Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Adults are 37 to 83 mm in length, and females are larger. Prominent dorsolateral folds extend from the bead to near the vent. The lateral edge of each fold is darker than the medial edge. The smooth to moderately rough back often has short folds between the dorsolateral folds. Toes are webbed, with tow or three phalanges of the fourth toe free of the web. Dorsal coloring may be gray to tan to vivid reddish brown , and is coppery or golden in some individuals. Females are usually more reddish. Black or dark brown markings may be present on the back and sides, and many northern and western specimens have a middorsal white line. A conspicuous dark brown or blackish mask extends from the snout to just behind the tympanum. The white venter is sometimes darkly mottled on the throat and breast, and is smooth except for a granular region under the thighs. There also is a prominint dark marking in the pectoral region. The tympanum is smaller than the eye. Males have paired vocal sacs, stout forelegs, and a "thumb" and enlarged webbing between the toes during the breeding season.

  • Martof, B. S. (1963). ''Rana sylvatica (Le Conte). Wood Frog.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 86.1-86.4.
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from northern Alaska across boreal Canada to Labrador (Chubbs and Phillips 1998), and south to New Jersey, northern Georgia, and northern Idaho; spotty distribution south to northern Colorado in Rocky Mountains (Hammerson 1999); disjunct populations also occur in Arkansas-Missouri (Stebbins 1985, Conant and Collins 1991). Range extends farther north than that of any other North American amphibian.

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Range Description

This species occurs in northern North America from Alaska to Labrador (Chubbs and Phillips 1998), south to New Jersey, northern Georgia, and northern Idaho; spotty distribution south to northern Colorado in Rocky Mountains; also disjunctive populations in Arkansas-Missouri (Stebbins 1985, Conant and Collins 1991). Ranges farther north than any other North American amphibian.
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Geographic Range

Wood frogs are native to North America and live only in the United States and Canada. They are the most widespread North American amphibian and are the only frogs found north of the Arctic Circle. Specifically, wood frogs are found from Alaska in the west to Labrador, Canada in the east. They also inhabit the northern Mid-west and northeast regions of the United States and range from North Dakota in the west to Maine in the east, and south to northern Georgia and Tennessee.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

  • Conant, R., J. Collins. 1998. Reptiles and Amphibians. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Distribution and Habitat

R. sylvatica is the only cold-blooded tetrapod known to occur north of the Artic Circle in the Western Hemisphere. It is found over most of Alaska and Canada and over the northeastern part of the United States. Its northern limit lies along the treeline from Alaska to Labrador. Its range extends southward coastally to Maryland and in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia and northeastern Tennessee. The southern edge of the range passes northward through southern Illinois and the norteastern corner of South Dakota, the noreastern half of North Dakota, northern Idoah and westward in Canada to near the Pacific coast. Isolated populations are found in souteastern Wyoming and northern Colorado, in eastern Kansas, in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas and Missouri, and perhaps in areas north of the Artic tree line.
It is a terrestrial species, often found in or near moist wooded areas, sometimes considerable distances from open water.

  • Martof, B. S. (1963). ''Rana sylvatica (Le Conte). Wood Frog.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 86.1-86.4.
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Geographic Range

Wood frogs, Lithobates sylvaticus, are only native to the Nearctic region. They are found from northern Georgia and in isolated colonies in the central highlands in the eastern to central parts of Alabama, up through the northeastern United States, and all the way across Canada into Alaska. They are found farther north than any other North American reptile or amphibian. They are the only frogs found north of the Arctic Circle.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

  • Conant, R., J. Collins. 1998. Reptiles and Amphibians. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Wood frogs range from 3.5 to 7.6 cm. They exhibit a number of different skin colors, usually browns, tans, and rust, but they can also be found in shades of green and gray. They can be distinguished by a black "robber's mask" that extends over the tympanum (outer ear) to the base of the front leg. They also feature a white line outlining their upper lips. Most wood frogs have a light yellowish-brown fold around their sides and mid-back. They have two back ridges on either side that extend from behind the eye, down the side of the back, and to the legs. The underparts are white becoming pale orange-yellow towards the rear, with male frogs having more bright colors on their thighs. Males have two vocal sacs for calling. Females are much larger than males.

Range length: 3.5 to 7.6 cm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: female larger; male more colorful

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Physical Description

Wood frogs range from 3.5 to 7.6 cm. Females are much larger than males. This species exhibits a number of color morphs, usually browns, tans and rust, but can also be found in shades of green and gray. In all cases however, they can be distinguished by a black patch that extends over the tympanum to the base of the front limb. It is this characteristic that causes them to be referred to as the frog with the "robber's mask". They are also known to have a white spot on the upper lip. Most specimens have a light yellowish brown middorsal lateral fold. The underparts of the frogs are yellowish and sometimes greenish-white, with male frogs having more brilliant colors on the ventral aspect of the legs.

Range length: 3.5 to 7.6 cm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: female larger; male more colorful

Average mass: 7.88 g.

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.00416 W.

