Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

The smallest known Mantella, M 19 mm, F 19-22 mm. Head and dorsum dark grey or brown, sometimes with a fine mid-dorsal line. Flanks black. No frenal stripe. Upper forelimb yellowish, upper hindlimb bright yellow, lower arms and legs brown. Upper part of iris with light pigment. Venter black with few large, irregular, blue markings. Throat with distinct horseshoe-marking. Ventral surface of legs orange.

Similar species: M. haraldmeieri is larger and has no horseshoe marking on the throat.

Taken with permission from Glaw and Vences (2007).

  • Cadle, J. and Raxworthy, C. (2008). Mantella bernhardi. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 22 April 2009.
  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
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Distribution

Range Description

Until recently, this species was known only from a single locality, (next to Tolongoina, south-east Madagascar) but recent fieldwork has extended its known range by the discovery of several new populations, all in south-eastern Madagascar, from Parc National de Ranomafana (at Mangevo) south to near Manambondro, at 60-629m asl (Rabemananjara et al. 2005; Andreone et al. 2006; Glaw and Vences 2007).
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Distribution and Habitat

Mangevo (Ranomafana), Manombo, near Tolongoina, Vevembe, and some additional unnamed localities. It occurs between 60-629m asl in degraded rainforest, including very tiny patches. It is not found in open areas or littoral forest on a sandy substrate (Cadle and Raxworthy 2008).

  • Cadle, J. and Raxworthy, C. (2008). Mantella bernhardi. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 22 April 2009.
  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It lives in rainforest, including in very tiny patches. It is now found only in degraded rainforest, probably because of severe habitat degradation within its range. It is not found in open areas, nor in littoral forest on a sandy substrate. It presumably breeds in swamps or small streams, with the eggs being laid on the ground near water.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B2ab(iii,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
John Cadle, Christopher Raxworthy

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered because its Area of Occupancy is probably less than 500km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and the extent of its forest habitat in east-central Madagascar is declining, and the number of mature individuals might also be declining through over-exploitation.
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Population

Population
It is locally abundant, but there is very limited suitable habitat within its range.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Habits: Known from several, often fragmented low-altitude rainforest areas, sometimes associated with swamps. Active during the day on the ground.

Calls: A short trill, different from other Mantella calls, and reminding a cricket. One single note that is a short trill consisting of 2-8 clicks. Click duration 11-19 ms, duration of intervals 8-15 ms. Frequency is between 4.8 and 5.7 kHz. Calls are repeated after irregular intervals. Eggs and tadpoles: Unknown.

  • Cadle, J. and Raxworthy, C. (2008). Mantella bernhardi. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 22 April 2009.
  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
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Threats

Major Threats
The area where the species occurs is being degraded rapidly due to subsistence agriculture, timber extraction, charcoaling, livestock grazing, fires, and expanding human settlements. It is also possible that over collecting for commercial and private purposes is a threat.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Endangered: area of occupancy is probably less than 500km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and the extent of its forest habitat in east-central Madagascar is declining, and the number of mature individuals might also be declining through over-exploitation. It is found in the Manombo Special Reserve and Parc National de Ranomafana. There is a need for trade in this species to be carefully regulated (Cadle and Raxworthy 2008).

  • Cadle, J. and Raxworthy, C. (2008). Mantella bernhardi. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 22 April 2009.
  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It is found in the Manombo Special Reserve and Parc National de Ranomafana. There is a need for trade in this species to be carefully regulated including the maintaining limited exportation quotas. Attention should be given to conservation of the two distinct population conservation units of this species (Andreone et al. 2006). It is listed on CITES Appendix II.
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Wikipedia

Bernhard's mantella

The Bernhard's Mantella (Mantella bernhardi) is a species of frog in the Mantellidae family. It is endemic to Madagascar. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, rivers, swamps, and heavily degraded former forest. It is threatened by habitat loss.

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