Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The bohor reedbuck is exclusively a grazer (2), that feeds on fresh green grasses and tender reed shoots (4). It generally feeds during the night when it may wander up to 8 km from its daytime shelter (2). However, during the dry season, when the quality of the grass and reeds deteriorates, feeding at night alone allows insufficient time for the reedbuck to fulfil its energetic and nutritional requirements, and thus it may continue to graze throughout the day also (2). Like other small antelope, the bohor reedbuck hides from predators rather than forming herds in defence (5). Whilst the grass and reeds of its habitat provide important shelter from predators, it can be difficult to communicate with each other in such dense surroundings, and thus the bohor has adopted leaping and whistling as effective forms of communication (2). Choruses of variable whistles are frequently herd throughout the night, and leaps, which differ in height, length and style, are a characteristic behaviour of the bohor reedbuck (2). During the wet season when food is plentiful, females and their offspring occur separately, with up to five females living within the breeding territory of a male reedbuck (3). Although, due to the changeable nature of their habitat, this is more a case of the rams defending access to the ewes, rather than defending an area, whilst the ewes seek out the best and safest pastures (2). During the dry season, these small groups merge into herds of up to ten animals (6). Courtship in the bohor reedbuck begins with the male circling the female, and making a peculiar bleating noise, described as the sound of a toy trumpet (2). Pregnancy lasts for seven months, after which a single calf is born which remains well hidden for the first two months of life (2). Male calves are driven away from the herd after six months, and form bachelor herds until they become fully mature at the age of four years. Females however, are able to breed at just one year of age (2)
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Description

This medium-sized, sandy coloured antelope possesses no outstanding physical features (3), instead, its loud whistles and bounding behaviour are more distinctive attributes that signify its presence in the tall grasslands it inhabits (2). The bohor reedbuck has a yellowish to pale reddish-brown coat, with a greasy appearance due to the sebaceous glands at the roots of the hairs (2), and white underparts (3). It has a short, busy tail (3), and a conspicuous grey patch under each ear where scent glands are situated (4). Only the male, or ram, possesses short, stout, ringed horns that are hooked forwards (3).
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Distribution

Range Description

The Bohor Reedbuck ranges north of the forest zone from Senegal, The Gambia, and southwest Mauritania through the woodlands and floodplain grasslands of the savanna zone of West Africa through southern Chad, the savanna woodlands of the Central African Republic, extreme northeast DR Congo, southern Sudan, to Ethiopia and south to Lake Tanganyika and the Rovuma River in Tanzania (East 1999; Kingdon and Hoffmann in press). In West Africa, in particular, they have undergone fairly large range contractions, and may now be extinct in Togo and Côte d’Ivoire (Kingdon and Hoffmann in press).
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Geographic Range

The bohor reedbuck is found in the floodplain and drainage-line grasslands of the northern and southern Savanna on the continent of Africa (Estes, 1991).

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

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Range

Occurs from Senegal, east to Ethiopia and south to Tanzania (2).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

The bohor reedbuck is a medium sized antelope. Males range in height between 75 - 89 cm whereas females range in height from 69 - 76 cm. The males are not only larger than the females but their markings are more defined as well. The color of reedbucks ranges from yellow to a grayish brown, but in general, bohor reedbucks are yellower than the other reedbuck species. Bohor reedbucks have a round bare spot beneath each ear along with white underparts and white markings under their tails. Young bohors have darker and longer hair than the adults. Just male bohor reedbucks have horns, which vary in size from 20 -41 cm and slightly hook forward (Estes, 1991).

Range mass: 36 to 55 kg.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Bohor Reedbuck are associated with woodland and floodplain grassland across much of their range. They are effectively water-dependent grazers, but show a strong preference for extensive areas of flood plains and open inundated grasslands where access to water may become restricted in the dry season (Kingdon and Hoffmann in press). On the extreme north-eastern margins of its range, this species has colonized montane areas, such as the Bale Mtns up to about 3,200 m, beyond its usual preferred habitats (Yalden et al. 1996). In some marginal parts of its range, such as the Aberdares in Kenya and the Ethiopian Highlands, this species co-exists with the Mountain Reedbuck Redunca fulvorufula, while over much of Tanzania its range overlaps with that of the Southern Reedbuck Redunca arundinum.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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The habitats of the bohor reedbuck are grasslands and wide wideplains that have tall grass in which they can hide. They are rarely found on steep slopes or tall grassland because of the poor vegetation.

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; scrub forest

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The bohor reedbuck inhabits moist grasslands and swamplands (5). It often occurs in unstable grasslands that are susceptible to flooding, drought and fires, but is well adapted to these extremes (2).
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

The bohor reedbuck is a grazing animal and prefers grasses with high protein and low fiber. During the dry season they eat other types of vegetation if their normal diet is not available. The bohor reedbuck is a water dependent animal but may not need water if they are in green pastures (Estes, 1991). In farming communities, bohor reedbucks have been spotted grazing on wheat and other grains (Kingdon, 1989).