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Size

Length: 8 cm

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Type Information

Holotype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 134417
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: Male;
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1953
Locality: Murphy, Cherokee, North Carolina, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 462 to 462
  • Holotype: Witschi, E. 1953. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science. 60: 764, Figures 1-4.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 134418
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: Female;
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1953
Locality: Murphy, Cherokee, North Carolina, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 462 to 462
  • Paratype: Witschi, E. 1953. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science. 60: 764, Figures 1-4.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 13723
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1883
Locality: Lake Alloknagik (= Lake Aleknagik), Dillingham, Alaska, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1886. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23: 520.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 13726
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1883
Locality: Lake Alloknagik (= Lake Aleknagik), Dillingham, Alaska, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1886. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23: 520.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 13725
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1883
Locality: Lake Alloknagik (= Lake Aleknagik), Dillingham, Alaska, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1886. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23: 520.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 13724
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1883
Locality: Lake Alloknagik (= Lake Aleknagik), Dillingham, Alaska, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1886. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23: 520.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 5366
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Moose River, Ontario, Canada, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1889. United States National Museum Bulletin. (34): 437.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 5922
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Moose Factory, Canada, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1889. United States National Museum Bulletin. (34): 437.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 5365
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Moose River, Ontario, Canada, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1889. United States National Museum Bulletin. (34): 437.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 14495
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Nulato River, Yukon-Koyukuk, Alaska, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1889. United States National Museum Bulletin. (34): 437.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 9385
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Saint Catherine's, Ontario, Canada, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1889. United States National Museum Bulletin. (34): 437.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 6505
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Great Slave Lake, Big Island, Mackenzie District, Northwest Territories, Canada, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1889. United States National Museum Bulletin. (34): 437.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 5169
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1841
Locality: Puget Sound, Locality In Multiple Counties, Washington, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1889. United States National Museum Bulletin. (34): 437.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 5364
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Methy River (= Methy Lake ?), Saskatchewan, Canada, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1889. United States National Museum Bulletin. (34): 437.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 13727
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1883
Locality: Lake Alloknagik (= Lake Aleknagik), Dillingham, Alaska, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1889. United States National Museum Bulletin. (34): 437.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 76415
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Moose River, Ontario, Canada, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1889. United States National Museum Bulletin. (34): 437.
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Syntype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 5929
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: No Further Locality Data, Canada, North America
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1889. United States National Museum Bulletin. (34): 437.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521863
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1968
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521862
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1968
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521861
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1968
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521860
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1968
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 166779
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1968
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521823
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521824
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521825
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521826
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521827
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 166778
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521838
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521839
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521840
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 166777
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521842
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521843
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521828
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521829
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521830
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521841
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521814
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521844
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521845
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521846
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521847
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521848
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521849
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521850
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521851
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521852
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521853
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521813
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521812
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521811
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521810
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521809
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521808
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521807
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521806
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521805
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521804
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521803
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521802
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 166441
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1962
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 166440
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1962
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 166439
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1962
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 166438
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1962
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 166437
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1962
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 166436
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1962
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Holotype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 166435
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1968
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Holotype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521831
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521854
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521855
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521856
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521857
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521832
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521833
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521834
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521835
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521836
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521837
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521858
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521859
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Fox Park, 0.25 mi N of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521815
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521816
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521817
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521818
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521819
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521820
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521821
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Paratype for Lithobates sylvaticus
Catalog Number: USNM 521822
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1965
Locality: Centennial, 8 mi NW of, Albany, Wyoming, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 2743 to 2743
  • Paratype: Porter, K. R. 1969. Herpetologica. 25 (3): 213.; Bagdonas, K. R. & Pettus, D. 1976. Genetic compatibility in wood frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae). Journal of Herpetology. 10 (2): 105-112.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Wood frogs inhabit various kinds of wooded habitats, including the edges of ponds and streams and willow thickets and grass/willow/aspen associations. In winter or when otherwise inactive, they hide in logs, humus, leaf litter, or under logs and rocks. In winter upland habitat in eastern Massachusetts, adult males greatly outnumbered adult females in areas close to (within 65 meters of) breeding pools; two wintering areas were not used during the summer active period (Regosin et al. 2003).

Eggs are laid and larvae develop usually in vernal pools and other small fish-free ponds, temporary or permanent, in wooded (usually) or open areas. In the Shenandoah Mountains, breeding adults were 100% faithful to the ponds in which they first bred; approximately 18% of the juveniles dispersed to breed in ponds other than the one of origin (Berven and Grudzien 1991). Experiments and field observations by Hopey and Petranka (1994) indicate that adults are able to assess the presence of fishes in ponds and may change breeding sites accordingly to avoid those with predatory fishes. In northern Minnesota, successful reproduction in acidic bog water either does not occur or is a rare event (Karns 1992).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It occurs in various kinds of forest/woodland habitats; edges of ponds and streams; also willow thickets and grass/willow/aspen associations. When inactive, hides in logs, humus, leaf-litter, or under logs and rocks. Eggs are laid and larvae develop usually in small fish-free ponds, temporary or permanent, in wooded (usually) or open areas. In the Shenandoah Mountains, breeding adults were 100% faithful to the ponds in which they first bred; approximately 18% of the juveniles dispersed to breed in ponds other than the one of origin (Berven and Grudzien 1991). Experiments and field observations by Hopey and Petranka (1994) indicate that adults are able to assess the presence of fishes in ponds and may change breeding sites accordingly to avoid those with predatory fishes. In northern Minnesota, successful reproduction in acidic bog water either does not occur or is a rare event (Karns 1992).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Wood frogs are common in woodlands across their range. They can be found in a variety of habitats including tundra, thickets, wet meadows, bogs, and coniferous or deciduous forests. Wood frogs are aquatic breeders and require fish-free seasonal bodies of water to reproduce such as ponds, woodland pools, or water-filled ditches. When not breeding, wood frogs may migrate away from water and live under logs, fallen branches, or leaves. These frogs hibernate in winter and will hide under logs or leaves to survive the cold months.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; polar ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: tundra ; savanna or grassland ; forest

