Overview

Brief Summary

This small, up to 3 inch (76 mm) long toad has round parotoid glands, a characteristic which distinguishes it from other toad species in the region. It tends to be whitish when found in association with limestone, light tan to red around volcanic rocks, to brown above, with scattered reddish tubercles (raised bumps); the underside is creamy white. Males have dark throats and single vocal sacs. The body and head are dorso- ventrally compressed, giving this toad a flattened appearance. A riparian inhabitant, this species is commonly encountered in and around rocky streams and arroyos. Its flattened body allows it to wedge into narrow rock crevices.

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Comprehensive Description

Description

This small toad (ranging from 38-76 mm total length) is described as having a flattened, short sub-triangular head with a pointed snout. It is the only North American toad that has small, round parotoid glands the same size as the eye plus weak or absent cranial crests (Korky 1999). The coloration is gray or light to medium brown, with reddish to orangish warts and a white ventral stripe; sometimes the stripe has spotting (Conant and Collins 1991; Stebbins 1985) . Korky (1999) also states, "this species is the only North American toad with round parotoids about the same size as the eye, and with cranial crests notabely weak or absent."

Hybrids with other bufonid species have been found in nature (Sullivan 1990).

Many late Pleistocene and Holocene fossils have been recovered for this species at numerous sites in Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Texas as well as in Sonora, Mexico (for complete references please see Korky 1999). Korky (1999) has provided a long literature list for this species.

See another account at californiaherps.com.

  • Conant, R. and Collins, J. T. (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Korky, J. K. (1999). ''Bufo punctatus.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 689.1-689.5.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (1985). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Storer, T. I. (1925). "A synopsis of the amphibia of California." University of California Publications in Zoology, 27, 1-342.
  • Sullivan, B. K. (1984). ''Advertisement call variation and observations on breeding behavior of Bufo debilis and Bufo punctatus.'' Journal of Herpetology, 18, 406-411.
  • Sullivan, B. K. (1990). ''Natural hybrid between the Great Plains Toad, Bufo cognatus and the Red-Spotted Toad, Bufo punctatus from Central Arizona, USA.'' Great Basin Naturalist, 50, 371-372.
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Description

This small toad (ranging from 38-76 mm total length) is described as having a flattened, short sub-triangular head with a pointed snout. It is the only North American toad that has small, round parotoid glands the same size as the eye plus weak or absent cranial crests (Korky 1999). The coloration is gray or light to medium brown, with reddish to orangish warts and a white ventral stripe; sometimes the stripe has spotting (Conant and Collins 1991; Stebbins 1985) . Korky (1999) also states, "this species is the only North American toad with round parotoids about the same size as the eye, and with cranial crests notabely weak or absent."

Hybrids with other bufonid species have been found in nature (Sullivan 1990).

Many late Pleistocene and Holocene fossils have been recovered for this species at numerous sites in Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Texas as well as in Sonora, Mexico (for complete references please see Korky 1999). Korky (1999) has provided a long literature list for this species.

See another account at californiaherps.com.

  • Conant, R. and Collins, J. T. (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Korky, J. K. (1999). ''Bufo punctatus.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 689.1-689.5.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (1985). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Storer, T. I. (1925). "A synopsis of the amphibia of California." University of California Publications in Zoology, 27, 1-342.
  • Sullivan, B. K. (1984). ''Advertisement call variation and observations on breeding behavior of Bufo debilis and Bufo punctatus.'' Journal of Herpetology, 18, 406-411.
  • Sullivan, B. K. (1990). ''Natural hybrid between the Great Plains Toad, Bufo cognatus and the Red-Spotted Toad, Bufo punctatus from Central Arizona, USA.'' Great Basin Naturalist, 50, 371-372.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is known from California, Nevada, central Utah, Colorado, and southwestern Kansas in the USA, south to southern Baja California and central Mexico, and to the state of Quertaro. It occurs at elevations up to about 1,980m asl.
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Distribution and Habitat

In the USA, the northern extent of the range is from southeastern California east to southern Nevada, into Utah, Colorado and the southwestern region of the state of Kansas. It occurs as far south as the tip of the Baja California Penninsula, Mexico, and on the Mexican mainland, down to the state of Hidalgo (Stebbins 1985) . This toad lives in rough, rocky regions and open grasslands. It can be found near springs, seepages and persisting pools in the desert and in rocky crevices (Storer 1925; Conant and Collins 1991; Stebbins 1985) . This toad ranges in elevation from near sea level to 2,000 m (Stebbins 1985).

