Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

M 27-30 mm, F 25-34 mm. A relatively small species with a very short snout and extended foot webbing: 1(0.25), 2i(0.75), 2e(0), 3i(1), 3e(0.25), 4i(1.5), 4e(1.25), 5(0). Distinguished by its partly paired subarticular tubercles from M. pauliani. Both M. madecassus and M. pauliani have a particular iris colour with a central darker part and an increasing number of small golden spots towards the edges.

Similar species: All other species of Brygoomantis are more or less similar, but the lack of vomerine teeth in M. madecassus is diagnostic.

Taken with permission from Glaw and Vences (2007).

  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
  • Vences, M. and Glaw, M. (2008). Mantidactylus madecassus. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 29 April 2009.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is known only from Andringitra in south-eastern Madagascar, where the species is restricted to elevations between 1,500 and 2,500m asl. It has been found at about ten localities in Andringitra.
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Distribution and Habitat

Andringitra (Cuvette Boby and other sites). It occurs between 1,500-2,500m asl in rocky streams in forest or above the tree line and in rocky landscapes (Vences and Glaw 2008).

  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
  • Vences, M. and Glaw, M. (2008). Mantidactylus madecassus. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 29 April 2009.
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Ecology

Habitat

Madagascar Ericoid Thickets Habitat

The Cryptic warbler (Cryptosylvicola randrianasoloi) is one of several bird species that are endemic to the Madagascar ericoid thickets. This ecoregion This disjunctive ecoregion includes the ericoid thicket habitats found above approximately 1800 metres on the upper slopes of Madagascar's four major massifs (listed from north to south): Tsaratanana (2876 m), Marojejy (2133 m), Ankaratra (2643 m), and Andringitra (2658 m). Tsaratanana is the most northern massif, at 14o latitude and Andringitra the most southern, at 22o latitude.

The upper montane sclerophyllous forest is dominated by plant species from the families Podocarpaceae, Cunoniaceae, and Pandanaceae, and the trees are shrouded with mosses, lichens, and epiphytes. At higher altitudes, this forest gives way to the ericoid thicket, which is dominated by the Asteraceae (Psiadia, Helichrysum, Stoebe, Stenocline), Ericaceae (Erica, Agauria, Vaccinum), Podocarpaceae (Podocarpus), Rhamnaceae (Phylica) and Rubiaceae plant families. A wide diversity of lichens and bryophytes are represented. Small, damp peat-filled depressions harbor specialized, endemic plants, while rock outcrops host a drought-tolerant flora including Aloe, Kalanchoe and Helichrysum.

Several endemic bird species such as Crossley's ground-roller (Atelornis crossleyi), Cryptic warbler (Cryptosylvicola randrianasoloi) and Yellow-bellied sunbird-asity (Neodrepanis hypoxantha) occur in the upper portions of these mountains.

Example frog species found in this ecoregion are: the  ecoregion endemic Ankafana Madagascar frog (Mantidactylus curtus); ecoregion endemic Dotted Madagascar frog (Guibemantis punctatus); the Endangered Andringitra Madagascar frog (Mantidactylus madecassus); and the Near Threatened Betsileo bright-eyed frog (Boophis rhodoscelis).

The ericoid thicket supports more than ten species of endemic and near-endemic reptiles including the geckos, Millotisaurus mirabilis and Lygodactylus arnoulti. Andringitra also has a newly discovered endemic Gekkonidae, Lygodactylus montanus. At least one amphibian (Boophis williamsi) is strictly endemic, and five other species are nearly endemic to the ecoregion. Two chameleon species are restricted to the high elevational zone of the Marojejy National Park (Calumma peyrierasi) and Andohahela National Park (C. capuroni). A new subspecies of day gecko (Phelsuma lineata) and a new species of plated lizard (Zonosaurus), as well as some anuran taxa, were discovered in the upper reaches of the Tsaratanana Massif.

