IUCN threat status:

Least Concern (LC)

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The Burmese horned toad, Brachytarsophrys carinense, also known by several other common names including Karin Hills frog, is a member of the family Megophryidae.  This family contains about 200 species in Southeast Asia and China, many of them cryptically colored to resemble dead leaves.  

Burmese horned toads are large: males grow to about 123mm and females to about 150mm in snout-vent length.  They live in evergreen forests, near flowing streams in which they breed and the larvae develop.  Males can be found calling from the streams (Rao and Yang 1997; Taylor 1962; IUCN 2014; Fei 1999 as cited in Wikipedia 2015). 

As of recently, B. carinense has been reinterpreted to include populations in tropical eastern Myanmar and northern, southern and western Thailand (Rao and Yang 1997; Ye and Fei 1992, cited in Frost 2016; IUCN 2014).  Rao and Yang (1997) determined by karyotype analysis, morphology, and habitat geography that Brachytarsophrys frogs in temperate China previously considered B. carinense are a distinct species, which they described as B. platyparietus (note, however that some resources do not reflect this split, e.g. Frost 2016).  Additionally, Rao and Yang (1997) and Stuart et al. (2008; cited in Frost 2016) indicate that B. intermedius, which inhabits the tropical Tay Nguyen plateau of south-central Viet Nam, may be a disjunct population of B. carinense, rather than its own species.

Brachytarsophrys carinense is anecdotally considered uncommon to rare in Myanmar and Thailand.  It has a long larval development so requires non-polluted streams, and it is sensitive to degradation of its forest.

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