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Duttaphrynus crocus, first described in 2003, is a medium-sized toad. Endemic to the Rakhine Division of Myanmar, D. crocus is known only from two closely spaced primary evergreen forest locations near the Gwa township. Survey work around the area have not found additional populations, though Wogan et al. (2003) expect that further surveying will extend the range of this species.
Females reaching a considerably larger size (average snout-vent length 67.7 mm) than males (average svl 56.5 mm). The sexes also have quite different coloration, an unusual sexual dimorphism for amphibians. While males are yellow with black keratinized warts on the dorsal side of the body and legs, females are brown with red and black markings on the dorsal surface. The ventral surfaces of males are mottled white and pink whereas females have darker mottling. This sexual dichromatism is especially pronounced during breeding season. At the beginning of monsoon season (April-May) breeding males turn bright yellow. The reason for this color dimorphism is unclear, but it is suggested that it is not relevant for mate choice (Drewes and Vindum 1994, as cited in Wogan et al. 2003). The male breeding coloration inspires the specific epithet, crocus, Latin for yellow. Breeding D. crocus individuals congregate by the hundreds at small pools, with males calling actively to attract mates. Their call is a series of notes without pulses. Neither eggs nor larvae have yet been observed (Wogan et al. 2003; Wogan 2004).
Except during breeding season, this species is rarely seen (Wogan 2004), and little is known of its ecology.
Upon description D. crocus was placed into the melanostictus group of Bufo. This group was subsequently raised to level of genus, and the new genus name Duttaphrynus applied, breaking up the large genus Bufo (Frost et al. 2006).