Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Snout-vent length in this species is usually from 40 to 70 mm, but sometimes is longer than 10 cm (Docampo and Milagrosa-Vega 1988; González de la Vega 1988). The head is as long as wide, with prominent eyes located in dorsal position very close to each other. The tympanum is well marked, about 1/2 to 3/4 the eye diameter (Salvador and García-París 2001). Toes have well developed webbing. Skin is either smooth or slightly rough, with well-formed dorsolateral folds. The dorsal coloration is very variable, usually green but also brown or grayish to dark gray. They usually show a vertebral stripe, mostly yellow or green. Two irregular rows of dark, rectangular spots are present on both sides of the vertebral stripe. These spots are also present on the rear limbs, sometimes forming a banded pattern. Some individuals lack both the spots and the vertebral stripe. Ventrally they are white with a variable number of dark spots.Males are smaller than females and have stronger forelimbs. They have gray vocal sacs than can be appreciated even when they are not in use.Tadpoles grow up to 111 mm total length (Salvador 1985), but usually measure between 60-70 mm (Barbadillo et al. 1999). The spiracle is sinistral and the anus open on the right side of the base of the tail. Marginal papillae are absent from the upper side of the mouth. Denticles are arranged in a variable number of single rows (Llorente et al. 1994), but the most common formula is 2(2)/3(1). The dorsal fin is low, starting at the level of the spiracle. The tip of the tail is pointed. Ground coloration is green or light brown, with small, dark dots. These dots are denser and larger in the tail fin. The tail presents a typical pattern with three longitudinal dark stripes. The ventral coloration is white.

In southern France and northeastern Spain is present Rana Kl. grafi Crochet, Dubois, Ohler and Tunner, 1995, the klepton associated with Rana perezi. This hybridogenetic species was originated by hybridization between Rana perezi and R. ridibunda (Graf et al. 1977; Uzzell and Tunner 1983; Arano et al. 1995).

Go here to view a Spanish account for Rana iberica.

References:

Arano, B., Llorente, G., García-París, M. and Herrero, P. (1995). Species translocation menaces Iberian Waterfrogs. Conservation Biology, 9(1): 196-198.

Barbadillo, L.J., Lacomba, J.I., Pérez Mellado, V., Sancho, V. and López-Jurado, L.F. (1999). Anfibios y reptiles de la Península Ibérica, Baleares y Canarias. GeoPlaneta S.A. Barcelona. 419 pp.

Docampo, L. and Milagrosa-Vega, M. (1988). Aplicación de un método estadístico al dimorfismo sexual del crecimiento relativo de Rana perezi (Seoane, 1885). Cuadernos de Investigación Biológica, 13: 53-65.

Esteban, M., García-París, M. and Castanet, J. (1996). Use of bone histology in estimating the age of frogs (Rana perezi) from a warm temperate climate area. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 74(10): 1914-1921.

García-París, M. (1985). Los anfibios de España. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Madrid. 287 pp.

García-París, M. (1997). Rana perezi Seoane, 1885. In: Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Europe. Gasc, J. P., Cabela, A., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Dolmen, D., Grossenbacher, K., Haffner, P., Lescure, P., Martens, H., Martínez-Rica, J.P., Maurin, H., Oliveira, M.E., Sofianidou, T.S., Veith, M. y Zuiderwijk, A. (Eds.). Societas Europaea Herpetologica et Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Paris: 152-153.

Godinho, R., Teixeira, J., Rebelo, R., Segurado, P., Loureiro, A., Álvares, F., Gomes, N., Cardoso, P., Camilo-Alves, C. and Brito, J.C. (1999). Atlas of the continental Portuguese herpetofauna: an assemblage of published and new data. Revista Española de Herpetología, 13: 61-81.

González de la Vega, J.P. (1988). Anfibios y reptiles de la provincia de Huelva. ERTISA. Huelva. 237 pp.

Graf, J. D., Karch, F. and Moreillo, M. C. (1977). Biochemical variation in the Rana esculenta complex: a new hybrid form related to Rana perezi and Rana ridibunda. Experientia, 33: 1582-1584.

Llorente, G.A., Arano, B., García Serra, N. and Civantos, E. (1995). Extreme variability in the oral morphs of Rana perezi larvae: their dubious application in the diagnosis of the P-RP system. Revista Española de Herpetología, 9: 85-91.

