Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Depth range based on 3605 specimens in 218 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1024 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 80000
  Temperature range (°C): 4.888 - 28.540
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.033 - 33.876
  Salinity (PPS): 18.065 - 38.201
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.907 - 6.964
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.063 - 2.633
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.380 - 83.712

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 80000

Temperature range (°C): 4.888 - 28.540

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.033 - 33.876

Salinity (PPS): 18.065 - 38.201

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.907 - 6.964

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.063 - 2.633

Silicate (umol/l): 0.380 - 83.712
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Known predators

Nassarius (Polinices, Nassarius) is prey of:
Pagurus
Cancer
Myoxocephalus
Tautogolabrus
Pseudopleuronectes
Asterias

Based on studies in:
USA: Massachusetts, Cape Ann (Littoral, Mudflat)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 284 (1947).
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Known prey organisms

Nassarius (Polinices, Nassarius) preys on:
Solemya
Ensis
Macoma
Onoba
Littorina littorea

Based on studies in:
USA: Massachusetts, Cape Ann (Littoral, Mudflat)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 284 (1947).
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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Classification

According to Van Regteren Altena et al. (1965) and Van Aartsen et al. (1984) Hinia Gray, 1847 is considered as a subgenus of Nassarius Duméril, 1806.
  • Backeljau, T. (1986). Lijst van de recente mariene mollusken van België [List of the recent marine molluscs of Belgium]. Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen: Brussels, Belgium. 106 pp.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Nassarius aff.

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Nassarius aff.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 670
Specimens with Sequences: 577
Specimens with Barcodes: 447
Species: 98
Species With Barcodes: 85
Public Records: 480
Public Species: 64
Public BINs: 97
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Barcode data

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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research
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Wikipedia

Nassarius

Nassarius, common name nassa mud snails (USA) or dog whelks (UK), is a genus of minute to medium-sized sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Nassariidae.[1] They are scavengers.

Etymology[edit source | edit]

The name is derived from the Latin word "nassa", meaning a wickerbasket with a narrow neck, for catching fish . Nassarius would then mean "someone who uses such a wickerbasket for catching fish".

Ecology[edit source | edit]

Distribution and habitat[edit source | edit]

Species within this genus are found worldwide. These snails usually live on mud flats or sand flats, intertidally or subtidally.

Life habits[edit source | edit]

Most Nassarius species are very active scavengers, feeding on crabs and carrion as dead fish, etc. They often burrow into marine substrates and then wait with only their siphon protruding, until they smell nearby food.

Shell description[edit source | edit]

The shells of species in this genus have a relatively high cyrtoconoid (= approaching a conical shape but with convex sides) spire and a siphonal notch.

Anatomy[edit source | edit]

A live individual of a Nassarius species on an aquarium wall, reflected in the glass

The animal has a long siphon.

Human use[edit source | edit]

Archeology[edit source | edit]

Several beads made from Nassarius gibbosulus shells are thought to be the earliest known forms of personal adornment, or even jewelry. Two shell beads found in Skhul Cave on the slopes of Mount Carmel, Israel are thought to be 100,000 years old, whilst another found at Oued Djebbana, Algeria is believed to be 90,000 years old. A further group of pierced shells, some with red ochre, has been recovered from the Aterian levels at Grotte des Pigeons, Taforalt, Morocco; these Nassarius gibbosulus beads have been securely dated to about 82,000 years ago.[2]

All these examples predate several 75,000 year old Nassarius kraussianus beads which were found at Blombos Cave, South Africa (including some colored with red ochre). These beads had previously been thought to be the oldest examples of jewelry.[3]

Modern uses[edit source | edit]

Nassarius vibex is a species which is often selected for marine aquaria. It is often confused with Nassarius obsoletus, a cooler water snail less suited to tropical marine aquarium temperatures. In aquaria, the Nassarius is considered nearly indispensable for keeping sand beds clean and healthy, as these snails tend to burrow and plow through the upper layer in a conch-like fashion, keeping algae and detritus from building up visibly on the surface.

The shells of various species of Nassarius are popular with shell collectors, and are sometimes used in jewelry and other forms of decoration.

