IUCN threat status:

Least Concern (LC)


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Males arrive before females at shallow, semi-permanent or temporary ponds, and roadside drainage ditches. At breeding ponds males establish territories and begin calling females with a high-pitched chirp. Approximately 100-250 eggs are laid at a time in long strings, held together by a gelatinous material, and either float or stick to surfaces. Fertilization takes place externally when the male frog releases his sperm in the vicinity of the eggs. In the case of a testicular malfunction, male oak toads have an ovary that will become functional, allowing them to breed as females.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Male and female oak toads form a pair when the male grabs onto the female from behind in a position referred to as amplexus. The male stays attached to the female until she releases her eggs into the water. The female emits several eggs and then the male releases sperm into the water. The female will continue to release eggs. The eggs are released in bars containing 4-6 eggs apiece. Each female will lay about 700 eggs in total in a single season. These eggs will hatch within 3 to 3.5 days and develop into adult oak toads within 2 months.

Breeding interval: Oak toads are seasonal breeders and breeds once per year.

Breeding season: Oak toads breed from April to September or October. The mating season often begins with the arrival of warmer temperatures and thunderstorms. The interval of ovulation is approximately late May-mid August.

Average number of offspring: 700.

Range time to hatching: 72 to 80 hours.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 2 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (External ); oviparous

The extent of female energy investment is great during the ovulation and mating periods, as many females are found dead during these periods due to either the rigors of pair formation or energy investment in the laying of eggs. Once the eggs are fertilized and attached to a surface, there is no further parental care.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; pre-fertilization (Provisioning)


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Source: Animal Diversity Web

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