Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: This species is known from the Big Bend region of Texas and southward in extreme southern Coahuila, central Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi and Guanajuato, Mexico. M. J. Forstner (in Dixon 2000) suspects that Eleutherodactylus guttilatus from the Big Bend region of western Texas may actually be a variant of E. marnockii.

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Range Description

This species is known from the Big Bend region of Texas, USA, and southward in extreme southern Coahuila, central Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Guanajuato and Querétaro, Mexico. Its altitudinal range is from 600-2,000m asl.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 3 cm

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Type Information

Holotype for Eleutherodactylus guttilatus
Catalog Number: USNM 9888
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Guanajuato, Mexico
  • Holotype: Cope, E. D. 1879. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 18: 264.
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Holotype for Eleutherodactylus guttilatus
Catalog Number: USNM 108594
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Galeana, 15 mi W of, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
  • Holotype: Taylor, E. H. 1940. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 89: 43, plate 1.
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Ecology

Habitat

Chihuahuan Desert Habitat

This taxon is found in the Chihuahuan Desert, which is one of the most biologically diverse arid regions on Earth. This ecoregion extends from within the United States south into Mexico. This desert is sheltered from the influence of other arid regions such as the Sonoran Desert by the large mountain ranges of the Sierra Madres. This isolation has allowed the evolution of many endemic species; most notable is the high number of endemic plants; in fact, there are a total of 653 vertebrate taxa recorded in the Chihuahuan Desert.  Moreover, this ecoregion also sustains some of the last extant populations of Mexican Prairie Dog, wild American Bison and Pronghorn Antelope.

The dominant plant species throughout the Chihuahuan Desert is Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata). Depending on diverse factors such as type of soil, altitude, and degree of slope, L. tridentata can occur in association with other species. More generally, an association between L. tridentata, American Tarbush (Flourensia cernua) and Viscid Acacia (Acacia neovernicosa) dominates the northernmost portion of the Chihuahuan Desert. The meridional portion is abundant in Yucca and Opuntia, and the southernmost portion is inhabited by Mexican Fire-barrel Cactus (Ferocactus pilosus) and Mojave Mound Cactus (Echinocereus polyacanthus). Herbaceous elements such as Gypsum Grama (Chondrosum ramosa), Blue Grama (Bouteloua gracilis) and Hairy Grama (Chondrosum hirsuta), among others, become dominant near the Sierra Madre Occidental. In western Coahuila State, Lecheguilla Agave (Agave lechuguilla), Honey Mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), Purple Prickly-pear (Opuntia macrocentra) and Rainbow Cactus (Echinocereus pectinatus) are the dominant vascular plants.

Because of its recent origin, few warm-blooded vertebrates are restricted to the Chihuahuan Desert scrub. However, the Chihuahuan Desert supports a large number of wide-ranging mammals, such as the Pronghorn Antelope (Antilocapra americana), Robust Cottontail (Sylvilagus robustus EN); Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Grey Fox (Unocyon cineroargentinus), Jaguar (Panthera onca), Collared Peccary or Javelina (Pecari tajacu), Desert Cottontail (Sylvilagus auduboni), Black-tailed Jackrabbit (Lepus californicus), Kangaroo Rats (Dipodomys sp.), pocket mice (Perognathus spp.), Woodrats (Neotoma spp.) and Deer Mice (Peromyscus spp). With only 24 individuals recorded in the state of Chihuahua Antilocapra americana is one of the most highly endangered taxa that inhabits this desert. The ecoregion also contains a small wild population of the highly endangered American Bison (Bison bison) and scattered populations of the highly endangered Mexican Prairie Dog (Cynomys mexicanus), as well as the Black-tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

The Chihuahuan Desert herpetofauna typifies this ecoregion.Several lizard species are centered in the Chihuahuan Desert, and include the Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum); Texas Banded Gecko (Coleonyx brevis), often found under rocks in limestone foothills; Reticulate Gecko (C. reticulatus); Greater Earless Lizard (Cophosaurus texanus); several species of spiny lizards (Scelopoprus spp.); and the Western Marbled Whiptail (Cnemidophorus tigris marmoratus). Two other whiptails, the New Mexico Whiptail (C. neomexicanus) and the Common Checkered Whiptail (C. tesselatus) occur as all-female parthenogenic clone populations in select disturbed habitats.

Representative snakes include the Trans-Pecos Rat Snake (Bogertophis subocularis), Texas Blackhead Snake (Tantilla atriceps), and Sr (Masticophis taeniatus) and Neotropical Whipsnake (M. flagellum lineatus). Endemic turtles include the Bolsón Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus), Coahuilan Box Turtle (Terrapene coahuila) and several species of softshell turtles. Some reptiles and amphibians restricted to the Madrean sky island habitats include the Ridgenose Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi), Twin-spotted Rattlesnake (C. pricei), Northern Cat-eyed Snake (Leptodeira septentrionalis), Yarrow’s Spiny Lizard (Sceloporus jarrovii), and Canyon Spotted Whiptail (Cnemidophorus burti).

