Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This robust frog may be brown, reddish-brown or red above with a variable number of large, black spots and blotches on the back, sides, and legs. The spots are usually irregular-shaped, with indistinct edges and light centers. The skin on back and sides is often covered with small bumps and tubercles. The eyes are upturned. The lower abdomen and the undersides of the hind legs are usually colored by a reddish-orange or salmon-colored pigment that appears as though it has been painted on (Leonard et al. 1993; Nussbaum 1984; Stebbins 1985). Oregon spotted frogs have relatively short hind legs and extensive webbing between the toes of the hind feet. Sexually mature females range between 60 and 100 mm snout-vent length and males range between 45 and 75 mm (Licht 1975).

Since nearly the time of its original description in 1853, the systematics of the "Western Spotted Frog" group has been a source of both confusion and debate. In 1996, however, a team led by David M. Green published the results of a study on the genetics of Spotted Frogs and concluded that the group actually contained two "sibling" species-the Oregon Spotted Frog and the Columbia Spotted Frog (Green et al. 1996 1997) . The decision to "split" the species was based upon the results of laboratory studies that indicated significant genetic differences, despite a lack of reliable morphological differences. Because the two species have allopatric ranges, they may be reliably identified based upon the location where a frog is encountered.

See another account at californiaherps.com.

  • Davidson, C. (1995). Frog and Toad Calls of the Pacific Coast: Vanishing Voices (recording). Library of Natural Sounds, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca.
  • Green, D. M., Kaiser, H., Sharbel, T. F., Kearsley, J. and McAllister, K. R. (1997). ''Cryptic species of spotted frogs, Rana pretiosa complex, in western North America.'' Copeia, 1997, 1-8.
  • Green, D. M., Sharbel, T. F., Kearsley, J. and Kaiser, H. (1996). ''Postglacial range fluctuation, genetic subdivision and speciation in the western North American Spotted Frog complex, Rana pretiosa.'' Evolution, 50, 374-390.
  • Leonard, W.P., Leonard, N. P., Storm, R.M., and Petzel, P.E. (1996). ''Rana pretiosa (Spotted Frog). Behavior and reproduction.'' Herpetological Review, 27(4), 195.
  • Licht, L. E. (1974). "Survival of embryos, tadpoles, and adults of the frogs Rana aurora aurora and Rana pretiosa pretiosa sympatric in southwestern British Columbia." Canadian Journal of Zoology, 52(5), 613-627.
  • Licht, L.E. (1975). ''Comparative life history features of the Western Spotted Frog, Rana pretiosa, from lowland and high-elevation populations.'' Canadian Journal of Zoology, 53(9), 1254-1257.
  • McAllister, K.R. and Leonard, W.P. (1997). Washington State Status Report for the Oregon Spotted Frog. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.
  • McDiarmid, R.W. and Altig, R. (1999). ''Research materials and techniques.'' Tadpoles: The Biology of Anuran Larvae. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2â€"22.
  • Nussbaum, R. A., Brodie, E. D., Jr., and Storm, R. M. (1983). Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University of Idaho Press, Moscow, Idaho.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (1985). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

This species can be found in south-western British Columbia, Canada, south through the Puget/Willamette Valley trough and the Columbia River gorge in south-central Washington to the Cascades range at least to the Klamath Valley in Oregon, USA. It has been extirpated from much of western Oregon and Washington. Some records are based on misidentified Rana aurora (Green et al. 1997). Historically, it has occurred in north-eastern California (Jennings and Hayes 1994, Hayes 1994). It occurs at an elevation of 20-1,570m asl.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) Range extends from southwestern British Columbia south through the eastern side of the Puget/Willamette Valley trough and the Columbia River gorge in south-central Washington to the Cascades Range at least to the Klamath Valley in Oregon (and at least formerly to northeastern California); the species is considered extirpated from the Willamette Valley, northeastern California, and much of its range in western Washington (Hayes 1997, Pearl and Hayes 2005). More than two-thirds of known extant populations are along the crest and eastern slope of the Cascade Range in central Oregon (Hayes 1997, Cushman and Pearl 2007, Pearl et al. 2009). Elevational range extends from near sea level in the Puget Trough lowlands in Washington to around 1,500 meters (5,000 feet) in the Oregon Cascades and locations in western Oregon (Dunlap 1955, Hayes 1997, McAllister and Leonard 1997). At the northern range limits, occurrences are unlikely to occur at elevations above 200 meters (Pearl and Hayes 2004).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution and Habitat

The Oregon spotted frog once occurred from southwest British Columbia through western Washington and Oregon into northeastern California. Today the species is known from three localities in British Columbia, four localities in Washington and approximately twenty-four localities in Oregon (Marc Hayes pers. comm.) (McAllister and Leonard 1997; Green et al. 1997). In Washington, it occurs at elevations ranging from 40 to 620 meters (McAllister and Leonard 1997) .