Aquatic Biomes: temporary pools

  • Redmer, M., S. Trauth. 2005. Amphibian Declines. London, England: University of California Press, Ltd.
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Wood frogs are common in woodlands across their range. They are most commonly found in woodlands in the summer, under stones, stumps and leaf litter in the winter, and wood ponds in the breeding season.

Habitat Regions: terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Migrates up to several hundred meters between breeding ponds and nonbreeding terrestrial habitats. In Maine, adult and juvenile R. sylvatica readily traveled in excess of 300 m from their pools of origin (Vasconcelos and Calhoun 2004). Bellis (1965) determined that adult and juvenile R. sylvatica in a peat bog had traveled at least 410 m from the nearest breeding pool. Berven and Grudzien (1990) found that dispersing R. sylvatica juveniles traveled an average of 1,208 m from their natal pools.

Usually remains in an area <100 m across after leaving the breeding pond.

In the Shenandoah Mountains, dispersal data indicated than ponds separated by a distance greater than 1000 m should experience little gene flow (Berven and Grudzien 1991). In Minnesota, populations were very similar in allelic frequencies, even at distances greater than several kilometers (Squire and Newman 2002). However, sample sizes and number of loci examined were small, and genetic patterns do not necessarily reflect movement distances.

See Mazerolle (2001) for information on movement patterns in fragmented peat bogs in New Brunswick.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Metamorphosed frogs eat various small invertebrates, mostly terrestrial forms. Larvae eat algae, plant tissue, organic debris, and minute organisms in water; capable of eating amphibian eggs and hatchlings and invertebrates as well (Petranka et al., Copeia 1994:691-697; Petranka and Kennedy 1999; Baldwin and Calhoun, 2002, Herpetol. Rev. 33:44-45).

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Food Habits

Adult wood frogs eat a variety of terrestrial insects and other small invertebrates, especially spiders (Order Araneae), beetles (Order Coleoptera), moth larvae (Order lepidoptera), slugs (Order Stylommatophora) and snails (Order Stylommatophora). Wood frog larvae consume algae, decaying plant and animal matter, and eggs or larvae of other amphibians.

Animal Foods: eggs; carrion ; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; mollusks; terrestrial worms

Plant Foods: algae

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Food Habits

Wood frogs eat a variety of insects and other small invertebrates, especially spiders, beetles, bugs, moth larvae, slugs and snails. Larvae consume algae.

Animal Foods: insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; mollusks; terrestrial worms

Plant Foods: algae

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats non-insect arthropods); herbivore (Algivore)

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Associations

Ecosystem Roles

Wood frogs have many predators and thus provide food for many animals in an ecosystem. They also feed on many terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and therefore control insect populations.

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Predation

Adult wood frogs have many predators including larger frogs, garter snakes, ribbon snakes, water snakes, herons, raccoons, skunks, and mink. Tadpoles are preyed upon by diving beetles, water bugs, and Ambystoma salamander larvae. Leeches, eastern newts, and aquatic insects may eat wood frog eggs.

Wood frogs have developed several anti-predator mechanisms. Older tadpoles develop poison glands that repel many predators. Adult wood frogs have noxious skin secretions but they are only effective in deterring shrews. These frogs rely on their cryptic coloration to camouflage into the forest floor and escape predators. If captured, wood frogs may emit a piercing cry that may startle the attacker enough to release the frog.

Known Predators:

  • Garter snakes (genus Thamnophis)
  • Ribbon snakes (Thamnophis_sauritus)
  • Northern water snakes (Nerodia_sipedon)
  • Herons (Ardeidae family)
  • Raccoons (Procyon_lotor)
  • Skunks (Mephitidae family)
  • American mink (Neovison_vison)
  • Diving beetles
  • Water bugs
  • Salamander larvae (genus Ambystoma)
  • Leeches
  • Eastern newts (Notophthalmus_viridescens)

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

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Ecosystem Roles

Wood frogs provide important food for many animals as well as helping to control insect populations.

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Predation

Wood frogs are food for a wide variety of birds, such as herons, and snakes.