Two mammals are considered endemic to this ecoregion or the ecotone between it and the upper limit of the subhumid ecoregion, both of which have been described as new genera over the course of the past few years, Monticolomys koopmani, known from the massifs of Ankaratra, Andringitra and Andohahela, and Voalavo gymnocaudus, apparently endemic to the Marojejy-Anjanaharibe-Sud massifs. The upper reaches of Tsaratanana have not been systematically surveyed for small mammals, and thus this area holds the possibility of yielding some great surprises.

Near endemic mammal species living at the middle to upper reaches of eastern mountains of the ecoregion include the Rice tenrec (Oryzorictes tetradactylus), found only in the south central highlands, Highland streaked tenrec (Hemicentetes nigriceps), several shrew-tenrecs (e.g. Microgale gracilis, M. gymnorhyncha, and M. monticola), and a species of tuft-tailed rat (Eliurus majori).

  • Du Puy, D.J., and J. Moat. 1996. A refined classification of the primary vegetation of Madagascar based on the underlying geology: using GIS to map its distribution and to assess its conservation status. In W.R. Lourenço (editor). Biogéographie de Madagascar.. Editions de l ORSTOM, Paris.
  • World Wildlife Fund & C.MIchael Hogan 2015. Madagascar eriocoid thickets. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC
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Madagascar Subhumid Forests Habitat

The Lac Alaotra bamboo lemur (Hapalemur griseus aloatrensis) is strictly endemic to the Madagascar subhumid forests ecoregion. This ecoregion, coveris most of the Central Highlands of Madagascar, and boasts a considerable number of endemic species, found chiefly in the relict forest patches and also in some wetland areas. The rainfall here is approximately 1500 mm per year, although it may amount to as much as 2000 mm in the Sambirano area in the northwest and as little as 600 mm in the southwest.

The underlying geology of the ecoregion is mainly ancient Precambrian basement rocks that have been deformed and uplifted over millions of years. There are a few areas of more recent lava flows, and some alluvial deposits associated with wetlands. Vast grasslands now cover much of the central highlands at elevations ranging from 1000 to 1500 metres. The majority of this upland area was formerly forested, and native peoples have affected the fauna and flora through massive deforestation.

Many mammalian taxa are endemic to this ecoregion, including a number of lemurs and numerous shrews, tenrecs and rodents. A far larger number of species are near endemic, with the majority of these shared with the lowland forests to the east. At least 45 species of mammals are found only in the subhumid forest ecoregion and the lowland forest ecoregion of Madagascar and these include, for example, two species of bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur aureus and H. simus).

Of the endemic and near-endemic mammal species in the ecoregion, 12 species listed are on the IUCN Red List; nine species are considered vulnerable; two are endangered and one (the Alaotran gentle lemur) is critical. In the Analavelona forest a species of small mammal was recently discovered, Microgale nasoloi, that is only known from this site and the nearby Zombitse-Vohibasia Forest, the latter being classified in the Madagascar succulent woodlands ecoregion. In addition to the large number of mammalian endemics, there are many special status mammals in the ecoregion, including the Vulnerable Aquatic tenrec (Limnogale mergulus); the Near Threatened Aye aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis);

Two endemic bird species are found in the wetlands of this ecoregion, and others are confined to the subhumid forests or shared with other Madagascar ecoregions. In the wetlands, both the Alaotra little grebe (Tachybaptus rufolavatus) and the Madagascar pochard (Aythya innotata), are considered critically endangered and may be extinct. In the forests the endemic species include, for example, a new genus and species only named a few years ago called the cryptic warbler (Cryptosylvicola randrianasoloi), the yellow-browed oxylabes (Crossleyia xanthophrys), and the brown emutail (Dromaeocercus brunneus). Several other species of birds found here are limited to marshland habitats on Madagascar, including the slender-billed flufftail (Sarothrura watersi), Madagascar snipe (Gallinago macrodactyla), and Madagascar rail (Rallus madagascariensis). Further, Appert’s greenbul (Xanthomixis apperti), an endemic species with a very limited geographical distribution, is abundant on the upper reaches of the Analavelona Massif. More than 20 other bird species that occur in the subhumid forests of this ecoregion are shared only with the eastern lowland forests ecoregion.