There are thirty anuran species occurring in the Chihuahuan Desert: Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Rana chircahuaensis); Red Spotted Toad (Anaxyrus punctatus); American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus); Canyon Treefrog (Hyla arenicolor); Northern Cricket Frog (Acris crepitans); Rio Grande Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus cystignathoides); Cliff Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus marnockii); Spotted Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus guttilatus); Tarahumara Barking Frog (Craugastor tarahumaraensis); Mexican Treefrog (Smilisca baudinii); Madrean Treefrog (Hyla eximia); Montezuma Leopard Frog (Lithobates montezumae); Brown's Leopard Frog (Lithobates brownorum); Yavapai Leopard Frog (Lithobates yavapaiensis); Western Barking Frog (Craugastor augusti); Mexican Cascade Frog (Lithobates pustulosus); Lowland Burrowing Frog (Smilisca fodiens); New Mexico Spadefoot (Spea multiplicata); Plains Spadefoot (Spea bombifrons); Pine Toad (Incilius occidentalis); Woodhouse's Toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii); Couch's Spadefoot Toad (Scaphiopus couchii); Plateau Toad (Anaxyrus compactilis); Texas Toad (Anaxyrus speciosus); Dwarf Toad (Incilius canaliferus); Great Plains Narrowmouth Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea); Great Plains Toad (Anaxyrus cognatus); Eastern Green Toad (Anaxyrus debilis); Gulf Coast Toad (Incilius valliceps); and Longfoot Chirping Toad (Eleutherodactylus longipes VU). The sole salamander occurring in the Chihuahuan Desert is the Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum).

Common bird species include the Greater Roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus), Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia), Merlin (Falco columbarius), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), and the rare Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus). Geococcyx californianus), Curve-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostra), Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata), Scott’s Oriole (Icterus parisorum), Black-throated Sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata), Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens), Worthen’s Sparrow (Spizella wortheni), and Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). In addition, numerous raptors inhabit the Chihuahuan Desert and include the Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) and the Elf Owl (Micrathene whitneyi).

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Comments: This species occurs in areas of pine and oak forests at elevations of 600-2,000 m. It has been found in springs, canyons, caves, and ravines. It hides under rocks and leaf litter when inactive and sometimes burrows. It is direct developing and lays eggs in moist, sheltered spots on land.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs in areas of pine and oak forests. It has been found in springs, canyons, caves, and ravines. It hides under rocks and leaf-litter when inactive and sometimes burrows. It breeds by direct development and lays eggs in moist, sheltered spots on land.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Eats insects, spiders, and small crustaceans.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Active in evening and at night, and diurnally during cool wet weather.

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Reproduction

Lays clutch of fewer than 15 eggs in late winter or spring. Larval stage is passed in egg.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Georgina Santos-Barrera, Luis Canseco-Márquez, Geoffrey Hammerson

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
This is not a rare species, although its area of occupancy within its overall range is probably quite small.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Comments: Urban sprawl and the transformation of original forests in some localities along its range threaten some populations of this species.

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Major Threats
Urban sprawl and the transformation of original forests in some localities along its range threaten some populations of this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species has never been recorded in a Biosphere reserve or any other protected area. A survey to evaluate the present status of this species in the field is required.
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Wikipedia

Eleutherodactylus guttilatus

The Spotted Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus guttilatus) is a species of small Leptodactylid frog native to the United States and Mexico. They are found in moderate elevation ranges of the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range, from the Davis Mountains in west Texas south to the Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Durango and Guanajuato. They are sometimes referred to as the Mexican Cliff Frog. They grow from 0.75 to 1.25 inches in length, and are easily mistaken for other Eleutherodactylus species, with which they share range. This has led to some confusion in its taxonomic classification.

Sources

  • Jung, Robin E.; Bonine, Kevin E.; Rosenshield, Michèle L.; de la Reza, Andre; Raimondo, Sandra; Droege, Sam (2002). "Evaluation of Canoe Surveys for Anurans along the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas". Journal of Herpetology 36 (3): 390–397. doi:10.1670/0022-1511(2002)036[0390:EOCSFA]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0022-1511. 
  • Espino del Castillo, Adriana; Paredes-León, Ricardo; Morales-Malacara, Juan B. (2011). "Presence of intradermal chigger miteHannemania hylae(Ewing, 1925) (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) in the troglophile frogEleutherodactylus longipes(Anura: Brachycephalidae) at Los Riscos Cave, Querétaro, Mexico". International Journal of Acarology 37 (5): 427–440. doi:10.1080/01647954.2010.525522. ISSN 0164-7954. 
  • Chad Arment (2004). Herper's Life List: A Field Checklist for the Native and Introduced Herpetofauna of the Continental United States and Canada. Coachwhip Publications. ISBN 1-930585-18-7. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: The taxonomic status of Eleutherodactylus in the Big Bend region of western Texas needs further study (see Dixon 2000).

This species formerly was included in the genus SYRRHOPHUS, which was treated as a subgenus of the genus ELEUTHERODACTYLUS by Hedges (1989). Joglar (1989) questioned the separation of the genera SYRRHOPHUS and TOMODACTYLUS.

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