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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is known from humid premontane slopes of the Atlantic versant of the Cordillera de Talamanca in south-eastern Costa Rica and adjacent north-eastern Panama, from 1,051-2,040m asl (Savage 2002; Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007). It seems likley that the species is widespread in appropriate habitats along the Atlantic slopes in areas between Turriabla, Cartago, Costa Rica and Cerro Pata de Macho, Bocas del Toro, Panama (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007).
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Countries

Countries

Costa Rica, Panama

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Identification

Adult

Species description based on Savage (2002) and Vaughan and Mendelson (2007).  A small toad with a rather pointed nose. Males reach lengths of at least 23.4 mm, females to 37.4 mm.

Dorsal

Dorsal coloration ranges from gray to brown to orange with few distinct markings. The dorsal surface is covered in small, sometimes pointed warts. The pointed warts are concentrated along the lateral surface of the body and on the upper surfaces of the thighs. The paratoid glands are small and round. The head has very prominent craniel crests.

Extremities

The hands and feet are extensively webbed.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is a diurnal, species of deep forest (Savage 2002), that inhabits the deep leaf-litter of primary, or mature secondary forest with mature canopies, cloudforest or highland oak forest (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007). It is possible that this species undergoes direct development, however this requires further investigations (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat

Montane cloudforest or oak forest between 1051-2040 m.

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General Ecology

Ecology

Ecology

Crepidophryne epiotica lives underground or under deep leaf litter and only rarely comes to the surface (Savage 2002, Vaughan and Mendelson 2007). It is restricted to deep primary forest (Savage 2002, Vaughan and Mendelson 2007).

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Behaviour

Behavior and communication

Crepidophryne epiotica moves by walking slowly on all four limbs, or by taking small leaps (Vaughan and Mendelson 2007).

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Life Cycle

Life History

Egg

Many small pale-colored eggs were extracted from a preserved specimen (Trueb 1971).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Crepidophryne epiotica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Frank Solís, Roberto Ibáñez, Gerardo Chaves, Jay Savage, César Jaramillo, Querube Fuenmayor, Bruce Young, Brian Kubicki, Federico Bolaños

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern since, although its Extent of Occurrence is probably less than 5,000 km2, it occurs in an area of extensive, unfragmented, suitable habitat which is protected by several national parks and appears not to be under significant threat, it has a presumed large population, and it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
Vaughn and Mendelson (2007), mention that this is generally a rare toad with a few individuals being recorded along trails. However it is reported to be generally common in Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica, by other researchers (Gerado Chaves pers. comm. 2007). It has been collected only a few times. Small aggregations of between two end eight animals, a few metres apart, have been observed (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no known threats to this species; the Costa Rican part of the species range is almost all within well protected areas.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Although there are no specific conservation measures in place this species has been recorded from Parque Internacional La Amistad (Panama), and Parque Nacional Tapantí and Parque Nacional Rincón de la Vieja (Costa Rica).
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Wikipedia

Crepidophryne epiotica

Crepidophryne epiotica is a species of toad in the Bufonidae family. It is found in Costa Rica and Panama. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

Only few specimens of Crepidophryne epiotica have been observed or collected in Costa Rica and Panama's unaltered premontane forests. In Costa Rica this species is known as "sapo ratón" or "mouse toad". Crepidophryne seems to be diurnal and is found over dead leafs on the forest floor. Its coloration and shape makes it cryptic and unobservable unless it moves.

References

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