Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Dutch (1) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Fossil species

recent & fossil

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The acorn barnacle is the most prevalent barnacle along the North Sea coastline. These barnacles look like flat cones. The animal itself lives in this six-sided cone. Within the cracks and crannies of rocks, dikes or whatever they land on, they are often so squished in between their neighbors that they are forced to grow upwards. An unusual fact: larvae of the acorn barnacle living in waters which freeze near the North Pole, are caught in the ice and also freeze. However, they can survive life as an ice cube for several weeks; once they defrost, they just move on with life.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Copyright Ecomare

Source: Ecomare

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Biology

When the tide rises, the plates covering the aperture open, and the thoracic appendages (known as 'cirri') are extended into the water current and used to filter particles of food from the water (2). During winter, barnacles do not feed, but rely on stored reserves (3). This barnacle is a hermaphrodite; individuals, although possessing both male and female reproductive organs, function as a male or a female (3). There is a single breeding season during autumn (2). Functional males extend the penis, which is much longer than the body, out of the shell wall and seeks a nearby functional female (3). After fertilisation, the embryos are stored within the barnacle's body, until they develop into 'naupilus' larvae. These are released into the water from February to May, and live in the water column feeding on plankton for several weeks. They undergo six moults, before developing into a second larval form known as a 'cyprid' larvae. This stage is specialised for seeking a suitable site for settling. They search the substrate with their antennae; once a suitable site has been found they release a substance that fastens them to the rock. This typically occurs in spring and early summer. They then undergo metamorphosis into the adult form (2). Sexual maturity may be reached in the first year after settlement, but it usually takes 2 years (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Barnacles are well-known intertidal organisms. They were not firmly accepted to be crustaceans until the 1830s; before this time, the calcareous shell and sessile habit of the adults resulted in confusion with molluscs (2). Our current knowledge of barnacles is largely based on an 8-year period of research by Charles Darwin (3). Adult acorn barnacles are sessile; they have a cone shaped shell-wall comprising a number of calcareous pates. In this species, Semibalanus balanoides, the shell-wall consists of 6 greyish-white plates. The opening at the top of the 'cone' is diamond-shaped, and can be covered by movable plates when the tide goes out. This protects the animal inside from desiccation (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Semibalanus balanoides is the most widespread intertidal barnacle in the British Isles. It may grow up to 15 mm in diameter and has 6 calcified grey-white shell plates. It may be distinguished from other barnacles by the presence of a diamond shaped opercular aperture and a membranous shell base. The barnacle feeds on zooplankton when immersed, by extending the thoracic appendages (cirri). It is a cross fertilizing hermaphrodite and may live for up to 8 years, depending on its position on the shore.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Semibalanus balanoides is found in the north-east Atlantic from Great Britain to southwestern Spain. It is also found on the Pacific coast of north America as far south as British Columbia and on the Atlantic coast as far south as Cape Hatteras. However, it is absent from the Biscay coast of France.

Biogeographic Regions: indian ocean; atlantic ocean ; pacific ocean ; mediterranean sea

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

This species lives in the intertidal zones of the boreo-arctic regions of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
  • Kerckhof, F. (2002). Barnacles (Cirripedia, Balanomorpha) in Belgian waters, an overview of the species and recent evolutions, with emphasis on exotic species. Bull. Kon. Belg. Inst. Natuurwet. Biologie 72(Suppl.): 93-104
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

northern Gaspe waters, downstream and upstream part of middle St. Lawrence Estuary, southern Gaspe waters (Baie des Chaleurs, Gaspe Bay to American, Orphan and Bradelle banks; eastern boundary: Eastern Bradelle Valley), Magdalen Islands (from Eastern Bradelle valley to the west, as far as Cape North, including the Cape Breton Channel), lower St. Lawrence estuary, Prince Edward Island (from the northern tip of Miscou Island, N.B. to Cape Breton Island south of Cheticamp, including the Northumberland Strait and Georges Bay to the Canso Strait causeway), upper North Shore (between Sept- Iles and Pointe des Monts), middle North Shore (from Sept - Iles to Cape Whittle, including the Mingan Island), lower North Shore, South slope of Anticosti Island, western slope of Newfoundland, including the southern part of the Strait of Belle Isle but excluding the upper 50m in the area southwest of Newfoundland, and the Southwestern slope of NL; Cobscook Bay
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