Oregon spotted frog populations occur in association with relatively large wetland complexes. Breeding occurs in shallow, relatively unshaded emergent wetlands. The breeding ponds, which are typically dry by mid- to late summer, range in depth from 2 to 14 inches during the breeding season, and are vegetated by low-growing emergent species such as grasses, sedges (Carex spp.), and rushes (Juncus spp.). After breeding adults disperse into adjacent wetland and riparian habitats. Adults remain active year-around near sea-level, but freezing temperatures apparently cause adults and juveniles to hibernate in streams, oxbows and springs at higher elevations.

  • Davidson, C. (1995). Frog and Toad Calls of the Pacific Coast: Vanishing Voices (recording). Library of Natural Sounds, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca.
  • Green, D. M., Kaiser, H., Sharbel, T. F., Kearsley, J. and McAllister, K. R. (1997). ''Cryptic species of spotted frogs, Rana pretiosa complex, in western North America.'' Copeia, 1997, 1-8.
  • Green, D. M., Sharbel, T. F., Kearsley, J. and Kaiser, H. (1996). ''Postglacial range fluctuation, genetic subdivision and speciation in the western North American Spotted Frog complex, Rana pretiosa.'' Evolution, 50, 374-390.
  • Leonard, W.P., Leonard, N. P., Storm, R.M., and Petzel, P.E. (1996). ''Rana pretiosa (Spotted Frog). Behavior and reproduction.'' Herpetological Review, 27(4), 195.
  • Licht, L. E. (1974). "Survival of embryos, tadpoles, and adults of the frogs Rana aurora aurora and Rana pretiosa pretiosa sympatric in southwestern British Columbia." Canadian Journal of Zoology, 52(5), 613-627.
  • Licht, L.E. (1975). ''Comparative life history features of the Western Spotted Frog, Rana pretiosa, from lowland and high-elevation populations.'' Canadian Journal of Zoology, 53(9), 1254-1257.
  • McAllister, K.R. and Leonard, W.P. (1997). Washington State Status Report for the Oregon Spotted Frog. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.
  • McDiarmid, R.W. and Altig, R. (1999). ''Research materials and techniques.'' Tadpoles: The Biology of Anuran Larvae. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2â€"22.
  • Nussbaum, R. A., Brodie, E. D., Jr., and Storm, R. M. (1983). Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University of Idaho Press, Moscow, Idaho.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (1985). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Size

Length: 10 cm

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

"The following traits distinguish the Oregon spotted frog from the Cascades and northern red-legged frog: 1) the dorsal spots are black with ragged edges and light centers, 2) the eyes are oriented upward with the entire pupil of both eyes visible when the frog is viewed directly from above, 3) there is nearly full webbing between the toes with the webbing of the hind foot reaching almost to the tip of the longest toe and the webbing is almost straight when the toes are stretched apart, 4) the coloration in the groin area is similar to the coloration anteriorly on the side and posteriorly on the thighs with no obvious yellow and black mottled patch or patches, 5) when the hind leg is pressed forward against the body, the heel of the hind foot will seldom reach the nostril (similarly, the knee to heel measurement is typically less than half of the snout-vent length), 6) the dorsolateral folds are interrupted about two-thirds the distance down the back from the eye and often disappear entirely posteriorly, and 7) Cascade Frogs have honey-colored and yellow undersides, not red. The above traits may be difficult to see or absent in small juvenile frogs. Bullfrogs, a common non-native species, have a distinct fold from the posterior edge of the eye, around the top of the tympanum and ending at the arm and they lack dorsolateral folds." Source: Hallock and McAllister (2005). Corkran and Thoms (2006) also distinguished this species from the northern red-legged frog and Cascades frog

Corkran and Thoms (2006) presented keys to eggs, larvae, and metamorphosed individuals.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Lectotype; Syntype for Rana pretiosa
Catalog Number: USNM 11409
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1841
Locality: Puget Sound, Locality In Multiple Counties, Washington, United States, North America
  • Lectotype: Green, D. M., et al. 1997. Copeia. 1997 (1): 5.; Baird, S. F. & Girard, C. 1853. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 6: 378.; Syntype: Green, D. M., et al. 1997. Copeia. 1997 (1): 5.; Baird, S. F. & Girard, C. 1853. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 6: 378.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Paralectotype for Rana pretiosa
Catalog Number: USNM 498960
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1841
Locality: Puget Sound, Locality In Multiple Counties, Washington, United States, North America
  • Paralectotype: Green, D. M., et al. 1997. Copeia. 1997 (1): 5.; Baird, S. F. & Girard, C. 1853. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 6: 378.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Paralectotype for Rana pretiosa
Catalog Number: USNM 498959
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1841
Locality: Puget Sound, Locality In Multiple Counties, Washington, United States, North America
  • Paralectotype: Green, D. M., et al. 1997. Copeia. 1997 (1): 5.; Baird, S. F. & Girard, C. 1853. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 6: 378.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is highly aquatic, and rarely found far from permanent quiet water; usually occurs at the grassy margins of streams, lakes, ponds, springs, and marshes (Licht 1971, 1986, Watson, McAllister and Pierce 2003). Animals may disperse into forest, grassland, and brush land during wet weather. It breeds usually in shallow water in ponds or other quiet waters. It does not appear to adapt well to habitat disturbance or alteration, although it does occur in some anthropogenic ponds in central Oregon (C. Pearl, unpubl.).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Central Pacific Coastal Forests Habitat

