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Overview

Brief Summary

Caption

The eggs of Allobates talamancae are laid in the leaf litter and usually guarded by the male (Ibanez et al 1999). Once the tadpoles hatch, the male or female (depending on the population, Summers 2000), carries them to a small stream to continue development (Ibanez et al 1999, Summers 2000).
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Comprehensive Description

Description

Allobates talamancae is a small frog. Adult males grow to 24 mm while the females can reach 25 mm. The dorsum is shagreened, or covered with tiny, low, rounded tubercles. This frog has a head slightly longer than wide, with a snout that is truncated from above. The first finger is longer than the second. Webbing and expanded discs are lacking on the fingers and toes. Like all members of the frog families Aromobatidae and Dendrobatidae, a pair of shieldlike flaps is present on the top of each digit. Males lack a swollen third finger in this species (Savage 2002; Leenders 2001).

This frog has a chocolate-brown back and light-colored body. A dark band runs along each side of the body and head, and two white stripes run along the top and bottom of the dark band. Barring is present on the thighs and calves.Allobates talamancae is sexually dimorphic in coloration: males have black throats and chests, while the throat and venter are white, cream, or yellow in females. (Savage 2002; Leenders 2001).

The larvae of A. talamancae are relatively small, growing to 12 mm in length. The tails are long with low fins and bluntly pointed tail tips. In this species, the oral disc is small and emarginate, with beaks and 2/3 denticle rows present. There is a broad gap in the A2 row of denticles above the mouth, and the row of marginal papillae above the mouth is also interrupted. Tadpoles are dark brown on the dorsal side, slightly lighter on the underside, and light brown on the tail. The tail fins and musculature bear dark blotches. (Savage 2002).

The karyotype is 2n=24 (Bogart, 1991).

A Spanish-language species account can be found at the website of Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio).

  • Bogart, J. P. (1991). ''The influence of life history on karyotypic evolution in frogs.'' Amphibian Cytogenetics and Evolution. D.M. Green and S.K. Sessions, eds., Academic Press, San Diego, 233-258.
  • Leenders, T. (2001). A Guide to Amphibians And Reptiles of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical, Miami.
  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species ranges from the Reserva Indio-Maíz and Rio San Juan in Nicaragua, through northeastern and southwestern Costa Rica, throughout much of central and eastern Panama (including several islands in Bocas del Toro), to the Pacific lowlands of Colombia to northern Ecuador. It occurs below 800m.
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Distribution and Habitat

The Striped Rocket Frog is found in southern Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador (Leenders 2001). It inhabits lowland moist and wet forests and is also found marginally into the premontane wet forest and rainforest belt (Leenders 2001). It occurs at elevations up to 703 m in Costa Rica and 820 m in Colombia (Savage 2002). Although this frog prefers to live near montane, fast-flowing streams, it has also been found away from streams (Leenders 2001).

  • Bogart, J. P. (1991). ''The influence of life history on karyotypic evolution in frogs.'' Amphibian Cytogenetics and Evolution. D.M. Green and S.K. Sessions, eds., Academic Press, San Diego, 233-258.
  • Leenders, T. (2001). A Guide to Amphibians And Reptiles of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical, Miami.
  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
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Countries

Countries

Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Panama

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Identification

Adult

Species description based on Ibanez et al (1999) and Savage (2002).  Very small. Males 17-24 mm, females 16-25 mm.

Dorsal

Skin smooth. Dorsal surface dark brown; the limbs are a lighter shade of brown.

Distinguishing characteristics

Flank black, bordered by tan or bronze line above (running from the eye to the rear end) and a white line below (running from the lip to the groin). Some additional white lines or spots may be present below the primary white line.

Eye

Iris bronze.

Extremities

Hands and feet without webs.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A terrestrial and diurnal leaf-litter species of very humid lowland and premontane areas, where annual mean precipitation is 2,000-4,000mm and annual mean temperature is 18-24 C. It can be found in secondary growth and plantations, swampy areas in primary forest, but not in open areas. It is usually close to streams. The eggs are laid in the leaf-litter, and both sexes carry the tadpoles to streams to complete metamorphosis in small, water-filled depressions.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Habitat

Humid lowland and premontane forest [from sea level] to 800 m.

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Trophic Strategy

Diet

Diet

Allobates talamancae feeds on invertebrates, including ants (Toft 1981).

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Behaviour

Call

A somewhat high-pitched "chip-chip, chip-chip" repeated a variable number of times (Ibanez et al 1999). A detailed description of the call may be found in Edwards (1974).

Behavior and communication

This species is diurnal, and can be found in the leaf litter on the forest floor (Ibanez et al 1999). Both males and females are territorial (Ibanez et al 1999).

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Life Cycle

Life History

Breeding season

Breeds throughout the rainy season, and longer in wetter areas (Savage 2002). Males call during the day, mostly in the early morning or late afternoon, or after rainshowers (Savage 2002). This species avoids breeding in open pastures (Hawley 2008).

Tadpole

The tadpole is dark brown dorsally and slightly lighter ventrally, with a medium to dark brown, heavily pigmented tail (Savage 2002). Mouth contains a beak, with 2 teeth rows above and 3 below.

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Physiology and Cell Biology

Physiology

Physiology

Although A. talamancae eats ants, it does not seem to accumulate alkaloids in its skin the way some other dendrobatids do (Darst et al 2005, Darst 2006). Thus, this species is non-toxic (Darst et al 2005, Darst 2006, Summers and Clough 2001).