Taxonomy[edit source | edit]

The genus Nassarius has traditionally been subdivided into several subgenera, based on differences in shell morphology, especially the sculpture : Aciculina, Alectrion, Allanassa, Nassodonta, Niotha, Plicarcularia, Profundinassa, Pygmaeonassa, Telasco, and Zeuxis. However, this division is difficult to define, resulting in much confusion. Even phylogenetic analysis shows that the division into these subgenera appears to be uncertain and unreliable. There seem to be two groups within the genus Nassarius with the closest relationship between the subgenera Zeuxis and Telasco. Even the species within the subgenus Plicarcularia do not belong to a single clade. In the end, the molecular phylogeny did not match the previous morphological phylogeny.[4]

Species[edit source | edit]

Nassarius (Niotha) bifarius
Nassarius (Nassodonta) dorri
Nassarius multipunctatus (Schepman, 1911)
Nassarius reeveanus
Nassarius reeveanus luctuosa

In the course of time, more than 800 names have been allocated to species in the genus Nassarius, most of which have become synonyms. The following species are accepted names according to the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) [1]

Other species in the genus Nassarius include, according to ITIS:[8]

The following species are also mentioned as names in current use by the Indo-Pacific Molluscan Database [16]

Subgenus Nassodonta
Subgenus Niotha
Subgenus Plicarcularia
Subgenus Telasco
Subgenus Zeuxis

Synonymized subgenera[edit source | edit]

  • Nassarius (Aciculina) Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Alectryon) Berthold in Latreille, 1827: synonym of Nassarius (Alectrion) Montfort, 1810 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Allanassa) Iredale, 1929: synonym of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Amycla) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853: synonym of Nassarius (Gussonea) Monterosato, 1912
  • Nassarius (Amyclina) Iredale, 1918: synonym of Nassarius (Gussonea) Monterosato, 1912
  • Nassarius (Arcularia) Link, 1807 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
    • Nassarius (Arcularia) glabratus (Sowerby, 1842): synonym of Nassarius glabratus (Sowerby, 1842)
  • Nassarius (Austronassaria) C. Laseron & J. Laseron, 1956: synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Bathynassa) Ladd, 1976: synonym of Nassarius (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Caesia) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Cencus) Gistel, 1848: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Chelenassa) Shuto, 1969 : synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Cryptonassarius) Watson, R.B., 1882: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Cyclocyrtia) Agassiz, 1848 : synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Cyclonassa) Swainson, 1840 : synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Cyclops) Montfort, 1810: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Demondia) Addicott, 1956: synonym of Nassarius (Caesia) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Eione) Risso, 1826: synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Fackia) Nordsieck, 1972: synonym of Nassarius (Gussonea) Monterosato, 1912
  • Nassarius (Glabrinassa) Shuto, 1969: synonym of Nassarius (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Gussonea) Monterosato, 1912: synonym of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Hannonia) Pallary, 1914: synonym of Nassarius (Aciculina) Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Hima) Gray, 1852 ex Leach, ms. : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Hinia) Gray, 1847 :alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Miohinia) Nordsieck, 1972: synonym of Nassarius (Hinia) Gray, 1847 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Mirua) Marwick, 1931: synonym of Nassarius (Hima) Gray, 1852 ex Leach, ms. (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Nana) Schumacher, 1817: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Nanina) Risso, 1826: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Nanarius) Woodring, 1964  : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Nannia) Philippi, 1844: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Nasseburna) de Gregorio, 1890: synonym of Nassarius (Sphaeronassa) Locard, 1886 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 )
  • Nassarius (Nassodonta) H. Adams, 1867 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Nassarius) Duméril, 1805  : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Naytia) H. Adams & A. Adams 1853  : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Naytiopsis) Thiele, 1929  : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Neritula) Herrmannsen, 1852: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Niotha) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Pallacera) Woodring, 1964: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Phrontis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Panormella) Costa, 1840: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Paranassa) Conrad, 1867: synonym of Nassarius (Ilyanassa) Stimpson, 1865 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Parcanassa) Iredale, 1936 :synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Profundinassa) Thiele, 1929: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Proneritula) Thiele, 1929 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Psilarius) Woodring, 1964 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Pygmaeonassa) Annadale, 1924 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Retiarcularia) Shuto, 1969 :synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Reticunassa) Iredale, 1936: synonym of Nassarius (Hima) Gray, 1852 ex Leach, ms. alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Schizopyga) Conrad, 1856: synonym of Nassarius (Caesia) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Sphaeronassa) Locard, 1886 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Tarazeuxis) Iredale, 1936: synonym of Nassarius (Telasco) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Tavanothia) Iredale, 1936: synonym of Nassarius (Niotha) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Telasco) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Tritia) A. Adams, 1853: synonym of Nassarius (Hinia) Gray, 1847 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Tritonella) A. Adams, 1852: synonym of Nassarius (Hima) Gray, 1852 ex Leach, ms. (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Usita) Noszky, 1936: synonym of Nassarius (Uzita) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Uzita) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Venassa) Martens, 1881: synonym of Nassarius (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Varicinassa) Habe, 1946 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Zaphon) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853: synonym of Nassarius (Caesia) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 : alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2010). Nassarius Duméril, 1806. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138235 on 2010-11-30
  2. ^ Bouzouggar, A., Barton, N., Vanhaeren, M., d'Errico, F., Collcutt, S., Higham, T., Hodge, E., Parfitt, S., Rhodes, E., Schwenninger, J.-L., Stringer, C., Turner, E., Ward, S., Moutmir, A. and Stambouli, A. 2007. "82,000-year-old shell beads from North Africa and implications for the origins of modern human behavior" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 4, 2007; http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0703877104v1
  3. ^ Study reveals 'oldest jewellery', BBC News, 22 June 2006
  4. ^ Haitao Li (李海涛), Duan Lin (林端), Hongda Fang (方宏达), Aijia Zhu (朱艾嘉) and Yang Gao (高阳), Species identification and phylogenetic analysis of genus Nassarius (Nassariidae) based on mitochondrial genes , Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, Volume 28, Number 3 / May, 2010, pp. 565-572, doi 10.1007/s00343-010-9031-4
  5. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Naytiopsis) granum; Retrieved 25 February 2011
  6. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Zeuxis) pyrrhus; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  7. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Nassarius) smitsorum; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  8. ^ "Nassarius". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 
  9. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Alectrion) aoteanus; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  10. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius catallusl; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  11. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Cryptonassarius) ephamillus; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  12. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius miser; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  13. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius karinae; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  14. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Alectrion) spiratus; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  15. ^ SysTax : Nassarius zonalis
  16. ^ OBIS : Nassarius
  17. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Nassarius) emilyae emilyae; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  18. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Nassarius) grayii; Retrieved 28 Februyary 2011
  19. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Hima) mobilis; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  20. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius mundus; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  21. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Nassodonta) dorri; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  22. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Niotha) nigellus; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  23. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Plicarcularia) burchardi; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  24. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Plicarcularia) jonasii; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  25. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Plicarcularia) moolenbeeki; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  26. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Telasco) limnaeiformis; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  27. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Zeuxis) melanioides; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  28. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Zeuxis) poupini; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  29. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Zeuxis) reunionensis; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  30. ^ Gastropods.com : Nassarius (Zeuxis) richeri; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  • Cernohorsky W. O. (1984). Systematics of the Family Nassariidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 14: 1-356
  • Bernard, P.A. (Ed.) (1984). Coquillages du Gabon [Shells of Gabon]. Pierre A. Bernard: Libreville, Gabon. 140, 75 plates pp
  • Kay C. Vaught (1989). Classification of the Living Mollusca. ISBN 978-0-915826-22-3. 
  • Wolff, W.J.; Duiven, P.; Esselink, P.; Gueve, A. (1993). Biomass of macrobenthic tidal flat fauna of the Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania. Hydrobiologia 258(1-3): 151-163
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Nassa (gastropod)