This taxon is found in the Central Pacific Coastal Forests ecoregion, as one of its North American ecoregions of occurrence. These mixed conifer rainforests stretch from stretch from southern Oregon in the USA to the northern tip of Vancouver Island, Canada. These forests are among the most productive in the world, characterized by large trees, substantial woody debris, luxuriant growths of mosses and lichens, and abundant ferns and herbs on the forest floor. The major forest complex consists of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), encompassing seral forests dominated by Douglas-fir and massive old-growth forests of Douglas-fir, Western hemlock, Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), and other species. These forests occur from sea level up to elevations of 700-1000 meters in the Coast Range and Olympic Mountains. Such forests occupy a gamut of environments with variable composition and structure and includes such other species as Grand fir (Abies grandis), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), and Western white pine (Pinus monticola).

Characteristic mammalian fauna include Elk (Cervus elaphus), Black-tailed Deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Coyote (Canis latrans), Black Bear (Ursus americanus), Mink (Mustela vison), and Raccoon (Procyon lotor).

The following anuran species occur in the Central Pacific coastal forests: Coastal tailed frog (Ascaphus truei); Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa VU); Northern red-legged frog (Rana pretiosa); Pacific chorus frog (Pseudacris regilla); Cascade frog (Rana cascadae NT), generally restricted to the Cascade Range from northern Washington to the California border; Foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii) and the Western toad (Anaxyrus boreas NT).  A newt found in the ecoregion is the Rough skinned newt (Taricha granulosa).

Salamanders within the ecoregion are: Del Norte salamander (Plethodon elongatus NT);  Van Dyke's salamander (Plethodon vandykei); Western redback salamander (Plethodon vehiculum); Northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile);  Olympic torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton olympicus VU), whose preferred habitat is along richly leafed stream edges; Long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum), whose adults are always subterranean except during the breeding season; Dunn's salamander (Plethodon dunni), usually found in seeps and stream splash zones; Clouded salamander (Aneides ferreus NT), an aggressive insectivore; Monterey ensatina (Ensatina eschscholtzii), usually found in thermally insulated micro-habitats such as under logs and rocks; Pacific giant salamander (Dicamptodon tenebrosus), found in damp, dense forests near streams; and Cope's giant salamander (Dicamptodon copei), usually found in rapidly flowing waters on the Olympic Peninsula and Cascade Range.

There are a small number of reptilian taxa that are observed within this forested ecoregion, including: Pacific pond turtle (Emys marmorata); Common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis), an adaptable snake most often found near water; Northern alligator lizard (Elgaria coerulea); and the Western fence lizard.

Numerous avian species are found in the ecoregion, both resident and migratory. Example taxa occurring here are the Belted kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon); Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo); and the White-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus) and the Trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator), the largest of the North American waterfowl.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© World Wildlife Fund & C. Michael Hogan

Supplier: C. Michael Hogan

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: The Oregon spotted frog is highly aquatic and generally avoids dry uplands. It is rarely found far from permanent quiet water. Usually it occurs in vegetated shallows or among grasses or sedges along the margins of streams, lakes, ponds (including those behind beaver dams), oxbows, springs, and marshes (Hodge 1976, Licht 1986, Watson et al. 2003, Chelgren et al. 2008). Individuals move among seasonal habitats usually along flooded or saturated corridors (Watson et al. 2003). In Washington, overland movements were very rare (Watson et al. 2003). Breeding occurs usually in shallow water in pools, ponds, or other quiet waters, among moderate or dense herbaceous vegetation, often close to shore but sometimes far from away from the edge (Pearl et al. 2009). Oviposition sites may be devoid of water later in the year. In Washington, frogs used deeper permanent pools in the dry season; in the coldest periods they buried themselves at the base of dense vegetation in shallow water under ice (Watson et al. 2003). In central Oregon, breeding habitats were natural or anthropogenic and ranged from small, seasonally flooded oxbow ponds to larger channels and marshes within an extensive wetland complex; most sites had extensive emergent and submergent vegetation (Bowerman and Pearl 2010). Wintering sites are in springs, slow-flowing channels, or deep open water (Hallock and Pearson 2001, Chelgren et al. 2008).

