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Overview

Brief Summary

In the Netherlands, the moor frog lives particularly on Texel and on Schouwen. Otherwise, you can find it on sandy soils more inland, however it is a rare species. It is bounded to low, damp terrain and needs open water for reproduction. The moor frog is being threatened by large-scale interventions in the landscape (agriculture, nature development) and is sensitive to desiccation and acidification of its habitat. It is listed as vulnerable species on the Red List for amphibians and reptiles.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

Vomerine teeth present. Posterior part of the tongue free and forked. Toes webbed. Omosternum and sternum ossified. Pupil of the eye horizontal. Snout more or less terminating in a point. Male with internal guttural vocal sacs. Shin (knee to ankle) shorter than body by 1.9-2.6 times. When the shins are positioned perpendicularly to the body axis, the heels contact or overlap. When the hind leg is stretched along the body, the tibio-tarsal articulation usually reaches the eye, nostril, tip of snout or even slightly exceeds it. Inner metatarsal tubercle high, shorter than the first toe by 1.1-2.3 times. Flank and thigh skin smooth. Dorsal coloration grey, light-olive, brown, yellowish or rufous. Chevron-shaped (^) dark glandular spot on the neck. Dark spots of 1-3 mm on dorsal and lateral surfaces vary considerably in number, arrangement and size. Temporal spot large. Light middorsal band with regular edges frequently present, often reaches the middle or the tip of the snout. Belly white or yellowish without pattern or with pallid-brownish or greyish spots on the throat and chest. Male differs from female by having nuptial pads on the first finger, paired guttural vocal sac and, during the breeding season, light-blue coloration of the body (the female is brown or rufous). Subspecific differentiation needs further study. The species belongs to the "brown frog" group.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. (1978). Dinamicheskii Polimophizm Burykh Lyagushek Fauny SSSR [Dynamic Polymorphism of the Brown Frogs of USSR Fauna]. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. and Ledentsov, A.V. (1985). ''[Ecological aspects of the postmetamorphic growth in Rana arvalis].'' Ekologicheskie Aspekty Skorosti Rosta i Razvitiya Zhivotnykh. Sverdlovsk.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found throughout most of the northern, central and eastern parts of Europe, eastwards to Siberia (Yakutia and Baikal Lake), Russia and Xinjiang Province, China. It is no longer believed to be present in Serbia and the original records were probably in error (Kalezic and Dzukic, 2001). It is typically a lowland species, but can occur at altitudes close to 1,500m asl. (Altai Mountains).
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Distribution and Habitat

Northern margin of the range extends from the Southwestern Norway, Central Sweden and Finland to Northwestern Russia. There, the margin runs from Murmansk Province, then approximately along the line: Arkhangelsk Province (Pinezhskii Nature Reserve - south of the Kanin Peninsula - Nenets Autonomous County) - Komi Republic (Vorkuta City: 67º29'N, 64º00'E) - Tyumen Province (Yamal-Nenets Autonomous County, Kharvuta Settlement on the Khadyta-Yakha River) - Krasnoyarsk Region (Taimyr Autonomous County). Then the margin runs south-southeastwards from the Enisei River to the Chuna River in Krasnoyarsk Region and Irkutsk Province (Boguchan District) and to Irkutsk City (52º19'N, 104º18'E). The frog inhabits the valleys of the Lena River and its tributaries from Irkutsk City northeastwards to Sanyyakhtakh Settlement in Yakutia (ca. 60º40'N, 124ºE). The frog was recorded also in Olekminskii Nature Reserve (58º45'N, 122º20'E). From the valley of the Lena River in Irkutsk Province (Kirensk Settlement: 57º45'N, 108º04'E), the margin runs southwards on the northern shore of Lake Baikal near the Baikalskii Ridge. To the south of Baikal Lake, in Buryatia, the frog is distributed from the Irkut River northeastwards along the southern shore of the Baikal to Barguzinskii Nature Reserve (54º23'N, 109º05'E).The southern margin of the range runs approximately from the Southern France and Germany, Northern Yugoslavia, Central Bulgaria, then by the Southern Ukraine approximately along the line: Odessa Province (Kiliya District) - Nikolaev Province - Kherson City - Zaporozhie Province - Donetsk Province. Then the margin runs in Russia eastwards to Rostov Province and northeastwards to the south of Volgograd Province. Then it runs eastwards in Kazakhstan approximately along the line: Uralsk City (51º13'N, 51º22'E) - Aktyubinsk City - Turgai Province - Tselinograd Province - Karaganda Province - Semipalatinsk City area (50º27'N, 80o14'E). Then the margin turns southwards to Ayaguz Town (47º58'N, 80º26'E) and Taldy-Kurgan Province (to the west of Alakol Lake, Uch-Aral Settlement: ca. 46º20'N, 80º40'E), then to Altai Mountains in the north of China and Mongolia.