Llorente, G.A., Montori, A., Carretero, M.A. and Santos, X. (2002). Rana perezi, En: Atlas y libro rojo de los anfibios y reptiles de España. Pleguezuelos, J.M., Márquez, R. y Lizana, M. (Eds.). Dirección General de la Conservación de la Naturaleza-Asociación Herpetológica Española. Madrid: 126-128.

Pleguezuelos, J. M., Márquez, R. and Lizana, M. (eds.) (2002). Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Anfibios y Reptiles de España. Dirección General de Conservación de la Naturaleza-Asociación Herpetológica Española (2ª impresión), Madrid, 587 pp.

Salvador, A. and García-París, M. (2001). Anfibios Españoles. Canseco-Esfagnos. Talavera de la Reina. 269 pp.

Uzzell, T. and Tunner, H. G. (1983). An inmunological analysis of Spanish and French water frogs. Journal of Herpetology, 17: 320-326.

Wicherley, J., Doran, S. and Beebee, T. J. C. (2003). Tracing aliens: identification of introduced water frogs in Britain by male advertisement call characteristics. Herpetological Journal, 13 (1): 43-50.

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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in southern France and across the whole of the Iberian Peninsula. It has been introduced to the Balearic Islands, and the Canary Islands (Spain), two sites in the United Kingdom (Sheppey, Kent and Newdigate, Surrey) and Madeira and the Azores (Portugal) (the distribution in the Azores requires further details and is incompletely mapped here). It occurs from sea level up to 2,380m asl (Sierra Nevada, Spain).
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Range Description

This species is present in southern France and north-eastern Spain (Catalonia, Aragon, Navarra and the Basque Country) (Crochet et al. 1995; Dubois and Ohler 1994). It is also present in the southern Rhone Valley (Pagano, Joly and Hotz 1997). It is difficult to determine the distribution limits of this species because of hybridization.
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Distribution and Habitat

The distribution of this species comprises the Iberian Peninsula and the south of France. The northern limit of its distribution is probably south to the Loire basin (Llorente et al. 2002), with known populations as north as La Vendée and Lyon (Garcia-París 1997). In the Iberian Peninsula is widely distributed both in Spain and Portugal (Godinho et al. 1999; Llorente et al. 2002), and can be found from sea level to elevations around 2000 meters. This frog has been introduced in Madeira, the Balearic and the Canary Islands (Garcia-Paris 1997). Wycherley et al. (2003) reports the existence of an introduced population of Rana perezi in a locality in England along with several other European species of the group.Rana perezi is present in a wide range of environmental conditions, but is conditioned by the existence of water masses, including man-made water reservoirs. They can use both lotic and lentic waters and can resist some degree of pollution and salinity (Barbadillo et al. 1999; Llorente et al. 2002).

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It inhabits a wide variety of temporary and permanent waterbodies (pools, streams, ditches, irrigation canals etc.). The terrestrial habitats of the species include forests, Mediterranean-type scrub, agricultural areas, rocky areas, coastal marshes, gardens and urban parks. It breeds in various aquatic habitats, and is able to tolerate some habitat disturbance.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Rana grafi occurs in mixed colonies with R. perezi, and lives in similar habitat, being found in a wide variety of temporary and permanent waterbodies (such as pools, streams, ditches, and irrigation canals), where it breeds. Terrestrial habitats include forests, scrubland, agricultural areas and coastal marshes.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 6.8 years (captivity) Observations: In the wild, these animals may live up to 5 years (Smirina 1994). One study in captivity reported a lower mortality in 2 year-old animals than in those with 4.3 years of age. The maximum longevity in this study was 6.8 years (Lopez-Torres et al. 1993).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pelophylax perezi

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Jaime Bosch, Miguel Tejedo, Pedro Beja, Iñigo Martínez-Solano, Alfredo Salvador, Mario García-París, Ernesto Recuero Gil, Trevor Beebee

Reviewer/s
Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Miguel Tejedo, Iñigo Martínez-Solano, Alfredo Salvador, Mario García-París, Ernesto Recuero Gil, Pierre-André Crochet

Reviewer/s
Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Near Threatened due to an observed decline as a result of competition from the introduced species P. ridibundus. The rate of decline is probably close to 30% over the last 10 years making it close to qualifying for Vulnerable.

History
  • 2006
    Near Threatened
    (IUCN 2006)
  • 2006
    Near Threatened
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
It is generally widespread and common over much of the Iberian Peninsula, while populations in France are reported to be scarce and dispersed (Gasc et al., 1997). This species appears to be expanding its range to higher elevations, possibly as a result of climate change.