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
18.0 years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
10.0 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Observations: Anecdotal reports suggesting that these animals live up to 18 years have not been verified upon close scrutiny. Record longevity in captivity is 10.7 years (Richard Weigl 2005). Further studies are necessary.
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Reproduction

Although there is not a set breeding season for the bohor reedbuck, there is a breeding peak around the rainy season. The gestation period is seven and a half months and usually only one calf is born per breeding season. Young calves are hiders, and they remain in seclusions for up to eight weeks. After this period, the young calves begin to form age groups with those of similar age. A close bond between the young and the mother lasts for about eight to nine months. Males are mature at three years of age while the females mature at two years, and in some cases in even just a year, and can conceive every nine to fourteen months (Estes, 1991).

Range number of offspring: 1 (low) .

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average gestation period: 7.5 months.

Average gestation period: 228 days.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)

Sex: male:
502 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
502 days.

Parental Investment: altricial

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group

Reviewer/s
Mallon, D.P. (Antelope Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern as total numbers have been estimated at ca. 101,000. Although populations are gradually declining except in some East African parks, the overall rate is not believed to be sufficient to meet the criteria for threatened status, but it may be heading towards a point where Near Threatened becomes appropriate.
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US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Status

Classified as Lower Risk / Conservation Dependent (LR/cd) by the IUCN Red List 2007 (1).
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Population

Population
East (1999) estimated the total population size at 101,000, including 4,500 in Sudan, which is probably a substantial underestimate; the species may well survive in good numbers in southern Sudan. Its numbers are in gradual decline over most of its remaining range, apart from some protected areas in East Africa.

Aerial survey estimates are available for populations of this species in many parts of its range, particularly in Central and East Africa. Citing various authors, East (1999) indicates that these surveys have generally given density estimates of 0.1-0.3/km². Aerial counts undoubtedly tend to underestimate reedbuck numbers, by an unknown but probably substantial amount. In the Sahelo-Sudanian habitat of Waza N.P. (north Cameroon), of which approximately 40% is floodplain, numbers were estimated, mostly through terrestrial counts, at 4,000 in 1960, dropping to 500 in 1967 and to less than 100 following the 1970s droughts (respectively, 2.4 to 0.3 to 0.06/km² (Scholte 2005, Scholte et al. 2007).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Bohor Reedbuck have been eliminated from large parts of their natural range by overhunting and loss of habitat to the expansion of settlement and livestock, although it tends to survive for longer in over-exploited areas than less secretive and more easily hunted species. In many countries it only survives in viable but greatly depleted numbers in protected areas. Drought has also been cited as a major threat.

In North Cameroon, floodplain degradation through the construction of upstream dams has been a major reason for the decline of Reedbuck; nonetheless, reedbuck can still be observed even in floodplain areas with (relatively) high population pressure (P. Scholte, in Hoffmann and Kingdon in press).
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The bohor reedbuck is a common and widely distributed species (2). However, it still faces the threat of habitat loss and degradation due to the encroachment of human settlements into their habitat (1), particularly in West Africa, where reedbuck populations have become fragmented (3). The hunting of this species for food also poses a potential threat (1).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The Bohor Reedbuck is now generally uncommon/rare where it survives in West Africa, but viable populations persist in areas such as Boucle du Baoule (Mali), Niokolo-Koba (Senegal), Corubal River (Guinea-Bissau) and Arty-Singou and Nazinga (Burkina Faso). It is more numerous in Central and East Africa, with major populations in areas such as Bouba Ndjida (Cameroon), Manovo-Gounda-St. Floris (Central African Republic), Bale Mountains (Ethiopia), Murchison Falls and Pian-Upe (Uganda), Mara (Kenya) and Serengeti, Moyowosi-Kigosi and Selous (Tanzania). Some of these key populations are decreasing because of poaching, especially in West and Central Africa. About three-quarters of the estimated total occurs in protected areas (East 1999).

If current trends persist, the Bohor Reedbuck should continue to survive in reasonable numbers in national parks, equivalent reserves and hunting concessions in East Africa, but it will become increasingly uncommon in West and Central Africa until its survival in these regions is eventually threatened. More active protection and management of areas which retain viable populations will be necessary to reverse this trend.
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Conservation

Despite the threats of habitat loss and degradation that the bohor reedbuck faces, it has proved itself capable of surviving in the face of agricultural expansion (2).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Bohor reedbucks have been found grazing on farmers' crops, especially wheat and other grains (Kingdon, 1989).

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Bohor reedbucks have been a game animal in Africa in the past. During the dry season, bohors are hunted with dogs and nets in Uganda. Bohors with the largest horns are prized by hunters (Kingdon, 1989)

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Wikipedia

Bohor reedbuck

The bohor reedbuck (Redunca redunca) is an antelope native to central Africa. The animal is placed under the genus Redunca and in the family Bovidae. It was first described by German zoologist and botanist Peter Simon Pallas in 1767. The bohor reedbuck has five subspecies. The head-and-body length of this medium-sized antelope is typically between 100–135 cm (39–53 in). Males reach approximately 75–89 cm (30–35 in) at the shoulder, while females reach 69–76 cm (27–30 in). Males typically weigh 43–65 kg (95–143 lb) and females 35–45 kg (77–99 lb). This sturdily built antelope has a yellow to grayish brown coat. Only the males possess horns which measure about 25–35 cm (9.8–13.8 in) long.