Found in the north-east Atlantic from Spitzbergen to north-west Spain, as well as the Pacific coasts of North America reaching south to British Columbia, and on the Atlantic coast south as far south as Cape Hatteras. It is common around all coasts of Britain, but is rare or absent from the south-west of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Semibalanus balanoides are modified shrimp that have six pairs of biramous legs. They are surrounded by a series of overlapping calcereous (limestone) plates and are protected by another set of plates which close over the top opening of the animal when it is threatened. Semibalanus balanoides range in length from 2.5 cm to 7.5 cm and their shells are commonly yellow, orange or pink. These animals are monomorphic and have no eyes but are sensitive and responsive to sudden shading that may be a potential predator. Additionally, these animals are called "acorn barnacles" because the pyramid shape of their body resembles the fruit of the oak tree.

Key identification features found on this species include six grey-white plates on the shell wall and a membranous shell base. The opercular aperature, or opening, is diamond shape and the tissue inside is white to pinkish-white. The rostral plate, or shell plate on the head, is broad.

Range length: 2.5 to 7.5 cm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

  • Anderson, D. 1994. Barnacles: Structure, Function, Development, and Evolution. New York: Chapman and Hill.
  • Author unknown, 2003. "Barnacle" (On-line). The Columbia Encyclopedia. Accessed 10/21/04 at http://www.bartleby.com/65/ba/barnacle.html.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Acorn barnacles are found more readily in tropical tidal zone marine environments, but may also thrive in cooler areas. These species attach to almost any roughened surface such as rocks, whales, piers, ship hulls and sea turtle shells. An acorn barnacle primarily determines its habitat based on water movement in the area. Such factors as light and contour of the surface are important as well.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: reef ; coastal

Other Habitat Features: intertidal or littoral

  • Dando, M., M. Burchett. 1996. SeaLife: A Complete Guide to the Marine Environment. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

intertidal, infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 386 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 104 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -3 - 163.5
  Temperature range (°C): -1.388 - 12.348
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.957 - 7.566
  Salinity (PPS): 25.948 - 35.363
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.374 - 8.972
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.071 - 1.222
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.315 - 20.508

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -3 - 163.5

Temperature range (°C): -1.388 - 12.348

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.957 - 7.566

Salinity (PPS): 25.948 - 35.363

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.374 - 8.972

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.071 - 1.222

Silicate (umol/l): 2.315 - 20.508
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

 Semibalanus balanoides is a dominant member of the eulittoral fauna of British rocky shores. It can be found on shores of all exposure and typically occurs in a zone below Chthamalus montagui, although the two can overlap. It may extend into the lower reaches of estuaries as it can tolerate salinities down to 20 psu.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Inhabits rocky shores of all exposures, and forms the distinct greyish-white 'barnacle zone' on the shore with species of Chthamalus barnacles. When the two occur together, Semibalanus balanoides tends to occur lower down the shore than Chthamalus. Fewer barnacles occur where seaweeds dominate the shore, as the sweeping action of the seaweed fronds removes newly settled barnacles from the rock (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Acorn barnacles are suspension feeders that kick their six pairs of cirri to capture food and transfer it to the mouth. The cirri capture food by forming a net that catches microscopic plants and particles floating in the water, such as plankton.

Animal Foods: zooplankton

Plant Foods: phytoplankton

Primary Diet: herbivore (Algivore); planktivore ; detritivore

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Several species use Semibalanus balanoides as a host. The protozoan Pyxinioides balani parasitizes the gut and Epistylis horizontalis parasitizes the gills and mantle. Trematode metacercariae are in or near the barnacle guts. The isopod  Hemioniscus balani also uses the barnacle as a host.