The Madagascar subhumid forests hold more than twenty strictly endemic amphibians. Several groups of amphibians include more than one endemic species, such as the microhylids Rhombophryne testudo, Scaphiophryne goettliebi, the mantellids Vulnerable Elegant Madagascar frog (Spinomantis elegans); Mantella crocea, M. cowani, M. eiselti, Mantidactylus domerguei, and the Near Threatened Decary's Madagascar frog (Gephiyromantis decaryi); and the rhacophorids Boophis laurenti and B. microtympanum. Other notable amphibian endemics include:the Benavony stump-toed frog (Stumpffia gimmeli)/

There are a number of special status amphibians in the ecoregion including the Near Threatened Ambohimitombo bright-eyed frog (Boophis majori); the Vulnerable Andoany stump-toed frog (Stumpffia pygmaea); the Endangered Andringitra Madagascar Frog (Mantidactylus madecassus); and the Near Threatened Betsileo Bright-eyed Frog (Boophis rhodoscelis).

There are at least 25 strictly endemic reptiles in this ecoregion. These numbers include historically described species as well as newly identified taxa. Numerous speciess of chameleon and dwarf chameleon only occur in this ecoregion, including Calumma oshaughnessyi ambreensis, C. tsaratananensis, Furcifer petteri, Brookesia ambreesis, B. antakarana, B. lineata, and B. lolontany in the northern and northwestern portion; and C. fallax, F. campani, and F. minor in the central and southern portions. Otpher lizard species endemic to the ecoregion include the skinks Mabuya grnadidieri, M. madagascariensis, M. nancycoutouae, Amphiglossus meva, and Androngo crenni; the geckos Lygodactylus blanciL. decaryi and Phelsuma klemmeri, and the Plated lizard Zonosaurus ornatus. There are also a few endemic species of snakes including Pseudoxyrhopus ankafinensis, Liopholidophis grandidieri, and L. sexlineatus.


  • Du Puy, D.J. and Moat, J. 1996. A refined classification of the primary vegetation of Madagascar based on the underlying geology: using GIS to map its distribution and to assess its conservation status. In W.R. Lourenço (editor). Biogéographie de Madagascar, pp. 205-218, + 3 maps. Editions de l’ORSTOM, Paris. ISBN: 2709913240
  • World Wildlife Fund and C.MIchael Hogan/. 2015. Madagascar subhumid forests. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It lives in rocky streams in forest or above the tree line. It is not dependent on forest and is usually found outside forest in rocky landscapes. The species is largely aquatic and breeds in the slower-flowing parts of streams.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Vences, M. & Glaw, F.

Reviewer/s
Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S. & Cox, N.A.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered, in view of its extent of occurrence of less than 5,000 km2 and area of occupancy of less than 500 km2, with all individuals in fewer than five locations, and a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat.
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Population

Population
It is a rare species.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Habits: Exclusively in high-altitude streams above the tree line in the Andringitra massif.

Breeding takes place in slow-moving streams (Vences and Glaw 2008).

  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
  • Vences, M. and Glaw, M. (2008). Mantidactylus madecassus. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 29 April 2009.
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Threats

Major Threats
Its habitat is probably being impacted by overgrazing and fires (which are likely to be too frequent).
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

It occurs in Parc National d'Andringitra (Vences and Glaw 2008).

  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
  • Vences, M. and Glaw, M. (2008). Mantidactylus madecassus. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 29 April 2009.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It occurs in Parc National d'Andringitra.
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Wikipedia

Mantidactylus madecassus

Mantidactylus madecassus is a species of frog in the Mantellidae family. It is endemic to Madagascar. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, rivers, and rocky areas. It is threatened by habitat loss.

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