  • Conant, R. and Collins, J. T. (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Korky, J. K. (1999). ''Bufo punctatus.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 689.1-689.5.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (1985). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Storer, T. I. (1925). "A synopsis of the amphibia of California." University of California Publications in Zoology, 27, 1-342.
  • Sullivan, B. K. (1984). ''Advertisement call variation and observations on breeding behavior of Bufo debilis and Bufo punctatus.'' Journal of Herpetology, 18, 406-411.
  • Sullivan, B. K. (1990). ''Natural hybrid between the Great Plains Toad, Bufo cognatus and the Red-Spotted Toad, Bufo punctatus from Central Arizona, USA.'' Great Basin Naturalist, 50, 371-372.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)) This species is known from California, Nevada, central Utah, Colorado, and southwestern Kansas in the United States, south to southern Baja California and central Mexico, and to the state of Queretaro. It occurs at elevations up to about 1980m asl (6500 ft).

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Distribution and Habitat

In the USA, the northern extent of the range is from southeastern California east to southern Nevada, into Utah, Colorado and the southwestern region of the state of Kansas. It occurs as far south as the tip of the Baja California Penninsula, Mexico, and on the Mexican mainland, down to the state of Hidalgo (Stebbins 1985) . This toad lives in rough, rocky regions and open grasslands. It can be found near springs, seepages and persisting pools in the desert and in rocky crevices (Storer 1925; Conant and Collins 1991; Stebbins 1985) . This toad ranges in elevation from near sea level to 2,000 m (Stebbins 1985).

  • Conant, R. and Collins, J. T. (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Korky, J. K. (1999). ''Bufo punctatus.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 689.1-689.5.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (1985). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Storer, T. I. (1925). "A synopsis of the amphibia of California." University of California Publications in Zoology, 27, 1-342.
  • Sullivan, B. K. (1984). ''Advertisement call variation and observations on breeding behavior of Bufo debilis and Bufo punctatus.'' Journal of Herpetology, 18, 406-411.
  • Sullivan, B. K. (1990). ''Natural hybrid between the Great Plains Toad, Bufo cognatus and the Red-Spotted Toad, Bufo punctatus from Central Arizona, USA.'' Great Basin Naturalist, 50, 371-372.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 8 cm

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Type Information

Syntype for Anaxyrus punctatus
Catalog Number: USNM 12670
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Juveniles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1882
Locality: La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico
  • Syntype: Yarrow, H. C. 1882. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 5 (299): 441.
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Syntype for Anaxyrus punctatus
Catalog Number: USNM 12660
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1882
Locality: La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico
  • Syntype: Yarrow, H. C. 1882. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 5 (299): 441.
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Syntype for Anaxyrus punctatus
Catalog Number: USNM 2618
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Rio San Pedro, of the Rio Grande del Norte, Val Verde, Texas, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Baird, S. F. & Girard, C. 1852. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 6: 173.
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Ecology

Habitat

Sierra de la Laguna Pine-oak Forests Habitat

This taxon is found in the Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forest, a mountainous ecoregion which rises from the arid Baja California Sur, creating islands of unique vegetative communities. There are approximately 694 plant species, approximately 85 of which are endemic to this ecoregion. Overall species richness is low to moderate, with a total of only 231 vertebrate taxa. The ecoregion is classified in the Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests biome. Much of the pine-oak association remains intact due to the inaccessibility of the rugged and inaccessible terrain.

The topographical features and geological events that gave rise to this particular region are responsible for the diversity of climates and vegetation in the same area. The highest strata of mountains, situated at 1600 to 2000 metres (m) in elevation, are composed of pine-oak forests that transform into oak-pine forests (1200 m) and oak forests (800 m) as elevation decreases. The climate is temperate sub-humid with summer rains and occasional winter rains.