Ecosystem Impact: creates habitat

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Predators to acorn barnacles vary from humans to dogwelks and nudibranches. In response to a potential threat from a predator, S. balanoides will withdraw into its calcareous plates for protection.

Known Predators:

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Animal / parasite / ectoparasite
adult of Hemioniscus balani ectoparasitises mantle cavity of Semibalanus balanoides

Animal / predator
Thais lapillus is predator of Semibalanus balanoides
Other: major host/prey

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Known predators

Balanus balanoides (Semibalanus balanoides barnacles) is prey of:
Thais lapillus
Pisaster
Leptasterias
Searlesia
Urosalpinx cinerea
Syngnathus rostellatus
Pollachius virens
Ammodytes tobianus
Pholis gunnellus
Pomatoschistus microps
Myxocephalus scorpius
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Pleuronectes platessa
Platichthys flesus
Salmo trutta
Crangon crangon
Maritrema gratiosum
Hysterothylacium aduncum

Based on studies in:
USA: New England (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Washington (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: New Jersey (Brackish water)
Scotland (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat.
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat. 110(973):351-369, from p. 355 (1976).
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat. 110(973):351-369, from p. 360 (1976).
  • C. H. Peterson, The importance of predation and competition in organizing the intertidal epifaunal communities of Barnegat Inlet, New Jersey, Oecologia (Berlin) 39:1-24, from p. 8 (1979).
  • Hall SJ, Raffaelli D (1991) Food-web patterns: lessons from a species-rich web. J Anim Ecol 60:823–842
  • Huxham M, Beany S, Raffaelli D (1996) Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web? Oikos 76:284–300
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Known prey organisms

Balanus balanoides (Semibalanus balanoides barnacles) preys on:
detritus
plankton
POM

Based on studies in:
USA: New England (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: Washington (Littoral, Rocky shore)
USA: New Jersey (Brackish water)
Scotland (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat.
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat. 110(973):351-369, from p. 355 (1976).
  • B. A. Menge and J. P. Sutherland, Species diversity gradients: synthesis of the roles of predation, competition and temporal heterogeneity, Am. Nat. 110(973):351-369, from p. 360 (1976).
  • C. H. Peterson, The importance of predation and competition in organizing the intertidal epifaunal communities of Barnegat Inlet, New Jersey, Oecologia (Berlin) 39:1-24, from p. 8 (1979).
  • Hall SJ, Raffaelli D (1991) Food-web patterns: lessons from a species-rich web. J Anim Ecol 60:823–842
  • Huxham M, Beany S, Raffaelli D (1996) Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web? Oikos 76:284–300
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Crustaceans have various sensory resceptors, mainly setae over the body. Photoreceptors are also generally present.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; chemical

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

  • Brusca, R., G. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc..
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Cycle

One barnacle may produce up to 10,000 eggs that are stored in a sac outside the body but within the shell cavity. They hatch to produce nauplius larvae with three pairs of legs, one pair of antennae and one eye. There are six instars which result in further molting to form a more complex larvae. Barnacles molt depending on feeding rate and temperature. Each instar lasts three to five days.

After these instars, the napulis larvae changes into a cypris larva that has a bivalve carapace and eyespots. The cyprides larva does not feed and may spend nearly two weeks finding a substrate to attach. When settled the larve begins to "walk" on the surface with its antennae to find a barnacle of its own species. It then attaches to the surface with cements excreted by the antennae. Metamophosis begins with the sheding of the bivalve carapace and eyespots. It will resemble an adult acorn barnacle 24 hours later.

Additionally, the larva will begin to build its calcium carbonate walls. The body of the acorn barnacle will shed the sac that encloses it periodically as the exterior shell increases in size. The range of lifespan for these animals is one to seven years.

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

The range of lifespan for these animals is one to seven years.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Semibalanus balanoides are hermaphrodites that reproduce by internal fertilization. This fertilization differs from other intertidal invertebrates that release gamates into the marine environment. Cross fertilization in S. balanoides occurs through the insertion of a long extensible penis into the mantle cavity of another acorn barancle that is within close proximity. It is essential that the barnacles live no more than three to five centimeters apart to mate. For acorn barnacles, the time of breeding and rates of development vary depending on their latitudinal location. However, S. balanoides is a northern species that normally breeds over winter at optimal temperatures of 14 deg C. One barnacle may produce up to 10,000 eggs.