Pearl and Hayes (2004) reviewed available literature and summarized habitat relationships as follows. Oregon spotted frogs are generally associated with wetland complexes > 4 ha in size with extensive emergent marsh coverage that warms substantially during seasons when the frogs are active at the surface. The expanse of inundation in wetlands often varies greatly between spring and fall, but sites always include some permanent water adjacent to seasonally inundated habitat. Field observations and recent telemetry data suggest the frog utilize different wetland microhabitats for breeding, the nonbreeding active season (summer and portions of spring and fall), and overwintering. Breeding sites are generally associated with seasonally flooded, shallowly sloping benches that are vegetated with the previous year's emergent vegetation and are relatively unshaded. The frogs' shallow-water breeding habitat may contribute to relatively frequent stranding of the communally deposited egg masses and substantial egg mortality. Limited data suggest that adults may move little during the nonbreeding active season and may prefer microhabitats of moderate vegetation density that are near aquatic refuges.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Individuals regularly move short to long distances between breeding and nonbreeding habitats. Movements of several hundred meters are not unusual, and intensive studies or use of appropriate methodology such as radiotelemetry indicate that much longer movements occur. In Washington, three frogs (one male and two females) in Washington moved a distance of 2.4 kilometers along a creek from the point where they were marked (McAllister and Walker 2003). In Oregon, two juveniles were recaptured 1.2 kilometers and 1.4 kilometers downstream from where they were initially marked, and one adult female moved 2.8 kilometers downstream (Cushman and Pearl 2007). In some locations individuals routinely make annual migrations of 0.5-1.3 kilometers between breeding and overwintering sites (J. Bowerman, pers. comm., 2006, cited by USFWS 2009).

Adults can be found in the same general location in successive years (Hayes 1998). In Washington, four females had home ranges not larger than 5 hectares (average 2.2 hectares) (Watson et al. 2003).

These frogs are capable of colonizing sites within at least several hundred meters of an existing population, if there is adequate riparian/wetland habitat between areas, at least seasonally (Watson et al. 2003).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Comments: The diet includes a wide variety of insects (e.g., beetles, flies) as well as mollusks, crustaceans, and spiders, and adults sometimes eat other amphibians such as newly metamorphosed red-legged frogs, western toads, or newly hatched conspecifics (McAllister and Leonard 1997, Pearl and Hayes 2005). Larvae eat algae, organic debris, carrion, plant tissue, and minute organisns in water.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Comments: As of around 2009, 38 occupied locations (sites) were known in the United States, including 8 in Washington (1 historical, 7 new) and 30 in Oregon (13 historical, 17 new) (USFWS 2009). No extant populations were known in California, but not all potential habitat theere had been adequately surveyed (USFWS 2009). In British Columbia, seven populations have been documented, but the three historical sites no longer support the species, and the four recently discovered populations appear to be isolated from one another (Haycock 2000; K. Welstead, pers. comm. 2009, cited by USFWS 2009).

As of around 2012, this species occurred in 15 sub-basins and was represented by 4 extant occurrences in British Columbia, 6 in Washington, and about a dozen in Oregon (USFWS 2013).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Abundance

10,000 - 100,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is not precisely known but clearly exceeds 10,000 and as of 2012 was minimally about 20,000 (see data in USFWS 2009, 2012). Most extant populations are small.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Activity may occur year-round at low elevations (Jones et al. 2005). Relatively little activity occurs during the coldest periods in winter, though frogs may actively move within the aquatic habitat in winter, even under ice (Hallock and Pearson 2001, Hayes et al. 2001, Risenhoover et al. 2001).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

The life cycle involves distinct stages: eggs, larvae, and metamorphosed individuals. Breeding occurs as early as February or March at lower elevations and as late as late May or early June at higher elevations (Leonard et al. 1993), and at a particular elevation southern populations likely tend to breed earlier than do northern populations. Breeding occurs in February at sea level in British Columbia. In central Oregon, the period from first oviposition to first hatching occurred in mid- to late April (Bowerman and Pearl 2010). Where freezing occurs, breeding generally occurs as early as winter thaw permits. In at least some areas breeding is "explosive" and occurs primarily within a period of 1-2 weeks (Pearl and Hayes 2005). Reproductive females likely breed once each year and deposit one egg mass per breeding event, and they usually lay eggs communally in clusters containing up to several hundred egg masses, often in the same location year after year. Eggs survive freezing air temperatures and ice cover for up to several days (Bowerman and Pearl 2010), hatch in 3-21 days, depending on temperature. Metamorphosis occurs in mid- to late summer (Nussbaum et al. 1983). Individuals first breed when 1-3 years old (females generally at 2-3 years), depending on the elevation and latitude (mature at greater age at high elevations). Most individuals live not more than a few years, but some may live more than a deacde (see USFWS 2009).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rana pretiosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2ace

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Geoffrey Hammerson, Christopher Pearl

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Vulnerable because of an observed population decline, estimated to be more than 30% over the last three generations, inferred from a decline in its area of occupancy, and from the effects of introduced predators and habitat degradation. The generation length is assumed to be five years.

History
  • 1996
    Not Evaluated
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
  • 1996
    Not Evaluated
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G2 - Imperiled

Reasons: Significant declines in distribution and abundance have occurred in much of the range (southwestern British Columbia to northeastern California); major threats are ongoing and include introduced predators, habitat loss/degradation, inadequate habitat size, and possibly disease and climate change.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Moderate to broad.

