Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

M 23-28 mm, F 28-35 mm. A widespread species in the mid-altitude rainforests of eastern Madagascar. Tibiotarsal articulation can reach the tip of the snout. Hand without webbing, foot webbing 1(1), 2i(1), 2e(0.5-1), 3i(2), 3e(1-1.5), 4i/e(2), 5(0-1). Terminal discs of fingers and toes slightly enlarged. Dorsal skin moderately granular, usually with well-visible dorsolateral folds. Colouration dorsally very variable, often light brown with darker patches, with or without vertebral stripes, sometimes with orange flanks. Typical for this and related species is a distinct white tip on the snout. Males with a weakly distensible single subgular vocal sac, distinct femoral glands, these are relatively small and widely separated from each other.

Taken with permission from Glaw and Vences (2007)

  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
  • Vences, M. and Nussbaum, R. (2008). Mantidactylus betsileanus. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 29 April 2009.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is broadly distributed in northern, eastern and western Madagascar. The map is very provisional since this is an unresolved species complex. It occurs from sea level up to 1,500m asl.
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Distribution and Habitat

Andasibe, Besariaka near Moramanga, Fierenana, Mandraka, Ranomafana (Ranomafana village, Ranomafanakely, Vohiparara). It occurs between sea level and 1,500m asl in both intact and degraded rainforest and occasionally in deforested agricultural areas (Vences and Nussbaum 2008).

  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
  • Vences, M. and Nussbaum, R. (2008). Mantidactylus betsileanus. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 29 April 2009.
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Ecology

Habitat

Madagascar Spiny Thickets Habitat

Lemur catta is an Endangered taxon near-endemic to the Madagascar spiny thickets ecoregion. While the island of Madagascar is notable for exceptional levels of endemic plants and animals, the spiny thicket is particularly distinctive with 95 percent of the plant species endemic to the ecoregion. Members of the endemic Didiereaceae family present dominate the thicket, which have similar xeric adaptations to New World cacti, such as small leaves and spines, but with the Madagascar spiny thickets displaying more woody rather than succulent characteristics.

There are two major rock types in the ecoregion; the Tertiary limestone of the Mahafaly Plateau and the unconsolidated red sands of the central south and southeast. This geology corresponds to a major division in the habitat. The taller, dense dry forest on the sandy soils is dominated by Didieria madagascariensis, and the more xeric adapted vegetation on the calcareous plateau around Lake Tsimanampetsotsa is characterized by dwarf species.

The fauna of the ecoregion is also distinctive and includes three strictly endemic mammals, the White-footed sportive lemur (Lepilemur leucopus), Grandidier’s mongoose (Galidictis grandidieri) and Microcebus griseorufus. Near-endemic mammals include the Large-eared tenrec (Geogale aurita), and the Lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi). Six other lemurs are found only in spiny thicket and the adjacent Succulent Woodlands ecoregion, Red-tailed sportive lemur (Lepilemur ruficaudatus), Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), the Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), Forked-marked lemur (Phaner furcifer), Fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius), and Gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). The mongoose species is considered endangered on the current IUCN Red Data List, and Verreaux’s sifaka and the Ring-tailed lemur are classified as Vulnerable. Some mammals have highly restricted ranges within the ecoregion. Grandidier’s mongoose (Galidictis grandidieri) was described as recently as 1986 and has a restricted range around Lake Tsimanampetsotsa. Subfossils have been identified from a cave near Itampolo, south of Lake Tsimanampetsotsa.

Species of reptiles endemic to the ecoregion include the chameleons Furcifer belalandaensis and F. antimena. Further, the Madagascan spider tortoise (Pyxis arachnoides), and the Radiated tortoise (Geochelone radiata) are found in this ecoregion and the zone to the north, the succulent woodlands. The Madagascar ground boa (Acrantophis dumerilii) is found in this ecoregion, although not exclusively. Many more species are endemic to the ecoregion including the rock dwelling iguanids Oplurus saxicola and O. fihereniensis, the Day gecko (Phelsuma breviceps), nocturnal geckos Ebenavia maintimainty and Matoatoa brevipes, and the snake Liophidium chabaudi.

There are a number of amphibian taxa present within the ecoregion, the totality of which are: Ansouhy tomato frog (Dyscophus insularis); Betsileo Madagascar frog (Mantidactylus betsileanus); Brown rainfrog (Scaphiophryne brevis); Dumeril's bright-eyed frog (Boophis tephraeomystax); Madagascar bullfrog (Laliostoma labrosum); Mascarene grassland frog (Ptychadena mascareniensis); the Endangered Blue-legged mantella (Mantella expectata); and the Goudot's bright-eyed frog (Boophis goudotii).