Nassa is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Muricidae, the murex snails or rock snails.[1]

The history of the name Nassa is rather confused, because the name was allocated twice:

  • Nassa Röding, 1798 for mainly muricid species with the type species : Nassa picta Röding, 1798 (= Nassa serta (Bruguière, 1798).
  • Nassa Lamarck, 1799 : established for the species Buccinum mutabile Linnaeus, 1758, which is now classified as a synonym of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 in the family Nassariidae.

In the 19th and much of the 20th century, all species that were added to the genus Nassa were Nassa mud snails belonging to the family Nassariidae. After the rediscovery of Röding's catalogue of his collection Museum Boltenianum sive catalogus cimeliorum e tribus regnis naturæ quæ olim collegerat Joa. Fried Bolten, M. D. p. d. per XL. annos proto physicus Hamburgensis. Pars secunda continens conchylia sive testacea univalvia, bivalvia & multivalvia, the muricid genus Nassa Röding, 1798 was given priority over the genus Nassa named by Lamarck.

Nassa Lamarck was then synonymized with its oldest synonym Nassarius Duméril, 1806 by a ruling of the ICZN Op. 96, Direction 48 (21 Nov 1956) [2]

Species

Species within the genus Nassa include:

Species based on Nassa Röding brought into synonymy 
Species based on Nassa Lamarck brought into synonymy 

References

  1. ^ a b Nassa Röding, 1798.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 24 February 2011.
  2. ^ Animal Base : Röding, P. F. [1798]
  3. ^ Nassa francolina (Bruguière, 1789).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  4. ^ Nassa serta (Bruguière, 1789).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  5. ^ Nassa situla (Reeve, 1846).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  6. ^ Nassa tuamotuensis Houart, 1996.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  7. ^ Nassa kraussiana Dunker.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  8. ^ Nassa lathraia .  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  9. ^ Nassa munda .  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  10. ^ Nassa obockensis .  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  11. ^ Nassa optima Sowerby, 1903.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  12. ^ Nassa pulla (Linnaeus, 1758).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  13. ^ Nassa steindachneri .  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  14. ^ Nassa stiphra .  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  15. ^ Nassa xesta .  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
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