Other Considerations: Existing regulatory mechanisms may be inadequate for preventing the further decline of this species (USFWS 2009).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Current Listing Status Summary

Status: Proposed Threatened
Date Listed:
Lead Region:   Pacific Region (Region 1) 
Where Listed:


For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Rana pretiosa, see its USFWS Species Profile

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
It is now known from ca. 33 sites in the north-western United States and south-western British Columbia, Canada (Pearl and Hayes 2005). Most extant populations are small. The Conboy Lake NWR population produced a five-year maximum-estimated at 8,300 egg masses in one year in the late 1990s, but then plummeted to about 1,500 egg masses in 2003 (M. Hayes, unpubl.). Historically, it is recorded from eight localities in western Washington, 44 in Oregon, three in California, and one in British Columbia. A nearly complete survey of the range in the mid-1990s revealed extant populations only in three sites in Washington and 19 in Oregon. It is apparently extirpated in California (M. Hayes), but recently confirmed as extant in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia (D. Green pers. comm.).The species has probably vanished from about 70-90% of its former range.

Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%

Comments: Distribution and abundance likely have continued to decline over the past 10 years or three generations. Most remaining populations are small, isolated, and vulnerable to ongoing threats and extirpation. However, the trend in most currently occupied sub-basins has not been determined (USFWS 2013).

Global Long Term Trend: Decline of 70-90%

Comments: This species has disappeared from more than 70 percent of the historical distribution (McAllister et al. 1993, Hayes 1997, Hayes et al. 1997). USFWS (2009) stated that the species no longer occurs in at least 76 percent (and possibly more than 90 percent) of its historical range. USFWS (2013) reported that the species is absent from 76-90 percent of the former range and that it is extant in only 15 of the 31 sub-basins where it historically occurred.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Breeding occurs sometime in February or March at lower elevations, but does not occur until March or April at the two Washington sites in the Cascade Range (McAllister and Leonard 1997). The Oregon Spotted Frog exhibits strong fidelity to breeding sites and eggs are often deposited the same locations in successive years.

Males arrive first, gathering in "lek-like" groups and float in the shallows, calling while awaiting the arrival of a female. Male advertisement calls, consisting of a rapid series of 5 to 50 faint "tapping" notes notes, are given throughout the breeding season (particularly on sunny days) and again in fall (Davidson 1995; Leonard et al. 1997). Most breeding takes place within a two-to-three-week "window" when most of eggs are deposited. However, breeding may be interrupted for up to several weeks by the onset of cold weather; in such cases a second bout of breeding may occur. Upon release, the ova are tightly packed in a mass roughly the size of a ping-pong ball, but within a few hours the mass swells to the size of an average-size human fist. Females usually lay their eggs atop or adjacent to other egg masses (some of the larger aggregations may contain more than 100 individual egg masses). The egg masses are not attached to vegetation, but are deposited in still, shallow waters atop submergent herbaceous vegetation or freely floating amongst clumps of emergent wetland plants such as sedges (Carex spp.) and rushes (Juncus spp). Often-times, the the upper portions of the egg masses protrude above the water surface resulting in severe egg mortality from freeze-thaw damage or desiccation.

After a few weeks of embryonic development, thousands of small tadpoles emerge and cling to the remnants of the gelatinous egg masses, their densely packed, dark bodies acting as solar collectors and warming the water adjacent to the mass. After several days, the hatchlings become free-swimming tadpoles, using their minute brush-like mouthparts to feed upon algae, detritus, and, in some cases, bacteria (but see McDiarmid and Altig 1999). Tadpoles may grow to 90 mm total length before metamorphosing in their first summer or fall (Licht 1975) .

Mortality of eggs, tadpoles, and newly metamorphosed frogs is high, and it is likely that only about 1% of an annual cohort survive to the first winter (Licht 1974) . Near sea-level sexual maturity is attained at age two, while at higher elevations one or two additional years is required (Licht 1975).

Adults feed upon arthropods (e.g., spiders, insects), earthworms and other invertebrate prey. In turn, Oregon Spotted Frogs may be preyed upon by mink, river otter, raccoon, herons, bitterns, corvids and garter snakes (Licht 1974) , while larvae may be consumed by larvae of dragonflies, predacious diving beetles, fish, garter snakes and wading birds.