These pine-oak forests constitute the wettest portions in the state of Baja California Sur (760 millimetres of precipitation annually). Slight variations in climatic conditions make up three different vegetation assemblages in the temperate forest. Pine forests at the highest elevations are dominated by Pinus cembroides ssp. lagunae, and understory taxa such as Muhlenbergia spp. and Festuca spp. Pine-oak forests dominated by associations of Pinus cembroides subsp. lagunae with Quercus devia, Arbutus peninsularis, and Quercus tuberculata, and a variety of trees of smaller stature such as Calliandra peninsularis and Mimosa tricephala, with associated shrubs to complement the landscape.

Some of the endemic reptiles are the Southern Alligator Lizard (Elgaria multicarinata) and the Yucca Night Lizard (Xantusia vigilis). Other reptilian taxa found in the Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests include the Baja California Rock Lizard (Petrosaurus thalassinus), Baja California Rattlesnake (Crotalus enyo) and the Baja California Brush Lizard (Urosaurus nigricaudus).

Only two amphibian taxa are found in the Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests. The Red-spotted Toad (Anaxyrus punctatus) is one anuran found here. The widely distributed California Chorus Frog (Pseudacris cadaverina) is another resident of the ecoregion. One other anuran,  Pseudacris regilla,  was previously recognized in the ecoregion, but erecent DNA analysis has rendered this taxon of unclear distribution.

Of the approximately 30 mammalian species of mammals present, one of them (an endemic bat) lives only in pine-oak forests. The level of endemism is high, and this is well demonstrated by the proportion of endemic species with respect to total recorded species. More than ten percent of the mammalian species found at Sierra de la Laguna are  endemic. One notable mammal found along the far west coast, including California and Baja, is the Ornate Shrew (Sorex ornatus). There are several threatened mammals found in the Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests, including: the Mexican Long-tongued Bat (Choeronycteris mexicana NT). The isolation of this region has contributed to the scarcity of predators, and to the poor competitive ability of some animals. Rodents and lagomorphs are virtually absent from the region

The avifauna inhabiting these pine-oak forests is important because half of the bird species breeding at Sierra de la Laguna only utilize pine-oak forests as breeding habitat. The endemic Baja Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium gnoma hoskinsii),  along with the White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica) and Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) are only a few of the avian species found in this ecoregion. Other notable birds in this and the Gulf of California xeric scrub ecoregion include the Xantus's Hummingbird (Hylocharis xantusii) and the endangered Peninsular Yellowthroat (Geothlypis beldingi EN)..

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San Lucan Xeric Scrub Habitat

This taxon is found in the San Lucan xeric scrub, an ecoregion situated at the southern-most part of the Baja Peninsula of Mexico; this diverse landscape of mountains, valleys, and plateaus is covered with a variety of species of xeric vegetation. This neotropical ecoregion is classifed within the Deserts and Xeric Scrublands biome. Plants and animals of this region evolved independently before the Baja Peninsula, a previous island during the Miocene, joined the mainland. An arid climate supports a number fauna and species, about ten percent which of which are endemic.

The ecoregion took shape in the Miocene as an isolated landform prior to joining the peninsula, and thus can be considered an biogeographical island of vegetation. This arid landscape is composed of a vast, rugged complex of granitic mountains, valleys, canyons, and plateaus. The ecoregion occupies the plateaus between the coast and the lower limits of the dry forests, which begin around 250 meters. Precipitation is about 400 millimetres annually.

Some elements of dry forest habitat are present in this ecoregion, but xeric elements are dominant and include Chain-link Cholla (Opuntia cholla); Elephant Tree (Bursera microphylla), at the southern limit of its range here and extending north to the Waterman Mountains in the USA; Mauto (Lysiloma divaricata); Organ Pipe Cactus (Stenocereus thuberi), Mala Mujer (Cnidoscolus angustidens), Yucca spp., and Barrel Cacti (Ferocactus spp). Herbaceous elements in the ecoregion include Plantago linearis, Bouteloua hirsuta, and Commelina coelestis.

