Tangen, The lake ecosystem of Ovre Heimdalsvatn, Holarctic Ecology 1:304-320, from p. 311 (1978).
  • W. E. Odum and E. J. Heald, The detritus-based food web of an estuarine mangrove community, In Estuarine Research, Vol. 1, Chemistry, Biology and the Estuarine System, Academic Press, New York, pp. 265-286, from p. 281 (1975).
  • G. Fryer, 1957. The trophic interrelationships and ecology of some littoral communities of Lake Nyasa with special reference to the fishes, and a discussion of the evolution of a group of rock-frequenting Cichlidae. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 132:153-281, f
  • E. Percival and H. Whitehead, 1929. A quantitative study of the fauna of some types of stream-bed. J. Ecol. 17:282-314, from p. 311 & overleaf.
  • W. E. Ricker, 1934. An ecological classification of certain Ontario streams. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Serv. 37, Publ. Ontario Fish. Res. Lab. 49:7-114, from pp. 78, 89.
  • R. M. Badcock, 1949. Studies in stream life in tributaries of the Welsh Dee. J. Anim. Ecol. 18:193-208, from pp. 202-206 and Price, P. W., 1984, Insect Ecology, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley, p. 23
  • K. Paviour-Smith, The biotic community of a salt meadow in New Zealand, Trans. R. Soc. N.Z. 83(3):525-554, from p. 542 (1956).
  • W. E. Ricker, 1934. An ecological classification of certain Ontario streams. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Serv. 37, Publ. Ontario Fish. Res. Lab. 49:7-114, from pp. 105-106.
  • J. M. Teal, Energy flow in the salt marsh ecosystem of Georgia, Ecology 43(4):614-624, from p. 616 (1962).
  • F. Schiemer, The benthic community of the open lake. In: Neusiedlersee: The Limnology of a Shallow Lake in Central Europe, H. L ffler, Ed. (Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, Netherlands, 1979), pp. 337-384, from p. 376.
  • J. A. Kitching and F. J. Ebling, Ecological studies at Lough Ine, Adv. Ecol. Res. 4:197-291, from p. 288 (1967).
  • W. A. Niering, Terrestrial ecology of Kapingamarangi Atoll, Caroline Islands, Ecol. Monogr. 33(2):131-160, from p. 157 (1963).
  • V. S. Summerhayes and C. S. Elton, Contributions to the ecology of Spitsbergen and Bear Island, J. Ecol. 11:214-286, from p. 232 (1923).
  • B. C. Patten and 40 co-authors, Total ecosystem model for a cove in Lake Texoma. In: Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, B. C. Patten, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1975), 3:205-421, from pp. 236, 258, 268.
  • M. Tsuda, Interim results of the Yoshino River productivity survey, especially on benthic animals. In: Productivity Problems of Freshwaters, Z. Kajak and A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, Eds. (Polish Scientific, Warsaw, 1972), pp. 827-841, from p. 839.
  • Waide RB, Reagan WB (eds) (1996) The food web of a tropical rainforest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
  • Christian RR, Luczkovich JJ (1999) Organizing and understanding a winter’s seagrass foodweb network through effective trophic levels. Ecol Model 117:99–124
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