Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Vomerine teeth present. Tongue more or less free posteriorly. Pupil of the eye horizontal. Toes webbed. Tips of fingers and toes expanded into discs. Tympanic membrane smaller than eye. When the hind leg is stretched along the body, the tibio-tarsal articulation commonly reaches the anterior edge of the eye. Dorsal skin smooth, ventral skin granular. Dorsal coloration varies from green to light-grey, brown, or almost black depending on substrate color and temperature. Coloration changes depending on substrate. No dark spot below the eye. Ventral surface white or yellowish. Dorsal surface divided from ventral surface by thin, dark, uninterrupted band with outer white edging. This band usually forms an inguinal loop, except for some individuals of H. arborea schelkownikowi. If the inguinal loop is absent, the dark band reaches the inner surface of the groin. A light line bordering lips. Male differs from female by having a large guttural vocal sac (visible externally) which is distinguished by darker skin folds and wrinkles on the throat.

Protection of habitats seems to be the most important method of conservation of H. arborea.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Tarkhnishvili, D. N. and Gokhelashvili, R. K. (1999). ''The amphibians of the Caucasus.'' Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union, 4, 1-233.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Distribution

Range Description

This is a widespread Palearctic species occurring from Iberia (where there are scattered populations within its range) and France, eastwards to western Russia and the Caucasian region, and southwards to the Balkans and Turkey (except extreme eastern, southeastern parts). It is mostly absent from Scandinavia (except southern and eastern Denmark and extreme southern Sweden), and has been introduced to the UK (New Forest) but is now thought to be extinct there and is not mapped. This is a lowland species that has been recorded at a maximum altitude (in Europe) of 2,300m asl. (Bulgaria), although this requires reconfirmation.
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Distribution and Habitat

The subspecies H. arborea arborea inhabits almost all of Europe. The northern margin of the range runs approximately from Denmark (Aarhus and Jutland), Sweden (Scania) and the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Lithuania (Vilnius City: 54º41'N, 25º17'E) through Byelorussia (approximately on the line: towns of Oshmyany - Uzda - Slutsk) to southern Russia. From there, the margin runs south- and south-eastwards approximately along the line Bryansk Province - Kursk Province - west of Byelgorod Province (Shebekino District), then southwards in Ukraine from Kharkov City to Dnepropetrovsk Province to Donetsk Province. In Crimea, the frog is known from the southern shore and the extreme northwest of the peninsula. The frog is absent from eastern and southern parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Southern France. H. arborea schelkownikowi lives in the Caucasus. Its northern range runs in Russia approximately from Krasnodar Region along the line Abrau Peninsula in Novorossiik District - Goryachii Klyuch Town - Maikop Town - Stavropol Region (Stavropol City: 45º03'N, 41º59'E). From there, the margin runs in Stavropol Region to the south-east and then to the east: North Ossetia to Chechnya to Daghestan. The subspecies is absent in the highlands of the Great Caucasus. The eastern part of the southern margin of the range runs from the Northern Turkey to Georgia and Azerbaijan. The southern margin of the range is insufficiently known. H. arborea kretensis lives in Crete, Rhodos, Aegean, Peloponnese and the west of Asia Minor; H. arborea molleri in Northwestern Spain and Portugal; H. arborea sarda in Corsica, Sardinia and Elba.

The Common Tree Frog inhabits well-illuminated, broad-leafed and mixed forests, bushlands, gardens, vineyards, orchards, parks, lake shores and stream banks. Dark and dense forests are avoided. Meadows are primarily used for reproduction. In the southern areas of the European part of the range, i.e. in the forest steppe zone, the tree frog inhabits insular forests and dense vegetation of floodplains. In mountains, it lives only in forests and in more or less wet transformed landscapes, and sometimes penetrates the subalpine belt. Spawning occurs in stagnant waters such as lakes, ponds, swamps and reservoirs, sometimes even in ditches and puddles.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Tarkhnishvili, D. N. and Gokhelashvili, R. K. (1999). ''The amphibians of the Caucasus.'' Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union, 4, 1-233.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is generally associated with open, well-illuminated broad-leaved and mixed forests, bush and shrublands, meadows, gardens, vineyards, orchards, parks, lake shores and low riparian vegetation. Dark and dense forests are avoided. Populations can tolerate periods of dryness and can be encountered in dry habitats (Dan Cogălniceanu pers. comm., October 2008). Spawning and larval development takes place in stagnant waters such as lakes, ponds, swamps and reservoirs, and sometimes in ditches and puddles. The species has been reported from anthropogenic landscapes, including large cities (e.g., Kiev). It sometimes occurs in sympatry with Hyla meridionalis (and produces infertile hybrids).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 22 years (captivity)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Hyla arborea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hyla arborea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 17
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Ugur Kaya, Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avisi, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev, U?ur Kaya

Reviewer/s
Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2006
    Least Concern
    (IUCN 2006)
  • 2006
    Least Concern
  • 2004
    Near Threatened
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Population