Known Predators:

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Known prey organisms

Rana sylvatica preys on:
detritus

Based on studies in:
USA: Michigan (Lake or pond)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • H. M. Wilbur, Competition, predation, and the structure of the Ambystoma-Rana sylvatica community, Ecology 53:3-21, from p. 14 (1972).
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Known predators

Rana sylvatica is prey of:
Dytiscus
Ambystoma tigrinum

Based on studies in:
USA: Michigan (Lake or pond)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • H. M. Wilbur, Competition, predation, and the structure of the Ambystoma-Rana sylvatica community, Ecology 53:3-21, from p. 14 (1972).
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

Comments: This species is represented by thousands of occurrences (subpopulations).

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Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is likely more than 1,000,000.

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General Ecology

Local tadpole density may exceed 15,000/cubic meter of water (Biesterfeldt et al., Copeia 1993:688-695).

In eastern Massachusetts, density in wintering areas near breeding pools ranged from 0 to 6.3 frogs per 100 sq m (Regosin et al. 2003).

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

Wood frog males will actively search for females during the breeding season; however, they are unable to tell males from females by sight. Gender recognition is accomplished by the males embracing other frogs (regardless of gender) and releasing those that are not fat enough to be females full of eggs. If a male is embraced he will let out a loud croak. A female will also be let go if spawning has already occurred, because she is thin.

The call of a wood frog is often compared with the sound of a quacking duck or a squawking chicken. They tend to repeat the call several times in a row when trying to attract females. Wood frogs use auditory forms of communication nearly exclusively during the breeding season.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic

  • Harding, J. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Great Lakes Region. Ann Arbor, Mi: The University of Michigan Press.
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Communication and Perception

As stated in the reproduction section, males actively search for females during the breeding season; however, they are unable to tell males from females by sight. Sex recognition is accomplished by the males embracing other frogs (regardless of sex) and releasing those that are not fat enough to be females full of eggs. If a male is embraced he lets out a loud croak. A female will also be let go if spawning has already occurred, because of her thin nature.

The call of a wood frog is often compared with the sound of a quacking duck or a squawking chicken. They tend to repeat the call several times in a row when trying to attract females.

Communication Channels: acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic

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Cyclicity

Comments: Inactive during cold season in north and at high elevations. Primarily diurnal in northwest and in spring at high elevations, though breeding activities may occur at night as well. Most active in summer in damp conditions.

Wood frogs spend the winter on land and sometimes endure freezing of their blood and other extracellular body fluids. With warming weather they thaw out and proceed with their lives uninjured.

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Life Cycle

Development

The time it takes for fertilized eggs to hatch is dependent on water temperature. Eggs that are laid in colder waters in early March may take a month to hatch, whereas eggs laid later when water temperatures are warmer may take only 10 to 14 days. Tadpoles are olive-brown to black in color and measure 49.8 mm in length. Tadpoles metamorphosize into juvenile frogs when they reach 50 to 60 mm in length, usually when they are 65 to 130 days old. Juveniles measure 16 to 18 mm in length after metamorphosis. Juvenile males reach adulthood and are able to breed when they are 1 to 2 years old whereas females take longer and are not adults until they are 2 to 3 years old. Like all frogs, wood frogs exhibit indeterminate growth and will continue growing throughout their lives.

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis ; indeterminate growth

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Development

The eggs have a very good tolerance of temperature and those that are laid in water that afterwards freezes are not killed. They develop once temperature rises again. The length of incubation for these eggs varies depending on temperature. If laid in cold waters, then development is slow, and lasts at least a month; if, however, the eggs are laid in waters with a higher temperature, the development is much quicker, lasting only 9 to 10 days. After about a week to a month the eggs hatch and tiny, almost black, tadpoles emerge. The tadpoles are about 38 to 48 mm in length. It can take them a further 61 to 115 days to undergo metamorphosis and become froglets. The froglets are usually very small. They develop into full grown, sexually mature, adults generally within the next 2 years.

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

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Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Wood frogs frogs are expected to live to 4 or 5 years old for males and females, respectively, living in Quebec and southern Illinois. Studies done in several other states showed wood frogs live to be 3 to 4 years old for males and females, respectively. It is unknown why males consistently have shorter lifespans than females.

Typical lifespan

Status: wild:
3 to 5 years.

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Lifespan/Longevity

No information is available on the lifespan of wood frogs.

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
3 (high) years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 5 years Observations: The wood frog is fascinating because it may spend winter with over 50% of its body frozen and no heartbeat or breathing. Their maximum longevity could be underestimated due to lack of precise data. In the wild these animals rarely live more than 3 years (http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/neparc/).
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Reproduction

Wood frogs emege from dormancy on land and migrate up to several hundred meters to breeding pools, where they breed explosively in winter or early to late spring, with the latest breeding in the far north or high elevations. Eggs are laid in winter in the Ozarks and southern Appalachians, late February in Maryland, February-March in Missouri, mainly March in southern New England, mostly late May-early June in Colorado; mean date of breeding increases 5.2 days per degree of latitude (Guttman et al. 1991). In a particular pool, most egg deposition occurs over a brief period of several days. Eggs hatch in about 1-2 weeks. Larvae metamorphose into small frogs in spring or summer, within a few months after egg deposition. The period from fertilization to emigration from the pond averages about 11 weeks in Michigan, 13 weeks in Maryland, 15-16 weeks in Virginia (Riha and Berven 1991). In Maryland, 20,262 juveniles emerged from a single pond in one year (Berven 1988). Individuals become sexually mature in 2-3 years (in Maryland, females mainly in 2 years, rarely in 1 year; Berven 1988).