  • Davidson, C. (1995). Frog and Toad Calls of the Pacific Coast: Vanishing Voices (recording). Library of Natural Sounds, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca.
  • Green, D. M., Kaiser, H., Sharbel, T. F., Kearsley, J. and McAllister, K. R. (1997). ''Cryptic species of spotted frogs, Rana pretiosa complex, in western North America.'' Copeia, 1997, 1-8.
  • Green, D. M., Sharbel, T. F., Kearsley, J. and Kaiser, H. (1996). ''Postglacial range fluctuation, genetic subdivision and speciation in the western North American Spotted Frog complex, Rana pretiosa.'' Evolution, 50, 374-390.
  • Leonard, W.P., Leonard, N. P., Storm, R.M., and Petzel, P.E. (1996). ''Rana pretiosa (Spotted Frog). Behavior and reproduction.'' Herpetological Review, 27(4), 195.
  • Licht, L. E. (1974). "Survival of embryos, tadpoles, and adults of the frogs Rana aurora aurora and Rana pretiosa pretiosa sympatric in southwestern British Columbia." Canadian Journal of Zoology, 52(5), 613-627.
  • Licht, L.E. (1975). ''Comparative life history features of the Western Spotted Frog, Rana pretiosa, from lowland and high-elevation populations.'' Canadian Journal of Zoology, 53(9), 1254-1257.
  • McAllister, K.R. and Leonard, W.P. (1997). Washington State Status Report for the Oregon Spotted Frog. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.
  • McDiarmid, R.W. and Altig, R. (1999). ''Research materials and techniques.'' Tadpoles: The Biology of Anuran Larvae. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2â€"22.
  • Nussbaum, R. A., Brodie, E. D., Jr., and Storm, R. M. (1983). Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University of Idaho Press, Moscow, Idaho.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (1985). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
It has declined in areas inhabited by the introduced bullfrog (Pearl et al. 2004). Introduced predatory fishes probably also are having a detrimental impact. The decline of this species is also probably related to loss and degradation of breeding habitat such as may result from dam construction, alteration of drainage patterns, dewatering due to urban and agricultural use of water, excessive livestock grazing, and other human activities that reduce or eliminate lentic shallow water. At the embryonic stage, UV-B radiation currently does not seem to be contributing to population declines (Blaustein et al. 1999).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Degree of Threat: Very high - high

Comments: "Habitat necessary to support all life stages is continuing to be impacted and/or destroyed by human activities that result in the loss of wetlands to land conversions; hydrologic changes resulting from operation of existing water diversions/manipulation structures, new and existing residential and road developments, drought, and removal of beavers; changes in water temperature and vegetation structure resulting from reed canarygrass invasions, plant succession, and restoration plantings; and increased sedimentation, increased water temperatures, reduced water quality, and vegetation changes resulting from the timing, intensity, and location of livestock grazing. Oregon spotted frogs in all currently occupied sub-basins in British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon are subject to one or more of these threats to their habitat. Eleven of the 15 sub-basins are currently experiencing a high to very high level of habitat impacts, and these impacts are expected to continue into the future. Disease continues to be a concern, but more information is needed to determine if disease is a threat to Oregon spotted frogs. At least one nonnative predaceous species occurs within each of the sub-basins currently occupied by Oregon spotted frogs. Introduced fish have been documented within each sub-basin; these introduced species prey on tadpoles, negatively affect overwintering habitat, and can significantly threaten Oregon spotted frog populations, especially during droughts. Bullfrogs (and likely green frogs) prey on juvenile and adult Oregon spotted frogs, and bullfrog tadpoles can outcompete or displace Oregon spotted frog tadpoles. In short, nonnative bullfrogs effectively reduce the abundance of all Oregon spotted frog
life stages and pose an added threat to a species that has significant negative impacts rangewide from habitat degradation. Nine of the 15 occupied sub-basins are currently experiencing moderate to very high impacts due to predation by introduced species, and these impacts are expected to continue into the future." Source: USFWS (2013).

Earlier Threats Comments

Habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation probably have contributed to the decline of this species. Specific factors include altered hydrology, draining, and filling of shallow wetlands (e.g., from dam construction, beaver removal, alteration of drainage patterns, dewatering due to urban and agricultural use of water); excessive livestock grazing (but healthy populations can coexist with moderate, year-round cattle grazing; Watson et al. 2003); vegetation changes resulting from fire supression; habitat changes caused by invasions of exotic plant species such as reed canary grass (McAllister and Leonard 1997); and physiological effects from contaminants and other changes in water chemistry (Hayes et al. 1997, Blaustein et al. 1999, Watson et al. 2003). Inadequate habitat size (most occupied sites are less than 25 hectares) may contribute to ongoing and future population declines (Hayes et al. 1997). The decline of R. pretiosa populations in British Columbia is probably due to habitat losses throughout the frog's historical range in the Fraser River Lowlands (Haycock 2000).

Predation by exotic fishes (e.g., brook trout, centrarchids) and frogs (bullfrogs, northern leopard frogs) may be a threat in some areas (Pearl et al. 2004). However, in at least one location, spotted frogs and non-native bullfrogs have coexisted for several decades (Hayes et al. 2009). Bullfrogs are a threat not only as a predator but also because they may carry a fungal pathogen (Bd, see following) and might transmit it to spotted frogs (Hayes et al. 2009). In central Oregon, presence of non-native fishes in preferred spotted frog overwintering habitat was associated with low numbers of spotted frog egg masses (Pearl et al. 2009).