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Cell Biology

Karyotype

Karyotype

2N = 24 (Bogart 1991)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Allobates talamancae

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 5 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTCCC------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TGGCTT---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GGTATTATCTCTCACGTAGTAACCTACTACTCTAGCAAAAAA---GAACCTTTTGGGTACATAGGCATAGTCTGAGCTATAATATCCATTGGCCTCCTTGGTTTTATTGTTTGAGCCCACCACATATTCACCACTGACCTAAATGTAGATACTCGAGCCTATTTTACCTCAGCTACTATAATCATCGCTATCCCTACCGGAGTAAAAGTTTTCAGCTGATTA---GCAACAATGCACGGAGGA---GTAATTAAATGAGATGCTGCTATGCTCTGAGCCCTGGGATTCATCTTTTTGTTCACAGTTGGAGGCCTAACCGGCATTGTTCTCGCTAACTCCTCTCTAGATATTGTCCTTCATGACACATATTATGTTGTTGCTCATTTCCACTATGTT---CTATCCATGGGAGCTGTATTTGCTATTATAGCGGGATTTGTTCACTGATTTCCTCTTTTTTCTGGATATACTCTTCATGAAACTTGAACCAAAATCCATTTTGGGGTGATATTCGCAGG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Allobates talamancae

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 53
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Coloma, L.A., Ron, S.R., Grant, T., Morales, M., Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Jaramillo, C., Fuenmayor, Q. & Bolaños, F.

Reviewer/s
Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Young, B.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
It is a common species.

Population Trend
Stable
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

This frog is diurnal (Savage 2002). It is active throughout the year, more so in rainy months (Savage 2002). When startled, it launches headfirst into the water, thus illustrating its common name of the Striped Rocket Frog.

Male Striped Rocket Frogs make a rapid, high pitched trill, with a pause before the fourth beat: peet-peet-peet-peet (Leenders 2001). The series is repeated eight to twenty times (Savage 2002), at 10-20 second intervals (Leenders 2001). The males call during the day from the forest floor (Savage 2002). They prefer to call during periods of low light, usually while sitting on the leaf litter (Savage 2002). However, it is the female in this species who is territorial and actively defends the territory (Leenders 2001).

Allobates talamancae displays parental behavior similar to that of frogs in the genus Phyllobates (Leenders 2001). Mating takes place in the leaf litter (Savage 2002). Females deposit their eggs in moist leaf litter, where early development occurs (Savage 2002). Tadpoles are transported to water on the back of either parent, in clutch groups of 8-29 tadpoles (Savage 2002).

The adult diet consists of a variety of small arthropods, including ants (Savage 2002).

  • Bogart, J. P. (1991). ''The influence of life history on karyotypic evolution in frogs.'' Amphibian Cytogenetics and Evolution. D.M. Green and S.K. Sessions, eds., Academic Press, San Diego, 233-258.
  • Leenders, T. (2001). A Guide to Amphibians And Reptiles of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical, Miami.
  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
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Threats

Major Threats
The major threats are deforestation for agricultural development, illegal crops, logging, and human settlement, the introduction of alien predatory fish in streams, and pollution resulting from the spraying of illegal crops.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

This frog is common (Savage 2002).

  • Bogart, J. P. (1991). ''The influence of life history on karyotypic evolution in frogs.'' Amphibian Cytogenetics and Evolution. D.M. Green and S.K. Sessions, eds., Academic Press, San Diego, 233-258.
  • Leenders, T. (2001). A Guide to Amphibians And Reptiles of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical, Miami.
  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In Ecuador, its geographic range overlaps with the Reserva Ecológica Cayapas-Mataje and the Reserva Ecológica Cotacachi-Cayapas. It occurs in many protected areas in Colombia and in Central America.
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Wikipedia

Colostethus talamancae

Allobates talamancae (common names: Talamanca rocket frog,[2] Talamanca striped rocket frog[3]) is a species of frog in the Aromobatidae family. It is found in northwestern Ecuador, western Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica, and southern Nicaragua.[2] It can be found in a variety of habitats in very humid lowland and premontane habitats (secondary growth and plantations, swampy areas in primary forest, but not in open areas), usually close to streams. It is common species; threats to it are habitat loss, introduction of alien predatory fish, and pollution.[1]

Description[edit]

Allobates talamancae is a small, non-toxic frog, with males measuring 17–24 mm (0.67–0.94 in) in snout–vent length and females 16–24 mm (0.63–0.94 in). Its diet consists of small arthropods.[3]

Adult frogs are found to aggregate, forming small groups, likely as an anti-predator adaptation.[3]

Reproduction[edit]

Allobates talamancae lay the eggs in the leaf-litter, and both parents carry the tadpoles to streams where they complete their development in small, water-filled depressions.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Coloma, L.A., Ron, S.R., Grant, T., Morales, M., Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Jaramillo, C., Fuenmayor, Q. & Bolaños, F. (2008). "Allobates talamancae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Allobates talamancae (Cope, 1875)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c Hopkins, G.; Lahanas, P. (2011). "Aggregation behaviour in a neotropical dendrobatid frog (Allobates talamancae) in western Panama". Behaviour 148 (3): 359–372. doi:10.1163/000579511X559607.  edit
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