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Wood frogs exhibit "explosive" breeding in late winter or early spring when the first warm rains occur. Explosive breeding consists of many frogs gathering at ponds where they all actively scramble to find a mate. The more frogs there are at a pond, the better the chances are for an individual frog to successfully find a mate. Frogs wake from hibernation and migrate to breeding ponds. Many wood frogs return to the same ponds to reproduce year after year.

Mating System: polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Wood frogs breed every year during the spring from early March to May. During this time males begin to call to attract females. They create a duck-like quacking sound, described by some as a "lot of chuckling". Once mates are chosen and breeding occurs, females lay a globular egg mass in the water, most often in the deepest part of a pond. Each egg mass measures about 10 to 13 cm in diameter, and can contain from 1000 to 3000 eggs. The masses can either be attached to a twig or grasses, or they can be left free-floating. After about a week the egg mass begins to flatten out, allowing it to rest on the surface of the water. The jelly around the eggs becomes green, creating a kind of camouflage. The mass then looks like a floating mass of green pond scum. The green color of the jelly is due to the presence of many small green algae. The eggs hatch after 9 to 30 days and the tadpoles will undergo metamorphosis when they are 2 months old. Male juvenile frogs grow into adults and are able to breed when they are 1 to 2 years old, while females take a bit longer and are not adults until they are 2 to 3 years old.

Breeding interval: Wood frogs breed once yearly.

Breeding season: Wood frogs breed from March to May.

Range number of offspring: 1000 to 3000.

Range time to hatching: 9 to 30 days.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2 to 3 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 to 2 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (External ); oviparous

Like many frogs, wood frogs do not provide any further parental care after fertilizing and laying the eggs. Eggs are supplied with a nutritious yolk sac to sustain the tadpoles during the early stages of life. The parents select breeding sites without fish to increase the likelihood that their young will survive.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female)

  • Conant, R., J. Collins. 1998. Reptiles and Amphibians. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Redmer, M., S. Trauth. 2005. Amphibian Declines. London, England: University of California Press, Ltd.
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Even though males do call, they generally have a non-calling behavioral mating tactic. The males move around the breeding area actively searching for a female. Occasionally this results in a male to male fight for a female already in amplexus. Both of these reproductive strategies are typical of explosive breeders. In an explosive breeding situation the success of the male in finding an available and willing female is strictly density-dependent.

Wood frogs are seasonal breeders that begin very early in the spring. They are the first frogs to begin calling, often before the ice is completely off the breeding ponds. These frogs mate as early as March and the breeding season will last until the beginning of May at the very latest. While the calls of these male frogs are very abundant in season, once the breeding season is over you will no longer hear their calls. During the time of the calls however, they create a duck-like quacking sound, described by some as a "lot of chuckling". Once mate choice is accomplished and amplexus occurs, the female will lay a globular egg mass, most often in the deepest part of a pond. Each egg mass measures about 10 to 13 cm in diameter, and can contain from 1000 to 3000 eggs. The masses can either be attached to a twig or grasses, or they can be free standing. After about a week or so the egg mass begins to flatten out, allowing it to rest on the surface of the water. The jelly around the eggs becomes green in color creating a great camouflage. The mass then looks like a floating mass of green pond scum. The green color of the jelly is due to the presence of numerous small green algae. Tadpoles undergo complete metamorphosis in 2 months and reach sexual maturity in approximately 2 years.

Wood frogs have a great deal of selective pressures on both sexes. A larger female is often correlated with a stronger fecundity, for larger females are known to produce larger clutches. This may lead to a higher survival rate in offspring. On the other hand, male mating success is also positively size-dependent, allowing larger females the ability to "win" the male.

Breeding interval: Wood frogs breed once yearly.

Breeding season: March to May

Range number of offspring: 1000 to 3000.

Range time to hatching: 9 to 30 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 2 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (External ); oviparous

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)

Sex: male:
547 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
912 days.

Female wood frogs provide their eggs with yolk before laying them. Once the eggs are laid and fertilized, the parents abandon them.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female)

  • Conant, R., J. Collins. 1998. Reptiles and Amphibians. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Antifreeze protects from cold: North American wood frog
 

The blood of the North American wood frog helps it survive freezing temperatures for as long as seven months via a natural antifreeze.