Key Reproductive Features: simultaneous hermaphrodite; sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); ovoviviparous

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning); pre-hatching/birth (Protecting)

  • Anderson, D. 1994. Barnacles: Structure, Function, Development, and Evolution. New York: Chapman and Hill.
  • Author unknown, 2003. "Barnacle" (On-line). The Columbia Encyclopedia. Accessed 10/21/04 at http://www.bartleby.com/65/ba/barnacle.html.
  • Carefoot, T. 1977. Pacific Seashores: A Guide to Intertidal Ecology. Seattle: University Of Washington Press.
  • Dando, M., M. Burchett. 1996. SeaLife: A Complete Guide to the Marine Environment. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Little, C., J. Kitching. 1996. The Biology of Rocky Shores. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Museum Victoria Australia, 1996. "Biology of Barnacles" (On-line). Crustacea Library. Accessed 10/22/04 at http://www.mov.vic.gov.au/crust/barnbiol.html.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Larvae adhere temporarily underwater: barnacles
 

Footprint proteins used by cypris larvae of barnacles allow them to temporarily adhere during pre-settlement exploration via hydrophobic chemical interactions.

   
  "Cypris larvae of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides leave  proteinaceous footprints on surfaces during pre-settlement exploration.  These footprints are considered to mediate temporary adhesion of cyprids  to substrata and, as such, represent a crucial first step in the  colonization of man-made surfaces by barnacles, a process known as  biofouling. Interest in this system also stems from the potential for a  synthetic reversible adhesion system, based on the strategy used by  cypridsFootprint proteins adhered with  greater tenacity to the hydrophobic tip. This may suggest conformational  change and denaturing of the protein which would facilitate hydrophobic  interaction by enhancing contact forces between -CH3 functionalized tips and hydrophobic groups in the footprint molecule(s). Neither tip removed proteins from the -NH2  substratum suggesting that specific chemical interactions, rather than  simple wetting phenomena, govern the adhesion of footprint proteins to  that surface." (Phang et al. 2009:616)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Phang IY; Aldred N; Ling XY; Tomczak N; Huskens J; Clare AS; Vancso GJ. 2009. Chemistry-specific interfacial forces between barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) cyprid footprint proteins and chemically functionalised AFM tips. The Journal of Adhesion. 85(9): 616 - 630.
  • Schmidt M; Cavaco A; Gierlinger N; Aldred N; Fratzl P; Grunze M; Clare AS. 2009. In situ imaging of barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) cyprid cement using confocal raman microscopy. The Journal of Adhesion. 85(2 & 3): 139 - 151.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© The Biomimicry Institute

Source: AskNature

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Semibalanus balanoides

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 79 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CATAAAGATATTGGAACTTTATACTTAATTTTTGGGGCTTGATCCGCCATAGTTGGAACTGCTCTT---AGAATACTAATTCGTGCTGAACTAGGTCAGCCAGGAAGATTGATTGGTGAC---GATCAAATTTATAACGTTATTGTAACTGCTCATGCTTTTATTATAATTTTTTTTATAGTTATACCCATTATAATTGGTGGATTTGGAAATTGACTTTTACCACTGATA---TTGGGAGCTCCTGATATAGCTTTCCCTCGACTTAATAATATAAGTTTTTGATTATTGCCACCGGCTTTAATACTTCTAATTAGAGGTTCATTAGTTGAAGCAGGGGCTGGAACGGGTTGGACTGTCTACCCTCCTCTTTCAAGAAATATTGCACATTCTGGAGCCTCTGTAGATCTTTCG---ATTTTTTCTCTCCATTTAGCTGGAGCATCCTCAATTTTAGGAGCTATCAATTTTATATCTACAGTAATTAATATACGAGCCGAGACTTTAACATTCGATCGTTTACCTCTTTTTGTTTGAAGTGTTTTTATTACAGTTATTTTACTTCTTTTATCTTTACCTGTTCTAGCCGGG---GCTATTACTATACTCCTTACAGATCGTAATTTGAATACTTCTTTCTTTGACCCAACAGGAGGAGGAGACCCTATTCTATACCAGCACTTATTCTGATTTTTTGGT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Semibalanus balanoides