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a chytridiomycete fungus pathogenic to amphibians and implicated as the proximate cause of amphibian declines around the world (Berger et al. 1998, Pounds et al. 2006), has been found in Rana pretiosa in Oregon and Washington and may have contributed to declines observed there (Hayes et al. 2009). Other diseases also affect Oregon spotted frogs (see USFWS 2009), but the degree to which these represent signficant threats is poorly known.

Possibly global climate changes are a factor (Hayes and Jennings 1986). At the embryonic stage, UV-B radiation currently does not seem to be contributing to population declines (Blaustein et al. 1999).

The small sizes and isolation of most extant populations makes them vulnerable to extirpation with low probability of natural recolonization.

In Washington, all occupied sites are threatened by development, fluctuating water levels, and/or lack of management of exotic vegetation and predators. In Oregon, all sites are subject to one or more of the following threats: fluctuating water levels, non-native predaceous species, exotic vegetation encroachment, vegetation succession, and livestock grazing. In addition, all sites sampled in Washington and Oregon detected the presence of chytrid fungus. While the risk to an individual site from each of these factors may vary, the cumulative risk of these threats to each site is high.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

This species is rare and has undergone significant declines in range over the past half century. It is now presumed to be extirpated in California and is in serious jeopardy in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. The most probable cause for this frog's precipitous decline is the hydrological modification and destruction (draining, flooding, and filling) of specialized shallow-water, emergent wetlands used for breeding. However, introduced predators including bullfrogs and sport fishes pose serious threats from predation and from competition for critical habitats.

  • Davidson, C. (1995). Frog and Toad Calls of the Pacific Coast: Vanishing Voices (recording). Library of Natural Sounds, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca.
  • Green, D. M., Kaiser, H., Sharbel, T. F., Kearsley, J. and McAllister, K. R. (1997). ''Cryptic species of spotted frogs, Rana pretiosa complex, in western North America.'' Copeia, 1997, 1-8.
  • Green, D. M., Sharbel, T. F., Kearsley, J. and Kaiser, H. (1996). ''Postglacial range fluctuation, genetic subdivision and speciation in the western North American Spotted Frog complex, Rana pretiosa.'' Evolution, 50, 374-390.
  • Leonard, W.P., Leonard, N. P., Storm, R.M., and Petzel, P.E. (1996). ''Rana pretiosa (Spotted Frog). Behavior and reproduction.'' Herpetological Review, 27(4), 195.
  • Licht, L. E. (1974). "Survival of embryos, tadpoles, and adults of the frogs Rana aurora aurora and Rana pretiosa pretiosa sympatric in southwestern British Columbia." Canadian Journal of Zoology, 52(5), 613-627.
  • Licht, L.E. (1975). ''Comparative life history features of the Western Spotted Frog, Rana pretiosa, from lowland and high-elevation populations.'' Canadian Journal of Zoology, 53(9), 1254-1257.
  • McAllister, K.R. and Leonard, W.P. (1997). Washington State Status Report for the Oregon Spotted Frog. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.
  • McDiarmid, R.W. and Altig, R. (1999). ''Research materials and techniques.'' Tadpoles: The Biology of Anuran Larvae. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2â€"22.
  • Nussbaum, R. A., Brodie, E. D., Jr., and Storm, R. M. (1983). Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University of Idaho Press, Moscow, Idaho.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (1985). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It is somewhat protected in several federal and state parks and refuges, though management usually ignores this species. Some zoos in North America have raised wild-caught larvae and then reintroduced them to the wild, although captive breeding of this species has not yet been successful.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Protection: Few to several (1-12) occurrences appropriately protected and managed

Comments: This frog is somewhat protected in some federal and state parks and refuges, though management usually ignores this species or is hampered by lack of lack of information on appropriate techniques.

"Lack of essential habitat protection under federal, state, provincial, and local laws leaves this species at continued risk of habitat loss and degradation in British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. In many cases, laws and regulations that pertain to retention and restoration of wetland and riverine areas are a no-management (i.e., avoidance) approach, or are designed to be beneficial to fish species (principally salmonids), resulting in the elimination or degradation of Oregon spotted frog early-seral habitat. In other cases, no regulations address threats related to the draining or development of wetlands or hydrologic modifications, which can also eliminate or degrade Oregon spotted frog habitat." Source: USFWS (2013).