Population Trend
Stable
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Population

Population
The species' population has been greatly affected by the introduction of P. ridibundus, and in many areas where it was previously found only the invasive species remains.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

In the coldest areas they can undergo a winter rest period of variable length, but in most of the range they can be found active all year round (García-París 1985; Salvador and García-París 2001). They have both diurnal and nocturnal activity, but in the summer months the diurnal activity is limited by the intensity of the sun radiation. Most of the activity takes place inside or by the water. The reproductive period is long and calls can be heard all year round depending on the areas (González de la Vega 1988; Esteban et al. 1996). Females can lay up to 7160 eggs (Salvador and García-París 2001). Eggs can be adhered to the vegetation and rocks but also can be found on the surface of the water. Hatching takes place in 5-8 days and metamorphosis usually in 8-12 weeks (González de la Vega 1988), but some tadpoles can spend the winter without metamorphosis. Males reach sexual maturity in 2-3 years and females in 2-3 years (Salvador and García-París 2001).The diet varies depending on availability of prey, as they are opportunistic predators. In general, Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera compose most part of their diet. They can predate occasionally on vertebrates, including small mammals. Some cases of cannibalism have been reported (Salvador and García-París 2001).

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Threats

Major Threats
There are generally no major threats to this widespread species. Localized threats include changes in habitat through the loss of traditional agricultural methods, drainage or pollution of wetlands, collection of individuals for human consumption and hybridization with introduced farmed European ranids (R. esculenta complex). Mortality of the species through disease (iridovirus) has been recorded in Carris Lake, Peneda-Gerês National Park, Portugal. The disease might be non-native and have been transferred to the lake by an introduced predatory North American fish (Lepomis gibbosus). Predation by Lepomis gibbosus and other introduced predatory fish species occurs but is probably not a threat, and it is not greatly threatened in Portugal by the expansion of non-native predatory crayfish (Beja pers. comm.). In France, it is being displaced within some of its range by the introduced species Pelophylax ridibunda.
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Major Threats
The major threat to this species is displacement by the invasive species P. ridibundus. It is possibly also threatened by the drainage of suitable wetlands for agricultural, urban and tourism development. Agrochemical pollution of breeding waterbodies is also presumed to be a threat.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

This is still a common species throughout its range. It can be affected by polution of water. In some agricultural areas the masive use of chemical products has derived in an alarming decline of the populations (Pleguezuelos et al. 2002). The disappearance of water bodies and droughts are additional problems for Rana perezi. It is also affected by the introduction of exotic species, especially others species of Rana that can hybridize with this species (Arano et al. 1995).

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It is listed on Annex III of the Bern Convention and on Annex V of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. It is recorded in the national Red Data Book of Spain, and several regional Red Data Books. It occurs in many protected areas including Doñana and Cabañeros National Parks in Spain. In Portugal it is present in Peneda-Gerês National Park, where the population of Carris Lake has been impacted by disease. Further research into the impacts of disease on this species is needed.
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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in a number of protected areas, and is listed on Appendix III of the Bern Convention. Monitoring of the population is necessary to determine the degree of decline as a result of invasive species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

This species has been hunted traditionally for food in many places through its range. At the present time the consumption of legs of this species is more and more restricted, as the decline in the densities of frogs has reduced the profitability of this activity.

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Wikipedia

Perez's frog

The Perez's frog, also known as Iberian waterfrog, Iberian green frog, or Coruna frog (Pelophylax perezi) is a species of frog in the Ranidae family. It is native to southern France, Portugal, Spain,[2] and has been introduced to the Azores, Madeira, the Canary and Balearic Islands, and the United Kingdom (two sites); in the Iberian Peninsula it is widespread and common, as evidenced by its Spanish name rana común ("common frog").[1]

Its natural habitats are temperate forests, temperate shrubland, Mediterranean-type shrubby vegetation, rivers, intermittent rivers, swamps, freshwater lakes, intermittent freshwater lakes, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, sandy shores, arable land, and urban areas. It is not considered threatened by the IUCN.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bosch, J., Tejedo, M., Beja, P., Martínez-Solano, I., Salvador, A., García-París, M., Gil, E.R. & Beebee, T. (2009). "Pelophylax perezi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 18 July 2014. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Pelophylax perezi (López-Seoane, 1885)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 18 July 2014. 
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