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 74
Specimens with Barcodes: 111
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Genomic DNA is available from 4 specimens with morphological vouchers housed at Australia Museum
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Ocean Genome Legacy

Source: Ocean Genome Resource

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

Currently, there are no active conservation programs associated with S. balanoides.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Common and widespread (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Not currently threatened.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation

No conservation action has been targeted at this species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Barnacles have been refered to throughout history as the "bane of boaters." This name is primarily asociated with barnacles because their attachment on boat hulls and bottoms can cause a significant decrease in a vessel's speed. For example, two to three inches of barnacles on the bottom of a ship can weigh more than one hundred tons. Removing barnacles from ship's hulls costs ship owners up to $125 million annually. Additionally, their prevelence on marine structures such as piers and pilings can be burdensome.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Recently, there has been great interest in barnacle cement for its possible use in both dentistry and bone surgery due to its incredible properties. For example, a layer of cement three thousandths of an inch thick over one square inch will support a weight of 7,000 pounds. At high temperatures the glue will not crack and it does not dissolve in most strong acids, organic solvents, or water. Through its usage, filings could be placed on teeth and bones could be mended.

Positive Impacts: body parts are source of valuable material

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Semibalanus balanoides

Semibalanus balanoides is a common and widespread boreo-arctic species of acorn barnacle. It is common on rocks and other substrates in the intertidal zone of north-western Europe and both coasts of North America.

Description[edit]

Adult S. balanoides grow up to 15 millimetres (0.6 in) in diameter, and are sessile, living attached to rocks and other solid substrates. They have six greyish wall plates surrounding a diamond-shaped operculum.[2][3] The base of the shell is membranous in Semibalanus, unlike other barnacles which have calcified bases.[2] When the tide rises to cover the barnacles, the operculum opens, and feathery cirri (modified thoracic appendages)[4] are extended into the water to filter food from the seawater. When the tide falls, the operculum closes again to prevent desiccation; the reduction from the primitive condition of eight wall plates to six is believed to decrease water loss even further by reducing the number of sutures through which water can escape.[5]

Distribution[edit]

S. balanoides is found in the intertidal zone in the world's northern oceans. Its distribution is limited in the north by the extent of the pack-ice and in the south by increasing temperature which prevents maturation of gametes.[2] The mean monthly temperature of the sea must drop below 7.2 °C (45.0 °F) for it to breed.

In Europe, S. balanoides is found on Svalbard and from Finnmark[6] to north-west Spain but excluding part of the Bay of Biscay. It is common throughout the British Isles, except in parts of Cornwall, the Scilly Isles and south-western Ireland. On the North American coast of the Atlantic Ocean, it reaches as far south as Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and on the Pacific coast, it reaches as far south as British Columbia.[2] S. balanoides is the most common and widespread intertidal barnacle in the British Isles, and the only intertidal barnacle of the north-east coast of North America.[7]

Ecology[edit]

S. balanoides can be the dominant species of rocky shores, where it grows in a range of situations, from very sheltered to very exposed. It is typically found lower on the shore than another barnacle, Chthamalus montagui, although with some overlap. S. balanoides can tolerate salinities down to 20 psu, allowing it to colonise parts of estuaries.[2] On semi-exposed shores, S. balanoides may form a patchwork with patches of seaweeds, such as Fucus serratus, and limpets; the fronds of the seaweeds brush the barnacle larvae from the rocks, allowing limpets to colonise it instead. At the southern limit of its range, including Cornwall, S. balanoides is replaced by Chthamalus montagui.[3] Although capable of living in the sublittoral zone, S. balanoides tends to be restricted to the intertidal by predation and by competition from species such as the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the algae Ascophyllum nodosum and Chondrus crispus.[7]