     
  "The North American wood frog (Rana sylvatica), for instance, can survive freezing temperatures for as long as seven months, relying on a natural antifreeze in its blood to protect its organs." (Morell 2001)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Virginia Morell. 2001. The fragile world of frogs. National Geographic. 199(5): 106-23.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lithobates sylvaticus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rana sylvatica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 69
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widespread in North America, abundant in many areas; not of conservation concern in the vast majority of the range, though many local populations have declined as a result of agricultural and residential development and intensive timber harvesting practices.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow to narrow.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Geoffrey Hammerson

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Though wood frogs are fairly common in most areas of appropriate habitat, loss of habitat to agriculture and suburban development has put them on the list of "species of special concern" in some areas. Populations may decline if breeding ponds are drained or forest habitats are logged. Many migrating frogs are killed while crossing busy roads to access breeding ponds. Studies have shown that eggs and larvae may be harmed by acid rain or toxic runoff that enter breeding pools.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) consider wood frogs to be of "Least Concern" as they are an abundant and widespread species. Wood frogs are common throughout Michigan.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

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Though wood frogs are fairly common in most areas of appropriate habitat, loss of habitat to agriculture and suburban development has put them on the list of "species of special concern" in some areas.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Population trend is unknown but probably stable to slightly declining.

Global Long Term Trend: Increase of 10-25% to decline of 30%

Comments: Likely relatively stable in extent of occurrence, likely less than 25% decline in in population size, area of occurrence, and number/condition of occurrences.

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Population

Population
It is abundant and widespread.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Degree of Threat: Medium

Comments: This species is not threatened overall, but threats to local populations include intensive timber harvesting practices that reduce canopy closure, understory vegetation, uncompacted forest litter, or coarse woody debris (moderately to well-decayed) in areas surrounding breeding sites (deMaynadier and Hunter 1999). Negative impacts of intensive timber harvesting extend at least 25-35 meters into uncut forest (deMaynadier and Hunter 1998).

Wood frogs are not likely to be at risk from present acidification inputs in the Rocky Mountains (Corn and Vertucci 1992).

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Major Threats
Not threatened overall, but threats to local populations include intensive timber harvesting practices that reduce canopy closure, understorey vegetation, uncompacted forest litter, or coarse woody debris (moderately to well-decayed) in areas surrounding breeding sites (deMaynadier and Hunter 1999). Negative impacts of intensive timber harvesting extend at least 25-35m into uncut forest (deMaynadier and Hunter 1998). Not likely to be at risk from present acidification inputs in the Rocky Mountains (Corn and Vertucci 1992).
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Management

Restoration Potential: Readily colonizes newly constructed suitable breeding habitat (Hopey and Petranka 1994). See Guttman et al. (1991) for information on a population that was successfully reintroduced into a portion of St. Louis County, Missouri.

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Global Protection: Very many (>40) occurrences appropriately protected and managed

Comments: This species occurs in many national parks, wildlife refuges, and wilderness areas, however, protection of land may not protect the species where declines may be caused by acidification, ozone depletion, disease, or other causes.

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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
None needed. It occurs in many protected areas.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

There are no known negative effects of wood frogs on humans.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Wood frogs, along with other amphibians, are great indicators of environmental health. Population declines in species of amphibians should be of great concern. Wood frogs may also help to control invertebrate pests.

Positive Impacts: research and education; controls pest population

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Wood frogs, along with other amphibians, are great indicators of environmental health. Recent population declines in species of amphibians should be of great concern. Wood frogs may also help to control pests.

Positive Impacts: research and education; controls pest population

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Wikipedia

Wood frog

The Asian Kokarit frog is occasionally also called "wood frog", particularly when listed under its junior synonym Rana nigrolineata.

The wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus)[1][2][3] has a broad distribution over North America, extending from the southern Appalachians to the boreal forest with several notable disjunct populations including lowland eastern North Carolina. The wood frog has garnered attention by biologists over the last century because of its freeze tolerance, relatively great degree of terrestrialism (for a ranid), interesting habitat associations (peat bogs, vernal pools, uplands), and relatively long-range movements. The ecology and conservation of the wood frog has attracted research attention in recent years because they are often considered "obligate" breeders in ephemeral wetlands (sometimes called "vernal pools") that are themselves more imperiled than the species that breed in them. The wood frog is the state amphibian of New York.

Similar to other northern frogs that hibernate close to the surface in soil and/or leaf litter, wood frogs can tolerate the freezing of their blood and other tissues.[4][5] Urea is accumulated in tissues in preparation for overwintering, and liver glycogen is converted in large quantities to glucose in response to internal ice formation. Both urea and glucose act as "cryoprotectants" to limit the amount of ice that forms and to reduce osmotic shrinkage of cells. Frogs can survive many freeze/thaw events during winter if no more than about 65% of the total body water freezes.

Physical description[edit]

New Jersey Pine Barrens demonstrating lighter skin tones

Wood frogs range from 51 to 70 mm (2.0 to 2.8 in) in length. Females are larger than males.[6][7] Adult wood frogs are usually brown, tan, or rust-colored, and usually have a dark eye mask.[8] Individual frogs are capable of varying their color; Conant (1958) depicts one individual when light brown and dark brown at different times. The underparts of wood frogs are pale with a yellow or green cast.[9]

Mer Bleue Conservation Area, showing dark skin tones

A small brown frog with a dark eye mask in the woods is likely to be a wood frog.No other species hash a similar appearance to the wood frog in North America. The first evasive leap is fast and long. Close observation will often glimpse a second short dive under the leaf litter, making the frog seem to disappear.

