Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Eleutherodactylus adelus is a tiny frog, with males reaching only 12 mm and females up to 15 mm in SVL. The skin of the dorsum is tuberculate and has a pair of paravertebral folds at mid-dorsum. The venter is partially areolate, becoming gradually smooth toward chest. The digital discs are very small. There is no webbing between the toes. Vomerine teeth are present, behind the choanae, in a short and arched series (Diaz et al. 2003).

This species has a wide longitudinal dark-bordered brown zone on the dorsum, which becomes narrow and pointed toward the snout and is outlined by narrow light stripes. There is a suprainguinal black stripe bordering the light margins of the dorsal zone in the posterior half of the body. Two shallow suprascapular tubercles are present and are frequently light-colored. The flanks are a contrasting light grayish tan, sometimes with a slight green or reddish wash. The supratympanic fold is conspicuously emphasized in black and followed on the flanks by a large black diagonal stripe. Limbs have moderate to faint brown cross bars; the forearms are reddish brown. The belly is greenish or flesh-colored. Sometimes individuals have scattered dots on the throat and belly and the ventral surface of the thighs (Diaz et al. 2003).

This species is a member of the subgenus Euhyas (Heinicke et al. 2007).

Etymology- The name derives from the Greek word adelos, meaning concealed, in allusion to the secretive habits of this frog, which immediately stops calling when approached (Diaz et al. 2003).

  • Diaz, L. M., Cadiz, A. and Hedges, S. B. (2003). ''A new grass frog from pine forests of Western Cuba, and description of acoustic and pattern variation in Eleutherodactylus varleyi (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae).'' Caribbean Journal of Science, 39(2), 176-188.
  • Heinicke, M. P., Duellman, W. E., and Hedges, S. B. (2007). ''Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal.'' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(24), 10092-10097.
  • Hedges, B. and Díaz, L. M. (2004). Eleutherodactylus adelus. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/. Downloaded on 10 November 2007.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is currently known only from the type locality: Loma del Espejo, Alturas de Pizarras del Sur, Sabanas Llanas, Pinar del Río, in western Cuba. It was collected at 130m asl.
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Distribution and Habitat

This species is endemic to Cuba and it is known only from the type locality (Loma del Espejo, Alturas de Pizarras del Sur) in Pinar del Río province, at 130 m above sea level. This is a terrestrial species, found in vegetation and leaf litter in forests of Pinus tropicalis (Diaz et al. 2003).

  • Diaz, L. M., Cadiz, A. and Hedges, S. B. (2003). ''A new grass frog from pine forests of Western Cuba, and description of acoustic and pattern variation in Eleutherodactylus varleyi (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae).'' Caribbean Journal of Science, 39(2), 176-188.
  • Heinicke, M. P., Duellman, W. E., and Hedges, S. B. (2007). ''Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal.'' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(24), 10092-10097.
  • Hedges, B. and Díaz, L. M. (2004). Eleutherodactylus adelus. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/. Downloaded on 10 November 2007.
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Physical Description

Type Information

Paratype for Eleutherodactylus adelus
Catalog Number: USNM 556156
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: Male;
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 2000
Locality: Loma del Espejo, Alturas de Pizarras del Sur, Sabanas Llanas, km 41 Carretera de Luis Lazo, ca. 8 km W of Sumidero, Pinar del Rio, Cuba
Elevation (m): 130
  • Paratype: Díaz, L. M., et al. 2003. Caribbean Journal of Science. 39 (2): 177, Figures 1, 2A, 3A, 4A, 7 and 8.
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Paratype for Eleutherodactylus adelus
Catalog Number: USNM 556155
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: Female;
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 2000
Locality: Loma del Espejo, Alturas de Pizarras del Sur, Sabanas Llanas, km 41 Carretera de Luis Lazo, ca. 8 km W of Sumidero, Pinar del Rio, Cuba
Elevation (m): 130
  • Paratype: Díaz, L. M., et al. 2003. Caribbean Journal of Science. 39 (2): 177, Figures 1, 2A, 3A, 4A, 7 and 8.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It occurs in open, secondary pine forest, with a herbaceous vegetation layer primarily comprising Lycopodiella sp., ferns (Pteris sp.), and grass (Eleocharis sp.). The soil is acidic and is derived from sandstone. It is found on the ground under leaf-litter and other cover. It has not been recorded outside forest habitat. Eggs are laid on the ground, and it breeds by direct development.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Blair Hedges, Luis Díaz

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, all individuals are in fewer than five locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat on Cuba.
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Population

Population
It is moderately common but is a very cryptic species.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Males vocalize primarily during the day, although they can also be heard sporadically during night, typically from concealed locations under leaf litter and grass. Calls consist of a series of soft chirps with 3 to 6 notes uttered in complex assemblages; one or two note calls are more sporadic but always precede chirps. The dominant frequency is 4.4-5.4 kHz. This frog is a direct developing species, ovipositing directly on the ground. Clutch size is 3-4 eggs, each measuring 4.7-5.3 mm. Hatchlings measure 3.7-3.8 mm (Diaz et al. 2003).

  • Diaz, L. M., Cadiz, A. and Hedges, S. B. (2003). ''A new grass frog from pine forests of Western Cuba, and description of acoustic and pattern variation in Eleutherodactylus varleyi (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae).'' Caribbean Journal of Science, 39(2), 176-188.
  • Heinicke, M. P., Duellman, W. E., and Hedges, S. B. (2007). ''Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal.'' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(24), 10092-10097.
  • Hedges, B. and Díaz, L. M. (2004). Eleutherodactylus adelus. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/. Downloaded on 10 November 2007.
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Threats

Major Threats
The major threat to this species is habitat loss due to fires and clear-cut logging of the forest.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

The major threat to this species is habitat loss due to fires and clear-cut logging of forests (Hedges and Diaz 2004).

  • Diaz, L. M., Cadiz, A. and Hedges, S. B. (2003). ''A new grass frog from pine forests of Western Cuba, and description of acoustic and pattern variation in Eleutherodactylus varleyi (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae).'' Caribbean Journal of Science, 39(2), 176-188.
  • Heinicke, M. P., Duellman, W. E., and Hedges, S. B. (2007). ''Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal.'' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(24), 10092-10097.
  • Hedges, B. and Díaz, L. M. (2004). Eleutherodactylus adelus. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/. Downloaded on 10 November 2007.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Its range includes a forest reserve, but there is no management of this area for conservation. There is an urgent need for effective and expanded protection of the pine forest habitat of this species.
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Wikipedia

Eleutherodactylus adelus

Eleutherodactylus adelus is a species of frog in the Leptodactylidae family endemic to Cuba. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.

References

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