Life cycle[edit]

Feeding[edit]

Semibalanus balanoides is a filter feeder, using its thoracic appendages, or cirri, to capture zooplankton and detritus from the water. If there is a current, then the barnacle holds its cirri stiffly into the flow, but when there is no current, the barnacle beats its cirri rhythmically. Plankton levels are highest in Spring and Autumn, and drop significantly during Winter, when the barnacles are dependent on reserves of food which they have stored.[2]

Reproduction[edit]

Breeding takes place in winter at an optimal temperature of 14 °C (57 °F). S. balanoides is hermaphroditic, but cannot fertilise itself. Gametes are transferred with a penis which may be up to 7.5 centimetres (3.0 in) long; barnacles that are further apart than about 5 cm (2.0 in) are therefore unable to reproduce together.[8] One barnacle may inseminate another up to eight times, and up to six concurrent penetrations may occur. The penis degenerates after copulation, and a new one is regrown the following year.[2] Up to 10,000 eggs may be produced, and they are stored in sacs within the shell cavity.[8] While the eggs are developing, the adult barnacle does not moult. The eggs hatch into nauplius larvae, which have three pairs of legs, one pair of antennae and a single eye and are released to coincide with the spring algal bloom.[2] These spend several weeks in the water column, feeding on plankton.[9] Over a series of moults, the larva passes through six naupliar instars before changing into a cypris larva, with a two-valved carapace.[8] These larvae can survive weeks embedded in sea ice.[10][11] The cypris larva does not feed but seeks out a suitable substrate for its adult life. Having settled on a substrate, the larva examines the area until it finds another barnacle of the same species and then attaches itself to the substrate with its antennae, whereupon it metamorphoses into the adult. Sexual maturity is usually only reached after two years, and adults of S. balanoides may live for up to seven years, depending on their position on the shore.[2]

Parasites and predators[edit]

Predators of Semibalanus balanoides include the whelk Nucella lapillus, the shanny Lipophrys pholis,[2] the sea star Asterias vulgaris,[7] and nudibranchs.[8] Although they have no eyes, barnacles are aware of changes in light, and withdraw into their shells when threatened.[8] Parasites of S. balanus include Pyxinoides balani, a protozoan which lives in the barnacle's midgut, and Epistylis horizontalis, a ciliate which lives on the gills. The isopod Hemioniscus balani occurs from France to the Faroe Islands and the Oslofjord, and from Labrador to Massachusetts, and is a parasite of S. balanoides, effectively castrating the barnacle if it is heavily infested. The lichens Arthropyrenia sublittoralis and Pyrenocollema halodytes may colonise the shells of barnacles.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Semibalanus balanoides (Linnaeus, 1767)". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l N. White (July 4, 2007). "Semibalanus balanoides: an acorn barnacle". Marine Life Information Network: biology and sensitivity key information sub-programme. Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 
  3. ^ a b "Barnacles". PZNOW. Retrieved August 19, 2007. 
  4. ^ Joel W. Martin. "Crustacea Glossary Complete List". Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. Retrieved August 19, 2007. 
  5. ^ Phil Rainbow. "The secret life of barnacles" (PDF). Natural History Museum. Retrieved November 8, 2010. 
  6. ^ K. Telnes. "Acorn barnacle". The Marine Fauna Gallery of Norway. Retrieved August 19, 2007. 
  7. ^ a b c "Semibalanus balanoides (barnacle)". Bowdoin College. Retrieved August 19, 2007. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Leslie Lott (2001). "Semibalanus balanoides". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved August 19, 2007. 
  9. ^ "Semibalanus balanoides". ARKive. Retrieved August 19, 2007. 
  10. ^ Jesús Pineda, Claudio DiBacco & Victoria Starczak (2005). "Barnacle larvae in ice: survival, reproduction, and time to post settlement metamorphosis". Limnology and Oceanography 50 (5): 1520–1528. doi:10.4319/lo.2005.50.5.1520. 
  11. ^ Jesús Pineda. "The surprising barnacle larvae in ice". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. Retrieved August 19, 2007. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!