In British Columbia, one population occurs on lands owned by the Department of National Defence; two populations occur on private lands; and one occurs on First Nations and private lands. In Washington, almost all sites are in public ownership. In Thurston County, one site occurs on lands owned by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), two sites occur on National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) land (Black River Unit of the Nisqually NWR), one occurs on a combination of private and NWR lands, and one occurs solely on private property. The two Trout Lake sites in Skamania and Klickitat counties are on private and public lands, including the Washington Department of Natural Resources' Trout Lake Natural Area Preserve (NAP) and Gifford Pinchot National Forest. The Conboy Lake population occurs predominately within the Conboy Lake NWR, with the remaining portion on privately owned land. In Oregon, 89 percent of the sites are at least partially in public ownership (U.S. Forest Service (USFS), Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and NWR). Sites in the Deschutes drainage (La Pine, Little Deschutes River, and Sunriver Nature Center) are under private ownership. Small portions of the Little Deschutes River locality are also managed by the BLM. Fourteen of the remaining sites are within the Deschutes National Forest. One site is managed by the Mount Hood National Forest. All localities in the Willamette drainage are under the management of the Willamette National Forest. These localities include Gold Lake Bog (a Research Natural Area) and several sites within the Three Sisters Wilderness Area. There are nine known occupied sites in the Klamath Basin. The Klamath Marsh NWR is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), but portions of that population also occur on private lands. The Wood River Wetland includes land managed by BLM and private land. Fourmile Creek includes Fremont-Winema National Forest, Bureau of Reclamation, and private lands. Buck Lake includes private, Klamath Falls BLM, and Fremont-Winema National Forest lands. The Upper Williamson and Jack Creek sites are on the Fremont-Winema National Forest and privately owned land. The Crane Creek site is on privately owned lands. Sevenmile Creek includes Fremont-Winema National Forest and private lands. Parsnip Lakes is in the Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument managed by the Medford BLM. Most potential habitat on private lands adjacent to public lands has not been adequately surveyed for Oregon spotted frog. [Source: USFWS 2009]

Needs: The most viable populations need to be identified and protected. Assemblages of adjacent breeding sites tend to have the largest number of breeding adults per site (Pearl et al. 2009), so protection of these areas is most important.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management Research Needs: Pearl and Hayes (2004) recommended that research be conducted on the following topics related to habitat: 1) Minimum site size and habitat complexity necessary to support an Oregon spootted frog (OSF) population even when isolated; 2) Habitat characteristics and types of corridors that may reduce isolation between extant OSF breeding sites; 3) Overwintering habitat use and quality (especially for selected water quality parameters) at low and high elevation sites; 4) Attributes of OSF movements and utilized pathways between seasonal use areas; 5) Importance of vegetation change (both invasion by non-native species such as reed canarygrass and encroachment by woody vegetation in fire-suppressed areas) in affecting habitat suitability, and OSF response to vegetation management alternatives; 6) OSF habitat responses to management practices such as livestock grazing and hydrological alterations (anthropogenic, beaver and others); and 7) Habitat attributes that relate to coexistence or increased risk of extirpation when OSF occur with non-native fish and bullfrogs.

Biological Research Needs: Current research needs include: 1. Coordinated range-wide monitoring of populations to determine sizes and trends. 2. Assessment of habitat use patterns and potential impacts of projected and ongoing logging operations, mining, and other development operations across the range. 3. Studies of potential factors causing regional declines in this species and other amphibians in general. 4. Long-term viability analysis and development of appropriate management protoclols for ensuring viable populations.

Further study of movement ecology is needed to improve our understanding of habitat connectivity and the effects of site isolation on the persistence of R. pretiosa in Oregon (Pearl et al. 2009).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Comments: This species has no significant economic uses.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Risks

Stewardship Overview: USFWS (2009) recommended the following specific conservation measures: Implement adequate water management activities at Conboy Lake and in the surrounding valley. Implement vegetation management and/or removal of exotic vegetation. Reduce/control heavy livestock grazing. Assess chytrid fungus effects to Oregon spotted frogs. Evaluate methods to reduce or eliminate nonnative predaceous fish and bullfrogs. Work with adjacent private landowners to provide adequate buffers to Oregon spotted frog habitat. Increase open water habitat at one Washington site. Support restoration plans for wetland and riverine habitat on the Klamath Marsh National Wildlife Refuge.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Rana luteiventris and R. pretiosa formerly were regarded as conspecific. Green et al. (1996) examined allozyme and morphometric variation in R. pretiosa from 26 and 38 localities, respectively, and concluded that at least two species were represented, referred to as species A (southwestern Washington and Oregon Cascades) and species B (remainder of range). Morphometrically, the two species are "almost indistinguishable." The authors could not fully delineate the dividing line between the ranges of species A and species B. The two species were not assigned latin names because of a nomenclatural problem arising from the fact that specimens from the vicinity of the type series for R. pretiosa Baird and Girard could not be assigned to either species A or species B, and the type locality lies geographically between the known ranges of A and B.

Subsequently, Green et al. (1997) determined that frogs from the vicinity of the type locality of R. pretiosa are conspecific with the species residing in south-central Washington and and the Cascade Mountains of Oregon (species A). Hence, they concluded that populations from southwestern British Columbia, western Washington, western and central Oregon, and northeastern California are R. pretiosa (Oregon spotted frog) and that spotted frogs from the remainder of the range are another species for which the name Rana luteiventris (Columbia spotted frog) is applicable. This taxonomy has been widely accepted (e.g., Crother 2008, Collins and Taggart 2009, http://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/).

Rana luteiventris was regarded as possibly comprising multiple weakly differentiated species.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!