The San Lucan xeric scrub harbours 31 of 48 of the reptile species for the Cape Region. Almost a third of the wider regional recorded species of collembola arthropods and spiders (30 of 138 species, respectively) occur in this ecoregion. In general, over ten percent of animal and plant species found here are endemic.

Within the San Lucan xeric scrub ecoregion, reptilian taxa include: the endemic Island Burrowing Sand Snake (Chilomeniscus punctatissimus); the endemic Isla Cerralvo Snake (Chilomeniscus savagei), restricted solely to Cerralvo Island; the Cape Arboreal Spiny Lizard (Sceloporus licki), a near-endemic restricted to the southern portion of the Baja Peninsula; the near-endemic Spiny Chuckwalla (Sauromalus hispidus NT), found only on Angel de la Guarda Island, Granito, Mejía, Pond, San Lorenzo Norte, San Lorenzo Sur, and other islands in Bahía de los Ángeles, including Cabeza de Caballo, La Ventana, Piojo, Flecha, Mitlàn, and Smith, Gulf of California; the near-endemic San Lucan Leaf-toed Gecko (Phyllodactylus unctus NT), found only on southern Baja Peninsula and some islands within the Gulf of California: Gallo, Partida Sur, Espiritu Santo, Ballena, Gallina and Cerralvo. There are only a small number of anuran species present in the ecoregion: Red-spotted Toad (Anaxyrus punctatus); and Pacific Chorus Frog (Pseudacris regilla).

The Espiritu Santo Island Antelope Squirrel (Ammospermophilus insularis) is endemic to the San Lucan xeric scrub ecoregion and is found only on the island of Espiritu Santo in the Gulf of California. Among threatened mammals occurring in the ecoregion are: the near-endemic Dalquest's Pocket Mouse (Chaetodipus dalquesti VU), known from the Cape Region of the Baja California Peninsula.

Threatened mammals in the ecoregion include: the near-endemic Peninsular Myotis (Peninsular Myotis EN), found only on southern Baja Peninsula; Fish-eating Bat (Myotis vivesi VU), a near-endemic occurring chiefly on the near-shore islands off of the southern Baja Peninsula and mainland Sonora; Mexican Long-tongued Bat (Choeronycteris mexicana NT); and the Lesser Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae VU).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits rocky canyons and gullies in deserts, grasslands, and dry woodlands. It hides under rocks, in rock crevices, or underground when inactive. Eggs and larvae develop in shallow water in temporary rain pools, spring-fed pools, and pools along intermittent streams.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Comments: This species inhabits rocky canyons and gullies in deserts, grasslands, and dry woodlands. It hides under rocks, in rock crevices, or underground when inactive. Eggs and larvae develop in shallow water in temporary rain pools, spring-fed pools, and pools along intermittent streams.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Aggregates at breeding pools, disperses along intermittent streams after breeding.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Metamorphosed toads eat a variety of small terrestrial arthropods. Larvae eat suspended matter, organic debris, algae, and plant tissue.

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Population Biology

Global Abundance

100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but surely exceeds 100,000.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: In northern part of range generally inactive November-March. Mostly nocturnal but commonly active in the morning and late afternoon as well.

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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 11.3 years (captivity)
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Reproduction

Lays eggs during or after rains in spring or summer. Breeding choruses may last a few weeks. Larvae metamorphose late spring to early fall, depending on when eggs were laid.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Geoffrey Hammerson, Georgina Santos-Barrera

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern (LC)
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Large range in the southwestern United Stated and Mexico; large area of occupancy; high abundance; many stable populations; no major threats.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

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Population

Population
It is widespread and common.

Population Trend
Stable
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Like the other toads in this group, the red-spotted toad is an explosive breeder. The eggs are laid in early April and tadpoles metamorphose within a season. Males have melodious call and may form breeding choruses of 2-6 males. Males actively search for females as well (Sullivan 1984).