Feeding[edit]

Wood frogs eat a variety of small, forest-floor invertebrates. Omnivorous, the tadpoles feed on plant detritus and algae, and also attack and eat eggs and larvae of amphibians, including those of wood frogs.[10]

The feeding pattern of the wood frog, basically similar to that of other ranids, is triggered by prey movement and consists of a bodily lunge that terminates with the mouth opening and an extension of the tongue onto the prey.[11] The ranid tongue is attached to the floor of the mouth near the tip of the jaw, and when the mouth is closed, the tongue lies flat, extended posteriorly from its point of attachment. In the feeding strike, the tongue is swung forward as though on a hinge, so some portion of the normally dorsal and posterior tongue surface makes contact with the prey. At this point in the feeding strike, the wood frog differs markedly from more aquatic Lithobates species, such as the green frog, leopard frog, and bullfrog.[11] The wood frog makes contact with the prey with just the tip of its tongue, much like a toad.[12] A more extensive amount of tongue surface is applied in the feeding strikes of these other frog species, with the result that usually the prey is engulfed by the fleshy tongue and considerable tongue surface contacts the surrounding substrate.

Geographic range[edit]

The contiguous wood frog range is from northern Georgia and northeastern Canada in the east to Alaska and southern British Columbia in the west.[13] It is the most widely distributed frog in Alaska. It is also located in the Medicine Bow National Forest.

Habitat[edit]

Lithobates sylvaticus found in southern Quebec

Wood frogs are forest-dwelling organisms that breed primarily in ephemeral, freshwater wetlands: woodland vernal pools. Long-distance migration plays an important role in their life history. Individual wood frogs range widely (hundreds of meters) among their breeding pools and neighboring freshwater swamps, cool-moist ravines, and/or upland habitats. Genetic neighborhoods of individual pool breeding populations extend more than a kilometer away from the breeding site. Thus, conservation of this species requires a landscape (multiple habitats at appropriate spatial scales) perspective.

Spring mating calls

Adult wood frogs spend summer months in moist woodlands, forested swamps, ravines, or bogs. During the fall, they leave summer habitats and migrate to neighboring uplands to overwinter. Some may remain in moist areas to overwinter. Hibernacula tend to be in the upper organic layers of the soil, under leaf litter. By overwintering in uplands adjacent to breeding pools, adults ensure a short migration to thawed pools in early spring. Wood frogs are mostly diurnal and are rarely seen at night, except maybe in breeding choruses. They are one of the first amphibians to emerge for breeding right when the snow melts, along with spring peepers.

Reproduction[edit]

L. sylvaticus primarily breeds in ephemeral pools rather than permanent water bodies such as ponds or lakes.[14] This is believed to provide some protection of the adult frogs and their offspring (eggs and tadpoles) from predation by fish and other predators of permanent water bodies. Adult wood frogs emerge from hibernation in early spring and migrate to nearby pools. There, males chorus, emitting duck-like quacking sounds. A male approaches a female and clasps her behind her fore arms before hooking his thumbs together around her in a hold called “amplexus” which is continued until the female deposits the eggs.[7][14] Females deposit eggs attached to submerged substrate, typically vegetation or downed branches. Most commonly, females deposit eggs adjacent to other egg masses, creating large aggregations of masses.[7][14][15] Some advantage is conferred to pairs first to breed, as clutches closer to the center of the raft absorb heat and develop faster than those on the periphery, and have more protection from predators.[7][14] If pools dry before tadpoles metamorphose into froglets, they die.[7] This constitutes the risk counterbalancing the antipredator protection of ephemeral pools. By breeding in early spring, however, wood frogs increase their offspring's chances of metamorphosing before pools dry. The larvae undergo two stages of development: fertilization to free-living tadpoles, and free-living tadpoles to juvenile frogs.[16][17] During the first stage, the larvae are adapted for rapid development, and their growth depends on the temperature of the water and has a higher mortality rate.[17][18] The second stage of development features rapid development and growth, and depends on environmental factors including food availability, temperature, and population density.[17] Following metamorphosis, a small percentage (less than 20%) of juveniles will disperse, permanently leaving the vicinity of their natal pools. The majority of offspring are philopatric, returning to their natal pool to breed.[16] Most frogs breed only once in their lives, although some will breed two or three times, generally with differences according to age.[14][16][19] The success of the larvae and tadpoles is important in populations of wood frogs because they affect the gene flow and genetic variation of the following generations.[16]

Conservation status[edit]

The wood frog is not endangered or threatened. In many parts of its range, urbanization is fragmenting populations. Several studies have shown, under certain thresholds of forest cover loss or over certain thresholds of road density, wood frogs and other common amphibians begin to "drop out" of formerly occupied habitats. Another conservation concern is that wood frogs are primarily dependent on smaller, "geographically isolated" wetlands for breeding. At least in the United States, these wetlands are largely unprotected by federal law, leaving it up to states to tackle the problem of conserving pool-breeding amphibians.

