Overview

Brief Summary

Diagnosis A small frog (snout vent length less than 23 mm) lacking toe web or fringe but with a distinct tympanum and vomerine teeth and with a profusion of white-tipped tubercles on the outer tarsus and sole of foot.
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Distribution

Range Description

Leptodactylus nanus is known from the northern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil (Kwet, 2007) and may also occur in adjacent Paraná (A. Kwet, pers. comm. 2008). It is found from sea level to ca 800 masl (morro do Baú, Mun. Ilhota), perhaps even a bit higher (A. Kwet, pers. comm. 2008).
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Range Description

This species from southeastern Brazil occurs in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Paraná. Populations in the states of Espírito Santo (Almeida and Angulo, 2006) and Santa Catarina (Kwet, 2007) were recently found not to be conspecific with Leptodactylus marmoratus. The species ranges up to 1200 masl.
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Chile Central
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Coastal Atlantic Forest in the states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Paraná, Brazil.
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Adult morphology Snout vent length in males: 17.6-20.5 mm, in females 17.6-22.9 mm. Snout outline from above in males subelliptical to nearly rounded, in females nearly rounded to almost semicircular, snout profile rounded, in large males rounded-acute to acute: no cranial crests; no distinctive upper eyelid decoration; tympanum distinct, diameter about equal to or just larger than 1/2 eye diameter; male vocal sac present, single, internal or barely expanded externally; males with vocal slits; vomerine teeth in short transverse (slightly obtuse in one specimen) series, separated from each other by about length of one tooth row, lying well posterior to choanae; finger lengths IV, or =IILarval morphology body pyriform in dorsal view, slightly wider than deep; snout narrowly rounded in profile; nostril nearer tip of snout than eye; distance between nares 74% interorbital width; nares rounded, dorsolateral and directed anterolaterally; eye dorsolateral, I I % body length; opening of the lateroventral spiracle directed laterally about 61% body length: anal tube short and median: tail height less than body height: dorsal fin origin on the body-tail juncture: dona1 and ventral fins slightly arched: tail musculature reaching the pointed tail tip: mouth anterolentra1, width 35% body width: a single row of rounded oral papillae broadly interrupted anteriorly; teeth absent: beak not cornified. Coloration: body dark gray on dorsum and sides of anterior half, rest cream; fins and tail musculature unpigmented: intestine full of yolk.
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Type Information

Paralectotype; Syntype for Adenomera marmorata
Catalog Number: USNM 96819
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1922
Locality: Alto da Serra, Serra de Cubatao, São Paulo, Brazil, South America
  • Paralectotype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.; Syntype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Adenomera marmorata
Catalog Number: USNM 96818
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1922
Locality: Alto da Serra, Serra de Cubatao, São Paulo, Brazil, South America
  • Paralectotype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.; Syntype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Adenomera marmorata
Catalog Number: USNM 96816
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1922
Locality: Alto da Serra, Serra de Cubatao, São Paulo, Brazil, South America
  • Paralectotype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.; Syntype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Adenomera marmorata
Catalog Number: USNM 96815
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1922
Locality: Alto da Serra, Serra de Cubatao, São Paulo, Brazil, South America
  • Paralectotype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.; Syntype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Adenomera marmorata
Catalog Number: USNM 96938
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1925
Locality: Montserrat, Campo Belo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America
  • Paralectotype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.; Syntype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Adenomera marmorata
Catalog Number: USNM 96940
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1925
Locality: Montserrat, Campo Belo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America
  • Paralectotype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.; Syntype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Adenomera marmorata
Catalog Number: USNM 96941
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1925
Locality: Montserrat, Campo Belo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America
  • Paralectotype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.; Syntype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Adenomera marmorata
Catalog Number: USNM 96939
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1925
Locality: Montserrat, Campo Belo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America
  • Paralectotype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.; Syntype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.
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Lectotype; Syntype for Adenomera marmorata
Catalog Number: USNM 96943
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1924
Locality: Montserrat, Campo Belo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America
  • Lectotype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.; Syntype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Adenomera marmorata
Catalog Number: USNM 96936
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1925
Locality: Montserrat, Campo Belo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America
  • Paralectotype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.; Syntype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Adenomera marmorata
Catalog Number: USNM 96942
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1925
Locality: Montserrat, Campo Belo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America
  • Paralectotype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.; Syntype: Heyer, W. R. 1973. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. (251): 28.; Lutz, A. 1926. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 19: 151.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Leptodactylus nanus can be found on the slopes leading to the mountains of the Atlantic Forest domain (within the forest and/or close to it), in transitional areas, and in urbanized areas (close to roads, gardens, etc.)(A. Kwet, pers. comm. 2008). The species undergoes all of its ontogenetic development inside foam nests, which are usually laid far from water (Lutz, 1947).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is a diurnal species that lives on the ground in primary and secondary forest, and also in clearings and on the forest edge, as well as in gardens. Males commonly call from the ground under vegetation in the late afternoons. The eggs are laid on the ground; tadpoles live and develop in the leaf-litter outside water.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Leptodactylus marmoratus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 18
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Axel Kwet

Reviewer/s
Ariadne Angulo and Simon Stuart

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its likely wide distribution, occurrence in an area where its habitats are not significantly threatened, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Ariadne Angulo

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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LC. Least Concern.
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Population

Population
The species appears to be locally abundant, although its geographic distribution is not considered to be overly extensive (A. Kwet, pers. comm. 2008).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Population

Population
It is a very common species. It experienced a population decline at Estação Biológica de Boracéia, but has since rebounded and is abundant again.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
No major threats are currently known for this species.
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Major Threats
The major threats are probably related to habitat loss due to agriculture, clear-cutting and human settlement.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species is known to occur within the Parque Botânico do Morro do Baú (Mun. Ilhota) and Parque dos Nascentes (Blumenau)(A. Kwet, pers. comm. 2008).
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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It occurs in many protected areas.
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Wikipedia

Adenomera marmorata

Leptodactylus marmoratus, commonly known as the Marbled Tropical Bullfrog,[1] is a common species of frog in the Leptodactylidae family. It is commonly found under and on the surface of dead leaf litter and dead branches.

Behavior and Diet[edit]

This bullfrog has a distinctive call that they sound from dusk to dawn as they're nocturnal. They feed on isopods, ants, and insect larvae that are found in abundance in their habitats.[2]

Distribution[edit]

It is endemic to southern Brazil in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Paraná.[3] Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, and rural gardens. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by agriculture and human intrusion[4] but is considered to be a least concern.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Adenomera marmorata Steindachner, 1867". American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  2. ^ Almeida-Gomes, Mauricio; Van Sluys, Monique; Duarte Rocha, Carlos Frederico (April 2007). "Ecological observations on the leaf-litter frog Adenomera marmorata in an Atlantic rainforest area of southeastern Brazil". The Herpetological Journal (British Herpetological Society) 17 (2): 81–85. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  3. ^ "Adenomera marmorata Steindachner, 1867". DiscoverLife. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  4. ^ "Adenomera marmorata". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  5. ^ Potsch de Carvalho-e-Silva, S. & Moreira, G. 2004. Adenomera marmorata. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 22 July 2007.


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