The Moor Frog inhabits the zones of tundra, forest tundra, forest, forest steppe, and steppe. In Europe, the frog generally inhabits drier and more open sites than the Common Frog (Rana temporaria), including forest edges and glades, swamps, meadows, fields, bushlands gardens, etc. In Siberia, the species lives mainly in open swamps. The frog penetrates tundra and steppe in association with arboreal vegetation, primarily along intrazonal landscapes of river valleys. At the southern and northern limits of its range, in tundra, forest, and true steppes, the species lives near water bodies: rivers, lakes etc. There the populations of R. arvalis seem to be isolated. Spawning and early development occurs in stagnant waters, including lakes, ponds, swamps, puddles and ditches, which are from several meters to some hectares in area and from few centimeters to two meters in depth.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. (1978). Dinamicheskii Polimophizm Burykh Lyagushek Fauny SSSR [Dynamic Polymorphism of the Brown Frogs of USSR Fauna]. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. and Ledentsov, A.V. (1985). ''[Ecological aspects of the postmetamorphic growth in Rana arvalis].'' Ekologicheskie Aspekty Skorosti Rosta i Razvitiya Zhivotnykh. Sverdlovsk.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It occurs in a wide variety of habitats including tundra, forest tundra, forest, forest steppe, steppe, forest edges and glades, semi-desert, swamps, peatlands, moorlands, meadows, fields, bush lands, gardens. It has a breeding season, and spawning and larval development takes place in various stagnant water bodies of low acidity, including lakes, ponds, swamps, puddles and ditches. There is some evidence that the species can occur in agricultural landscapes, and in some areas it appears to be adapting to urban conditions (e.g.. Vershinin, 1997).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 11 years (wild) Observations: In the wild, females may live up to 11 years (Smirina 1994).
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Sergius Kuzmin, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Boris Tuniyev, Trevor Beebee, Brandon Anthony, Benedikt Schmidt, Agnieszka Ogrodowczyk, Maria Ogielska, Wiesiek Babik, Milan Vogrin, Jon Loman, Dan Cogalniceanu, Tibor Kovács, István Kiss

Reviewer/s
Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
It is generally common, and is abundant in central-eastern Europe. It is extinct in Switzerland in the extreme southwestern part of its wide range. It is considered to be rare and declining in China.

Population Trend
Stable
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Rana arvalis is one of the most abundant amphibians in the Central and Eastern Europe, as well as West Siberia. There, its population density reaches several hundred individuals per hectare. Local density may be higher, such as in breeding ponds where 15-20 individuals per 1 m2 can be found. In the forests of the center of European Russia, it usually prefers more open habitats than the sympatric Common Frog, and is rarer than the latter in the north, whereas the proportion gradually changes to the south and southeast in favor of R. arvalis,> and at the south of the zone of sympatry it significantly outnumbers R. temporaria. The proportion of the two species varies also by year, and in some areas the dominance of one or another species alternates. Density-dependent regulation is important in overcrowded tadpole groups, where several hundred individuals per liter sometimes occur, as well as in the dense groups of recently metamorphosed froglets. However, habitat peculiarities and fluctuations in weather and climate appear to be more important in terms of the overall population dynamics.

The Moor Frog in the European region is probably a more thermophilous species than the sympatric Common Frog. It frequently occurs in warmer and drier microhabitats. Hibernation extends from September - November to February - June, in dependence on latitude. The earliest appearance (February) and latest disappearance (late November - December) takes place in the plain areas at the southwest of the species distribution, whereas the latest appearance (June) and earliest disappearance (September) is in the Polar Urals. Reproduction occurs from March - June, usually some days after the end of hibernation. Males form breeding choruses. Amplexus is pectoral (axial). The total duration of the breeding season within a pond is 3-28 days. Eggs are deposited in shallow, well-warmed sites, during both day and night. However, spawning by the Moor Frog peaks later than that of the Common Frog; it prefers more open and shallow wetlands for reproduction. The clutch contains 500-3000 eggs deposited usually in one, rarely in two clumps.

