IUCN threat status:

Endangered (EN)


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Atelopus certus

Atelopus certus is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae.

Geographic range[edit]

The toad is endemic to the Darien region of eastern Panama,[1] and its type locality is Cerro Sapo, giving it its common name of the toad is Mountain Harlequin Frog.


Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, and rivers.

Conservation status[edit]

The species is threatened primarily by the advancing wave of chytridiomycosis moving through Central America, and secondarily by habitat loss, although much of its range falls within the Darién National Park, a protected area and world heritage site. Because so many other Atelopus species are in steep declines this amphibian is seen as a priority species for ex situ conservation. In June 2010, a team of conservation partners working under the banner of the Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project mounted an expedition to the Darien and brought back a founding population of these frogs to begin an ex situ conservation program at Summit Municipal Park near Panama City.[3] A documentary film about this effort was aired in 2011 on Smithsonian Networks entitled 'Mission Critical: Amphibian Rescue'


  1. ^ a b Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Jaramillo, C. & Fuenmayor, Q. (2004). "Atelopus certus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 31 March 2012. 
  2. ^ Amphibian Species of the World 5.5, an Online Reference. http://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/
  3. ^ Brian Gratwicke: In search of the Toad Mountain Harlequin Frog - Accessed September 28, 2010

Further reading[edit]

  • Barbour, T. 1923. Notes on reptiles and amphibians from Panama. Occasional Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 129:1-16. (Atelopus spurrelli certus, p. 12)


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