  • Conant, R. and Collins, J. T. (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Korky, J. K. (1999). ''Bufo punctatus.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 689.1-689.5.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (1985). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Storer, T. I. (1925). "A synopsis of the amphibia of California." University of California Publications in Zoology, 27, 1-342.
  • Sullivan, B. K. (1984). ''Advertisement call variation and observations on breeding behavior of Bufo debilis and Bufo punctatus.'' Journal of Herpetology, 18, 406-411.
  • Sullivan, B. K. (1990). ''Natural hybrid between the Great Plains Toad, Bufo cognatus and the Red-Spotted Toad, Bufo punctatus from Central Arizona, USA.'' Great Basin Naturalist, 50, 371-372.
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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Population trend is unknown but probably stable to slightly declining.

Global Long Term Trend: Increase of 10-25% to decline of 30%

Comments: Likely relatively stable in extent of occurrence, probably less than 25% decline in population size, area of occurrence, and number/condition of occurrences.

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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Like the other toads in this group, the red-spotted toad is an explosive breeder. The eggs are laid in early April and tadpoles metamorphose within a season. Males have melodious call and may form breeding choruses of 2-6 males. Males actively search for females as well (Sullivan 1984).

  • Conant, R. and Collins, J. T. (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Korky, J. K. (1999). ''Bufo punctatus.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 689.1-689.5.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (1985). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Storer, T. I. (1925). "A synopsis of the amphibia of California." University of California Publications in Zoology, 27, 1-342.
  • Sullivan, B. K. (1984). ''Advertisement call variation and observations on breeding behavior of Bufo debilis and Bufo punctatus.'' Journal of Herpetology, 18, 406-411.
  • Sullivan, B. K. (1990). ''Natural hybrid between the Great Plains Toad, Bufo cognatus and the Red-Spotted Toad, Bufo punctatus from Central Arizona, USA.'' Great Basin Naturalist, 50, 371-372.
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species.
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Degree of Threat: Low

Comments: No major pervasive threats; localized habitat degradation and destruction; localized hybridization with B. woodhousii.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in several protected areas throughout its range.
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Source: IUCN

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Wikipedia

Red-spotted toad

The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) is a small toad species growing to 3.7 to 7.5 centimeters in length. It has a flattened head and body, and a light grey, olive or reddish brown dorsum with reddish or orange skin glands. It has a whitish or buff venter with or without faint dark spotting, and round parotoid glands. Its snout is pointed.

A red-spotted toad in the Patagonia Mountains of southeastern Arizona.

The juvenile looks similar to the adult, but has more prominent ventral spotting and the undersides of its feet are yellow. The male red-spotted toad has a dusky throat and develops nuptial pads during the breeding season.

This toad is native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, especially Baja California. It occurs primarily along rocky streams and riverbeds, often in arid or semi-arid regions. It is very localized on the coastal slope, but widespread in the deserts. In dry areas it needs seasonal pools or even temporary rain puddles to use for breeding. Eggs hatch in three days and the tadpole can transform in 6-8 weeks, taking advantage of the ephemeral water bodies. It spends dry periods in burrows or beneath rocks or moist plant matter, and becomes suddenly active during rainfall when multitudes of individuals emerge.[1]

It may hybridize with the western toad (Bufo boreas) in some locations, although this needs confirmation. It is docile and easily handled with little or no skin gland secretions.

References[edit]

  • Pauly, G. B., D. M. Hillis, and D. C. Cannatella. (2004) The history of a Nearctic colonization: Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo). Evolution 58: 2517–2535.
  • Hammerson & Santos-Barrera (2004). Bufo punctatus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006. Database entry includes a range map and a brief justification of why this species is of least concern
  • This article is based on a description from "A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Coastal Southern California", Robert N. Fisher and Ted J. Case, USGS, http://www.werc.usgs.gov/fieldguide/index.htm.
  1. ^ Grismer, L. L. (2002). Amphibians and Reptiles of Baja California. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 71.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Sometimes hybridizes with Buro boreas at Darwin Canyon, Inyo County, California, and with Bufo woodhousii near Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado (Hammerson 1999), and in the Grand Canyon region, Arizona (Malmos et al. 1995, Great Basin Nat. 55:368-371).

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