Metamorphosis occurs from the beginning of June to October in different regions. In general, the duration of development before metamorphosis shortens in the north and the south of the distribution. Formation of dense schools of tadpoles, where density-dependent regulation of development takes place, is typical. The density does not influence larval survival rate directly but influences the probability of successful metamorphosis because fastly developing tadpoles often complete their transformation, while slowly developing specimens die in drying wetlands. "Delayed" larvae metamorphosed into froglets at significantly smaller body sizes and possessed less energy reserves. This may be evidence of lower viability. However, in good living conditions, their compensatory growth may enable them to reach the size of specimens from early clutches. However, this compensatory growth takes place relatively seldom, and more often the growth does not depend on individual size after metamorphosis. Sexual maturity is attained in the 2nd-5th year of life. On average, females mature later and have a longer life span than males. The maximum life span recorded for this species is 11 years old.Moor Frog tadpoles eat Chlorophyta, Cladocera, and other algae, higher plants, detritus, as well as small amounts of invertebrates. Recently metamorphosed froglets forage on Acarina, Collembola and other microarthropods. Adults consume mainly terrestrial prey, aquatic invertebrates (slugs, diving beetles etc.) are consumed in smaller proportions and, as a rule, irregularly. Feeding ceases during the reproductive season.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. (1978). Dinamicheskii Polimophizm Burykh Lyagushek Fauny SSSR [Dynamic Polymorphism of the Brown Frogs of USSR Fauna]. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. and Ledentsov, A.V. (1985). ''[Ecological aspects of the postmetamorphic growth in Rana arvalis].'' Ekologicheskie Aspekty Skorosti Rosta i Razvitiya Zhivotnykh. Sverdlovsk.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Threats

Major Threats
It is threatened by the destruction and pollution of breeding ponds (including acidification) and adjacent wetland and terrestrial habitats, especially through urbanization, recreation, tourism, industry and overstocking of cattle. Additional threats are prolonged drought and predation of spawn by waterfowl. Chytrid fungus was detected in this species in Berlin, Germany - however the extent to which this is a threat is unknown.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

The species is generally neither declining, nor threatened. However, isolated peripheral populations may be vulnerable from human influences and deserve special attention or protection. Only in some areas highly transformed by people (destruction of breeding ponds and adjacent terrestrial habitats, especially during urbanization, recreation and the overpasturage of cattle) have the populations declined.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. (1978). Dinamicheskii Polimophizm Burykh Lyagushek Fauny SSSR [Dynamic Polymorphism of the Brown Frogs of USSR Fauna]. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. and Ledentsov, A.V. (1985). ''[Ecological aspects of the postmetamorphic growth in Rana arvalis].'' Ekologicheskie Aspekty Skorosti Rosta i Razvitiya Zhivotnykh. Sverdlovsk.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It is listed on Appendix II of the Berne Convention and on Annex IV of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation in many countries and has been recorded in a number of national and sub-national Red Data books and lists. It is presumed to be present in a many protected areas. In parts of the species' range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

In addition to the above mentioned anthropogenic factors of the species local declines, industrial pollution also negatively affects populations, including those living in cities. It leads to an increase of frequency of morphological abnormalities and disturbances in embryonic and larval development. Nevertheless, R. arvalis is a species easily adaptable to life in anthropogenic conditions. Some urban populations of this species are fairly large and safe, if suitable habitats are available. Some forms of human activity lead to an increase in the frog's number and their dispersal. For example, the construction of forest rides with numerous artificial holes filled with water.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. (1978). Dinamicheskii Polimophizm Burykh Lyagushek Fauny SSSR [Dynamic Polymorphism of the Brown Frogs of USSR Fauna]. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. and Ledentsov, A.V. (1985). ''[Ecological aspects of the postmetamorphic growth in Rana arvalis].'' Ekologicheskie Aspekty Skorosti Rosta i Razvitiya Zhivotnykh. Sverdlovsk.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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