Overview

Distribution

Lamarck was unsure of the origin of the specimen he described as Spongia strobilina, suspecting it could be from the Mediterranean. However, it is clearly not a Mediterranean species. Topsent (1933) suggested it was a senior synonym of Ircinia gigantea (1889) from Australia, as many specimens of the Lamarck collection are from Australia. De Laubenfels (1936) recognized it as a common Caribbean species, followed by all later authors.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 66 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 44 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.5 - 137
  Temperature range (°C): 19.204 - 27.075
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.615 - 8.403
  Salinity (PPS): 35.827 - 36.446
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.580 - 4.895
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.006 - 0.513
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.232 - 4.328

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1.5 - 137

Temperature range (°C): 19.204 - 27.075

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.615 - 8.403

Salinity (PPS): 35.827 - 36.446

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.580 - 4.895

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.006 - 0.513

Silicate (umol/l): 1.232 - 4.328
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ircinia strobilina

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ircinia strobilina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Ircinia strobilina

Ircinia strobilina is a species of sponge in the family Irciniidae. It is grey or shiny black in colour,[2] with spiny structures (conules) dotting the surface.[3] The spiny structures are interconnected by ridges, though not arranged in an orderly lattice. This species is globular and massive in shape,[2] but usually no more than 0.3 metres (1 ft) across.[3] I. strobilina is lobed and spherical and has a tough consistency.[2] The large excurrent pores are located in depressions at the top of the sponge. Many smaller incurrent pores are scattered across the surface, more densely at the sides.[3]

I. strobilina inhabits marine waters, specifically those of the Caribbean Sea including off the coast of Florida, the Virgin Islands, Cuba and Venezuela.[1][4][5] It is found in warm, shallow water, anchored to a substrate. This species is the most abundant sponge in the Abrolhos reef, where it grows exposed to many predatory fishes.[6] The predatory fishes avoid I. strobilina, for reasons discussed below.

I. strobilina has been found to have chemical defences against predation by fishes: when force-fed with it in a study of three sponge species, the fish Holacanthus tricolor was temporarily paralysed and exhibited a loss of balance.[7] The chemicals involved in repelling predators have been extracted and identified as the metabolite and sesterterpene variabilin, and its isomer strobilin.[6] The same study concluded that I. strobilina forms scar tissue over lesions more quickly than the other species studied, Neofibularia nolitangere and Agelas clathrodes.[7]

Synonyms[edit]

When first described, Lamarck initially speculated the specimen (originally described as Spongia strobilina) could have originated in the Mediterranean. Later authors had posited that it was an Australian species until M. W. de Laubenfels identified it as a Caribbean species.[1] Various junior synonyms are presented below:[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d van Soest, R. (2014). R. W. M. Van Soest, N. Boury-Esnault, J. N. A. Hooper, K. Rützler, N. J. de Voogd, B. Alvarez de Glasby, E. Hajdu, A. B. Pisera, R. Manconi, C. Schoenberg, D. Janussen, K. R. Tabachnick, M. Klautau, B. Picton, M. Kelly & J. Vacelet, ed. "Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816)". World Porifera database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-05-07. 
  2. ^ a b c "Ircinia strobilina". The Sponge Guide. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Retrieved 10 June 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c "Ircinia strobilina". Coralpedia. Retrieved 10 June 2010. 
  4. ^ Díaz, Humberto; Bevilacqua, Marina; Bone, David (1985). Esponjas En Manglares Del Parque Nacional Morrocoy. Caracas: Fondo Editorial Acta Científico Venezolana. p. 64. 
  5. ^ de Laubenfels, M.W. (1953). A guide to the sponges of Eastern North America. University of Miami Press. p. 32. ASIN B0007IWQ98. 
  6. ^ a b Epifanio, R. D. A.; Gabriel, R.; Martins, D. L.; Muricy, G. (1999). "The Sesterterpene Variabilin as a Fish-Predation Deterrent in the Western Atlantic Sponge Ircinia strobilina". Journal of Chemical Ecology (Plenum Publishing) 25 (10): 2247–2254. doi:10.1023/A:1020865606047. ISSN 0098-0331. 
  7. ^ a b Hoppe, Wilfried F. (December 1988). "Growth, regeneration and predation in three species of large coral reef sponges". Marine Ecology Progress Series (Inter-Research) 50: 117–125. doi:10.3354/meps050117. Retrieved 10 June 2010. 
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