The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2000. database, Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad
  • 2004. database, Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2004. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004)
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2004. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004)
  • Brown, H. A. (1976). ''The status of California and Arizona populations of the Western Spadefoot Toads (genus Scaphiopus).'' Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, Contributions in Science, 286, 1-15.
  • Conant, R. and Collins, J. T. (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Frank T. Burbrink, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed. 2008. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, With Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding, Sixth Ed. Herpetological Circular No. 37
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Frank T. Burbrink, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed. 2008. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, With Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding, Sixth Ed. Herpetological Circular No. 37. 1-84
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Jonathan A. Campbell, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed. 2000. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Herpetological Circular, no. 29
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Jonathan A. Campbell, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed. 2000. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Herpetological Circular, no. 29. iv + 82
  • Degenhardt, W.G., Painter, C.W., and Price, A.H. (1996). Amphibians and Reptiles of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
  • Flores-Villela, Oscar / McCoy, C. J., ed. 1993. Herpetofauna Mexicana: Lista anotada de las especies de anfibios y reptiles de México, cambios taxonómicos recientes, y nuevas especies. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication, no. 17
  • Flores-Villela, Oscar / McCoy, C. J., ed. 1993. Herpetofauna Mexicana: Lista anotada de las especies de anfibios y reptiles de México, cambios taxonómicos recientes, y nuevas especies. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication, no. 17. iv + 73
  • Frost, Darrel R. 1997. Amphibian Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second edition
  • Frost, Darrel R. 1997. Amphibian Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second edition
  • Frost, Darrel R. 2009. database. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference v5.3
  • Holotype: Cope, E. D. 1863. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 15: 52.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Sattler, P.W. (1980). ''Genetic relationships among selected species of North American Scaphiopus.'' Copeia, 1980(4), 605-610.
  • Simovich, M. A. (1994). ''The dynamics of a spadefoot toad (Spea multiplicata and S. bombifrons) hybridization system.'' Herpetology of North American Deserts. P. R. Brown and J. W. Wright, eds., Special Publication No. 5, Southwestern Herpetologists Society, Los Angeles.
  • Smith, H. M. (1978). A Guide to Field Identification: Amphibians of North America. Golden Press, New York.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (1962). Amphibians of Western North America. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Syntype: Brocchi, M. P. 1879. Bulletin de la Société Philomathique de Paris, Series 7. 3: 23.
  • Tanner, W. W. (1989). ''Status of Spea stagnalis Cope (1875), Spea intermontanus Cope (1889), and a systematic review of Spea hammondii Baird (1839) (Amphibia: Anura).'' Great Basin Naturalist, 49, 503-510.

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