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Distribution and Habitat
The Bolitoglossa subpalmata clade occurs in the mountains of Costa Rica and extreme western Panama. These salamanders inhabit humid cloud forests and paramo-like habitats, at moderate to high elevation (1500m). Four clades within the main clade have been defined by allozyme and mtDNA data, and two disjunct geographic units have been categorized. The northern geographic unit, which comprises the species B. subpalmata (sensu stricto), includes populations ranging from Volcan Cacao to Volcan Turrialba, in the Cordillera Guanacaste, Cordillera de Tilaran, Cordillera Central, and Cordillera de Aguacate. The second unit is found in the Cordillera Talamanca, and runs from Cerros de Escazu in Costa Rica to Chiriqui in western Panama (Wake and Lynch 1976; Garcia-Paris et al. 2008).