There are eight bird species endemic to the ecoregion and an additional two bird taxa that live only on the western drier side of the island. Endemic species include Verreaux's coua (Coua verreauxi), running coua (Coua cursor), Lafresnaye’s vanga (Xenopirostris xenopirostris), red-shouldered vanga (Calicalicus rufocarpalis), Archibold’s newtonia (Newtonia archiboldi), and littoral rock-thrush (Monticola imerinus). Some of these endemics are quite restricted in their geographical range. For example, two endemic species are known only from a narrow coastal strip on the northwest edge of the ecoregion. They are subdesert mesite (Monias benschi) and long-tailed ground roller (Uratelornis chimaera). Each of these species belong to monospecific genera and are representatives of two of the five families endemic to Madagascar. Another, the recently described red-shouldered vanga, is known only from the Toliara region. The Madagascar plover (Charadrius thoracicus) is near-endemic to this ecoregion, but is also found along the west coast into the Succulent Woodlands and the Dry Deciduous Forest ecoregions, while the Thamnornis warbler (Thamnornis chloropetoides) extends only slightly outside this ecoregion into the Succulent Woodlands ecoregion.

The Red-shouldered vanga and Long-tailed ground roller are recorded as Vulnerable species on the recent IUCN Red List of Threatened species.

  • Ganzhorn, J.U., B. Rakotosamimanana, L. Hannah, J. Hough, L. Iyer, S. Olivieri, S. Rajaobelina, C. Rodstrom, G. Tilkin. 1997. Priorities for biodiversity conservation in Madagascar. Primate Report 48-1, Germany.
  • World Wildlife Fund and C.MIchael Hogan. 2015. Madagascar spiny thickets. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC
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Madagascar Dry Deciduous Forests Habitat

Boophis goudotii is found in the Madagascar dry deciduous forests ecoregion among other ecoregions in Madagascar. This ecoregion in western Madagascar represents some of the world’s most species rich and most distinctive tropical dry forests. They are characterized by very high local plant and animal endemism at the species, genera and family levels.This ecoregion also contains spectacular limestone karst formations, known as tsingy.

The climate of the Madagascar dry deciduous forests is tropical, with temperatures ranging from a mean maximum of 30° to 33°C and a mean minimum of 8° to 21°C. There is a wet and a dry season, with most of the rainfall from October to April. Precipitation declines from an annual average of around 1500 millimetres (mm) in the north to about 1000 mm in the south of the region.

The geology of the ecoregion is varied, being rather complex in some zones, and includes ancient Precambrian basement rocks, unconsolidated sands, and Tertiary and Mesozoic limestone. While most of the forest on the Tertiary limestone has been destroyed, the spectacular karsts of the Mesozoic limestone and the associated forest patches are more or less intact. The ecoregion is a mosaic of dry deciduous forest, degraded secondary forests and grasslands.

Some of the distinctive plants in the forests include the flamboyant tree, Delonix regia (family Leguminosae), and several species of baobabs (Adansonia, family Bombacaceae), including the Near Threatened Fony baobab (A. rubrostipa) and the Endangered Suarez baobab (A. suarezensis).

Endemic mammal species to the ecoregion include the Golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli), Mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz), Lowland western forest rat (Nesomys lambertoni), Golden-brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis), Northern rufous mouse lemur (M. tavaratra), Western rufous mouse lemur (M. myoxinus), Perrier's sifaka (Propithecus diadema perrieri), Milne-Edwards’s sportive lemur (Lepilemur edwardsi), and the Endangered big-footed mouse (Macrotarsomys ingens). Lemur species, particularly the Brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus), may be critical to the regeneration of the forests because they are some of the few and potentially most important seed dispersers in this diverse forest. The dry deciduous forests are one of the primary habitats for the island’s largest predator, the Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox), and some of the smaller endemic Carnivora.