The wood frog has a complex lifecycle that depends on multiple habitats, damp lowlands, and adjacent woodlands. Their habitat conservation is, therefore, complex, requiring integrated, landscape-scale preservation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hillis, D. M. (2007). "Constraints in naming parts of the Tree of Life". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42 (2): 331–338. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.08.001. PMID 16997582. 
  2. ^ Hillis, D. M., and T. P. Wilcox (2005). "Phylogeny of the New World true frogs (Rana)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34 (2): 299–314. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.10.007. PMID 15619443. 
  3. ^ Pauly, Greg B., Hillis, David M. & Cannatella, David C (2009). "Taxonomic freedom and the role of official lists of species names". Herpetologica 65 (2): 115–128. doi:10.1655/08-031R1.1. 
  4. ^ Storey KB, Storey JM (1984). "Biochemical adaption for freezing tolerance in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica". Journal of Comparative Physiology B 155: 29–36. doi:10.1007/BF00688788. 
  5. ^ Wilbur HM (1997). "Experimental ecology of food webs: complex systems in temporary ponds". Ecology 78 (8): 2279–2302. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(1997)078[2279:EEOFWC]2.0.CO;2. 
  6. ^ Monnet J-M, Cherry MI (2002). "Sexual size dimorphism in anurans". Proceedings of the Royal Society B 269 (1507): 2301–2307. doi:10.1098/rspb.2002.2170. PMC 1691160. PMID 12495496. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Howard RD (1980). "Mating behaviour and mating success in woodfrogs, Rana sylvatica". Animal Behaviour 28 (3): 705–716. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(80)80130-8. 
  8. ^ Conant R, Collins JT. 1998. A field guide to reptiles & amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition. New York (NY): Houghton Mifflin Company ISBN 0395904528.
  9. ^ Conant, Roger. (1958). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.
  10. ^ Redmer, Michael and Trauth, Stanley E. (2005) Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species, M. Lannoo, ed. University of California Press ISBN 0520235924.
  11. ^ a b Cardini, F. (1974). Specializations of the Feeding Response of the Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, for the Capture of Prey Submerged in Water. M.S. Thesis, U. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA
  12. ^ Cardini, F. (1973). Characteristics and Adaptedness of Feeding Behaviors of North American Anurans, Paper presented at June 1973 meetings of the Animal Behavior Society, Amherst, MA
  13. ^ Wilbur HM (1977). "Interactions of food level and population density in Rana sylvatica". Ecology 58 (1): 206–209. doi:10.2307/1935124. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Berven KA (1981). "Mate choice in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica". Evolution 35 (4): 707–722. doi:10.2307/2408242. 
  15. ^ Seale DB (1982). "Physical factors influencing oviposition by the woodfrog, Rana sylvatica, in Pennsylvania". Copeia 1982 (3): 627–635. doi:10.2307/1444663. 
  16. ^ a b c d Berven KA, Grudzien TA (1990). "Dispersal in the wood frog (Rana sylvatica): implications for genetic population structure". Evolution 44 (8): 2047–2056. doi:10.2307/2409614. 
  17. ^ a b c Herreid CF II, Kinney S (1967). "Temperature and development of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, in Alaska". Ecology 48 (4): 579–590. doi:10.2307/1936502. 
  18. ^ Berven KA (1990). "Factors affecting population fluctuation in larval and adult stages of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica)". Ecology 71 (4): 1599–1608. doi:10.2307/1938295. 
  19. ^ Berven KA (1988). "Factors affecting variation in reproductive traits within a population of wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)". Copeia 1988 (3): 605–615. doi:10.2307/1445378. JSTOR 1445378. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Baldwin, R. F., A. J. K. Calhoun, and P. G. deMaynadier. 2006. Conservation planning for amphibian species with complex habitat requirements: a case study using movements and habitat selection of the wood frog Rana sylvatica. Journal of Herpetology 40:443–454.
  • Heatwole, H. 1961. Habitat selection and activity of the Wood Frog, Rana sylvatica Le Conte. American Midland Naturalist 66:301–313.
  • Hillis, D.M. & Wilcox, T.P. (2005): Phylogeny of the New World true frogs (Rana). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 34(2): 299–314. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.10.007 PMID 15619443 PDF fulltext.
  • Hillis, D. M. (2007) Constraints in naming parts of the Tree of Life. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 42: 331–338.
  • Hammerson (2004). Rana sylvatica. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006. Database entry includes a range map and a brief justification of why this species is of least concern.
  • Regosin, J. V., B. S. Windmiller, and J. M. Reed. 2003. Terrestrial habitat use and winter densities of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica). Journal of Herpetology 37:390–394.
  • Rittenhouse, T. A. G., and R. D. Semlitsch. 2007. Postbreeding habitat use of wood frogs in a Missouri Oak-Hickory forest. Journal of Herpetology 41:645–653.
  • Waldman, B. 1982. Adaptive significance of communal oviposition in wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)" Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 10:169–172.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Collins (1990) listed Colorado-Wyoming populations as a separate species, "Rana maslini," but this taxon is not recognized by most authorities (see Porter 1969, Bagdonas and Pettus 1976, Hammerson 1999, Crother et al. 2000, Frost 2010).

See Zeyl (1993) for information on allozyme variation and divergence among some populations in the central part of the range.

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