Population
While the species is common in suitable habitats in parts of its range, it is reported to be fragmented and in significant decline over much of its Western European distribution (e.g., Gasc et al., 1997; Baker, 1997; Fog, 1995).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

In suitable habitats in the southern part of the range this is a common amphibian. For example, in the south of the former Soviet Union up to 20 specimens per 100 m of pond shore may be counted in spring. After reproduction, the population density is maximum in river valleys covered with broad-leafed trees.During the day, H. arborea usually sit on the stems and broad leaves of trees, bushes and large herbaceous vegetation. The frog is active primarily in the evening and at night, when it comes down to the ground from vegetation to forage and to rehydrate. During the autumn migration to hibernacula, H. arborea are active during the day. Hibernation occurs on land from September - December to February - early May, on land (in soil, burrows, heaps of stones and holes in trees). Reproduction occurs from April - May, but sometimes in March, June or even late July. As a rule, more males are found in breeding pools than females. Females enter pools after males and leave immediately after breeding. Clutch contains about 200-2000 eggs deposited in portions, usually having the form of small rounded clumps containing from 3 to 100 eggs. Metamorphosis occurs from June to September, depending on the geographic position of a locality. In some cases, the larvae overwinter and complete transformation the following summer. Young froglets in the first time remain on the shore climbing grass and small bushes. Hyla arborea prey mainly on insects. Its ability for long leaps makes it possible to forage on fast flying insects, which comprise a considerable proportion of its food. The frogs forage on land. During the breeding season, adults forage periodically on the shore and on high plant stems above the water surface.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Tarkhnishvili, D. N. and Gokhelashvili, R. K. (1999). ''The amphibians of the Caucasus.'' Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union, 4, 1-233.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Threats

Major Threats
The species is quite sensitive to changes in habitat, including loss and fragmentation of forests, bush groves and meadows (with the isolation of populations), and the drainage and pollution of wetlands (industrial and agricultural) and predatory fish species. These impacts on metapopulations have led to declines in parts of Europe, and possible local declines in Turkey. The species is collected for the pet trade, and in some parts of its range (western Europe) this might be leading to local population declines.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

The tree frog displays a considerable decline and extinction in the West and Central Europe. It is caused by loss of breeding habitats, habitat isolation and fragmentation, pollution and collecting by people, as well as climate changes. However, in many large areas of its southern part of the range, e.g. in Ukraine and the Caucasus, the species is not rare and does not display population declines.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Tarkhnishvili, D. N. and Gokhelashvili, R. K. (1999). ''The amphibians of the Caucasus.'' Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union, 4, 1-233.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It is listed on Appendix II of the Berne Convention and is listed on Annex IV of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. The species is protected by national legislation in many countries, it is recorded on many national and sub-national Red Data books and lists and it is present in many protected areas. It has been reintroduced to Latvia (Gaua National Park, Riga District) in 1987-1992 from Belarus and from captive bred individuals raised at Riga Zoo. Further research into the distribution limits of this species in southern Turkey is needed. In parts of this species range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established.

In Sweden, a "restocking program" has successfully has increased the population from 2,000 (1980) to 50,000 (2008) in about 900 breeding ponds and the species has been repopulated to its historic range. The species benefits from pond creation programs in several areas of Central Europe. This is often a flagship species for numerous restoration programs.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

Although some kinds of human activity lead to decline and extinction of populations of H. arborea (see above), construction of a system of fish ponds, ditches, channels etc. sometimes cause local increase in the number of this species.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Tarkhnishvili, D. N. and Gokhelashvili, R. K. (1999). ''The amphibians of the Caucasus.'' Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union, 4, 1-233.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Wikipedia

European tree frog

The European tree frog (Hyla arborea formerly Rana arborea) is a small tree frog found in Europe, Asia and part of Africa.[2] Based on molecular genetic and other data, a number of taxa formerly treated as subspecies of H. arborea[3] are now generally recognized as full species [4] [5]

Characteristics[edit]

European tree frogs are small; males range from 32–43 mm (1.3–1.7 in) in length, and females range from 40–50 mm (1.6–2.0 in) in length. They are slender, with long legs.[3] Their dorsal skin is smooth, while their ventral skin is granular. Their dorsal skin can be green, gray, or tan depending on the temperature, humidity, or their mood. Their ventral skin is a whitish color, and the dorsal and ventral skin is separated by a dark brown lateral stripe from the eyes to the groin. Females have white throats, while males have golden brown throats[6] with large (folded) vocal sacs. The head of H. arborea is rounded, the lip drops strongly, the pupil has the shape of a horizontal ellipse, and the tympanum is clearly recognizable. Also, the discs on the frog's toes, which it uses to climb trees and hedges, is a characteristic feature of H. arborea . Also, like other frogs, their hind legs are much larger and stronger than the fore legs, enabling the frogs to jump rapidly.[4]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Members of the H. arborea species complex are the only representatives of the widespread tree frog family (Hylidae) indigenous to mainland Europe.[4] and are found across most of Europe (except Britain and Ireland),[4][5][7][8] northwest Africa, and temperate Asia to Japan.[6] This species complex is native to these countries:

Albania; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; the Czech Republic; Denmark; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Israel (found in the Ayalon Valley); Italy; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; the Netherlands; Poland; Portugal; Romania; the Russian Federation; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine.[9][10]

It has also been introduced to the United Kingdom,[9] and it has been reintroduced to Latvia.[10]

European tree frogs can be found in marshlands, damp meadows, reed beds, parks, gardens,[6] vineyards, orchards, stream banks, lakeshores,[9] or humid or dry forests.[3] They tend to avoid dark or thick forests,[9] and they are able to tolerate some periods of dryness; therefore, sometimes they are found in dry habitats.[3]

Behavior[edit]

  • Historically, tree frogs were used as barometers because they respond to approaching rain by croaking.[4]
  • Depending on subspecies, temperature, humidity, and the frog's 'mood', skin colour ranges from bright to olive green, grey, brown and yellow.[4]
  • European tree frogs eat a variety of small arthropods,[3] such as spiders, flies, beetles, butterflies, and smooth caterpillars.[6] Their ability to take long leaps allow them to catch fast-flying insects, which make up most of their diets.[9]
  • They hibernate in walls, cellars, under rocks, under clumps of vegetation, or buried in leaf piles or manure piles.[11]

Reproduction[edit]

Male chorus
Calling males at night

European tree frogs reproduce in stagnant bodies of water, such as lakes, ponds, swamps, reservoirs, and sometimes puddles,[10] from late March to June.[6] They croak in the breeding season, even when migrating to their mating pools or ponds.[4] Males will often change breeding ponds, even within the same breeding season.[12] After a spring rain, the males will call females from low vegetation or shallow ponds.[3] About 800 to 1000 eggs are laid in clumps the size of a walnut.[3][6] Individual eggs are about 1.5 mm in diameter. After 10–14 days, the eggs hatch. Then, after three months, tadpoles metamorphose into frogs.[6] Metamorphosis usually peaks from late July to early August.[12] They are able to live for up to 15 years.[6]

Conservation status[edit]

According to the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species, H. arborea is “listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.”[10] However, according to the IUCN, the population trend of H. arborea is decreasing.[10] Some of the main threats to European tree frogs include habitat fragmentation and destruction, pollution of wetlands, predation from fish, capture for the pet trade,[9][10] and climate change.[citation needed] Besides these main threats, other possible reasons for the decline in their populations include increased UVB radiation and local and far-ranging pesticides, fertilizers, and pollutants.[9] Trout have been observed preying on European tree frogs, and in Europe, trout introduced into a pond result in a significant decline in their population. While H. arborea is sensitive to habitat fragmentation, habitat restoration (beginning in the 1980s) has been successful to increase populations. Besides habitat restoration, other attempts to increase population have included building of new breeding ponds, creation of “habitat corridors to connect breeding sites”, and reintroductions. This has been successful in Sweden, Latvia, and Denmark.[11] Habitat protection has been shown to be the most important approach to conserving European tree frog populations.[9]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ugur Kaya, Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avisi, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev and Uğur Kaya (2008). "Hyla arborea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 12 January 2010. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. Amphibian Species of the World. Allen Press, Inc., 1985, p. 126.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Duellman, William E. (2003). Grzimek's Animal Encyclopedia. 2nd Ed., Vol. 2. Gale, p. 235.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Stöck M., Dubey S., Klütsch C., Litvinchuk S.N., Scheidt U., and Perrin N. (2008). Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogeny of circum-Mediterranean tree frogs from the Hyla arborea group. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49: 1019-1024.
  5. ^ a b Stöck M., Dufresnes C., Litvinchuk S.N., Lymberakis P., Biollay S., Berroneau M., Borzée A., Ghali K., Ogielska M., and Perrin N. (2012). Cryptic diversity among Western Palearctic tree frogs: Postglacial range expansion, range limits, and secondary contacts of three European tree frog lineages (Hyla arborea group). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 1-9.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Haltenorth, T. (1979). British and European Mammals, Amphibians, and Reptiles’’. Irwin & Co. Ltd., p. 126.
  7. ^ Masó, A. and M. Pijoan (2011). Anfibios y reptiles de la península ibérica, Baleares y Canarias (in Spanish) Barcelona: Omega. Pp. 848. ISBN 978-84-282-1368-4
  8. ^ Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.4 (8 April 2010). Frost, Darrel R. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h "Hyla arborea". Amphibiaweb.org. 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Ugur Kaya, Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avisi, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev, and Uur Kaya. “Hyla arborea.” The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  11. ^ a b Wells, K. D. ‘‘The Ecology of Behavior of Amphibians.’’ The University of Chicago, 2007.
  12. ^ a b Lardner, B. (2000). Morphological and life history responses to predators in larvae of seven anurans. Oikos, 88(1): 169–180.
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