The rivers and lakes of the Madagascar dry deciduous forests ecoregion are critically important habitats for the endemic and endangered Madagascar sideneck turtle (Erymnochelys madagascariensis). This species represents a significant "Gondwanaland relic", since its closest relatives are in the Podocnemis genus of in South America. The scrubland and bamboo forests of the ecoregion are the habitat of one of the most endangered reptiles in the world, the ploughshare tortoise (Geochelone yniphora). Other critical endemic reptiles of the ecoregion include the chameleons Brookesia bonsi and B. decaryi. At least three chameleon species are endemic to this ecoregion, including Furcifer tuzetae, F. rhinoceratus, and F. angeli. The dwarf chameleons Brookesia exarmata and B. perarmata are endemic to the Tsingy of Bemaraha. The colorful arboreal snake Lycodryas (Stenophis) citrinus is only recorded from Tsingy de Bemaraha and Namoroka region. Several geckos are endemic to this ecoregion including Paroedura maingoka, P. vazimba, P. tanjaka, Uroplatus geuntheri, and Lygodactylus klemmeri; the latter is only known from the Tsingy de Bemaraha. Futher, the region also holds several endemic skinks species including Mabuya tandrefana, Pygomeles braconnieri, and Androngo elongatus. Recently new species of plated lizard were described from the ecoregion – Zonosaurus bemaraha in the southern portion and Z. tsingy in the northern portion.

Notable amphibians in the ecoregion include the Near Threatened Ambohimitombo bright-eyed frog (Boophis majori); the Antsouhy tomato frog (Dyscophus insularis); the Betsileo golden frog (Mantella betsileo); Betsileo Madagascar frog (Mantidactylus betsileanus); the Betsileo reed frog (Heterixalus betsileo); the Central Madagascar frog (Mantidactylus opiparis); Forest Bright-eyed frog (Boophis erythrodactylus), who typically breeds in wide forest streams; Goudot's Bright-eyed frog (Boophis goudotii); Madagascar bullfrog (Laliostoma labrosum), a Madagascar endemic that is fossorial outside its breeding season; and the Marbled rainfrog (Scaphiophryne marmorata), who breeds in shallow temporary pools.

The ecoregion contains important habitats for 131 of the 186 resident terrestrial bird species listed for Madagascar. Several of these species are associated with lakes and rivers of the region, such as the Manambolo, Betsiboka, Mahajamba, and their satellite lakes. These species include Bernier’s teal (Anas bernieri), Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides), Humblot’s heron (Ardea humbloti) and the Sakalava rail (Amaurornis olivieri). These birds are dependent on wetlands and they are becoming increasingly isolated and restricted due to habitat fragmentation and conversion to rice paddy. Some of these species also use the fringes of the mangroves on the western coast of Madagascar. Several bird species are confined to the western forests, have limited or disjunct ranges, in some cases associated with habitat fragmentation including Van Dam’s vanga (Xenopirostris damii), and White-breasted mesite (Mesitornis variegata).

  • C.MIchael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund. 2015. Madagascar dry deciduous forests. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC
  • Lowry, P.P. II, G.E. Schatz, and P.B. Phillipson. 1997. The classification of natural and anthropogenic vegetation in Madagascar. pp. 93-123 in: S.M. Goodman and B. D.Patterson (eds.). Natural Change and Human Impact in Madagascar. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. ISBN: 1560986832
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It lives in both intact and degraded rainforest, and is occasionally observed in deforested agricultural areas, where some shade and cover remain. It breeds in streams, pools, puddles and rice fields. Knoll et al. (2007) collected larvae from "small and very shallow, slow-flowing streams".

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Vences, M. & Nussbaum, R.

Reviewer/s
Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S. & Cox, N.A.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a wide variety of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
It is very common at many sites.

Population Trend
Stable
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Habits: Along slow-moving streams in rainforest and in secondary and disturbed vegetation at mid-elevations, also occurring in swampy areas, ditches and at the edges of ricefields. Not observed in fully deforested areas. Males call during day and (mostly) night from positions on the ground, often from within small open cavities.

Calls: A long and fastly pulsed note.

Breeding takes place in streams, pools, puddles, and rice fields (Vences and Nussbaum 2008)

  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
  • Vences, M. and Nussbaum, R. (2008). Mantidactylus betsileanus. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 29 April 2009.
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Threats

Major Threats
Deforestation appears to be affecting some populations, but not others, presumably reflecting the fact that this is a complex of several species. However, as currently understood, this species is, in general, not significantly threatened.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

It occurs in many protected areas (Vences and Nussbaum 2008).

  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
  • Vences, M. and Nussbaum, R. (2008). Mantidactylus betsileanus. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 29 April 2009.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It occurs in many protected areas.
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Wikipedia

Mantidactylus betsileanus

Mantidactylus betsileanus is a species of frog in the Mantellidae family. It is endemic to Madagascar. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, rivers, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, arable land, rural gardens, heavily degraded former forest, and seasonally flooded agricultural land.

References[edit]

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