A herbivore, the bohor reedbuck prefers grasses and tender reed shoots with high protein and low fiber content. This reedbuck is dependent on water, though green pastures can fulfill its water requirement. The social structure of the bohor reedbuck is highly flexible. Large aggregations are observed during the dry season, when hundreds of bohor reedbuck assemble near a river. Males become sexually mature at the age of three to four years, while females can conceive at just one year of age, reproducing every nine to fourteen months. Though there is no fixed breeding season, mating peaks in the rainy season. The gestation period is seven and a half months long, after which a single calf is born. The calves are weaned at eight to nine months of age.

The bohor reedbuck inhabits moist grasslands and swamplands as well as woodlands. The bohor reedbuck is native to Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania and Togo. The animal is possibly extinct in Ivory Coast and Uganda. Reckless hunting and loss of habitat as a result of human settlement have led to significant decline in the numbers of the bohor reedbuck, although this antelope tends to survive longer in such over-exploited areas as compared to its relatives. The total populations of the bohor reedbuck are estimated to be above 100,000. Larger populations occur in eastern and central Africa than in western Africa. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) rates the bohor reedbuck as of Least Concern.

Taxonomy[edit]

The scientific name of the bohor reedbuck is Redunca redunca. The animal is placed under the genus Redunca and in the family Bovidae. It was first described by German zoologist and botanist Peter Simon Pallas in 1767.[2] The three species of Redunca, including the bohor reedbuck, are the least derived members of the tribe Reduncini (except the genus Pelea). The order of size in the genus Redunca is an evidence supporting the descent of the reduncines from a small ancestor.[3]

Five subspecies of the bohor reedbuck have been recognized:[3][4]

  • R. r. bohor Rüppell, 1842 : Also known as the Abyssinian bohor reedbuck. It occurs in southwestern, western and central Ethiopia, and Blue Nile (Sudan).
  • R. r. cottoni (W. Rothschild, 1902) : It occurs in the Sudds (Southern Sudan), northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo, and probably in northern Uganda. R. r. donaldsoni is a synonym.
  • R. r. nigeriensis (Blaine, 1913) : This subspecies occurs in Nigeria, northern Cameroon, southern Chad and Central African Republic.
  • R. r. redunca (Pallas, 1767) : Its range extends from Senegal east to Togo. It inhabits the northern savannas of Africa. The relationship of this subspecies to R. r. nigeriensis is not clear.
  • R. r. wardi (Thomas, 1900) : Found in Uganda, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and eastern Africa. R. r. ugandae and R. r. tohi are synonyms.

Physical description[edit]

Female bohor reedbuck lack horns.

The bohor reedbuck is a medium-sized antelope. The head-and-body length is typically between 100–135 cm (39–53 in).[5] Males reach approximately 75–89 cm (30–35 in) at the shoulder, while females reach 69–76 cm (27–30 in).[6] Males typically weigh 43–65 kg (95–143 lb) and females 35–45 kg (77–99 lb). The bushy tail is 18–20 cm (7.1–7.9 in) long.[5][7] This reedbuck is sexually dimorphic, with males 10% to 20% larger than females and showing more prominent markings.[6][8] Of the subspecies, R. r. cottoni is the largest, whereas R. r. redunca is the smallest.[3]

This sturdily built antelope has a yellow to grayish brown coat. Generally, the bohor reedbuck is yellower than other reedbucks. The large and diffuse sebaceous glands present on the coat make the coat greasy and give it a strong odour.[9] Juveniles are darker than the adults as well as long-haired.[6] While R. r. bohor appears yellowish gray, R. r. wardi is richly tinted.[3] The undersides are white in color. A few distinct markings can be observed—such as a dark stripe on the front of each foreleg; white markings under the tail; and a pale ring of hair around the eyes and along the lips, lower jaw, and upper throat.[5][6] However, R. r. redunca lacks dark stripes on its forelegs.[3] The males have thicker necks. Its large, oval-shaped ears distinguish it from other antelopes.[10] There is a round bare spot below each ear.[6] Apart from sebaceous glands, bohor reedbuck have a pair of inguinal glands and vestigial foot glands, and four nipples.[9] A bohor reedbuck can survive for at least ten years.[8] The tracks of the bohor reedbuck are slightly smaller than those of the southern reedbuck.[11]

As a prominent sign of sexual dimorphism, only males possess a pair of short, stout horns, that extend backward from the forehead and hook slightly forward.[8] The horns measure about 25–35 cm (9.8–13.8 in).[5] However, some Senegalese individuals have longer and wide-spreading horns.[8] In comparison to the other reedbucks, the bohor reedbuck has the shortest and most hooked horns.[12] The longest horns are observed in R. r. cottoni, which are hooked less than normal and may curve inwards. In contrast to R. r. cottoni, R. r. bohor has short and stout horns, with hooks pointing forward.[3] The length of the horns of an individual of a certain region seems to be related to the population density in that region to some extent. While short horns are observed in individuals of eastern Africa, where populations are dispersed, longer and wide-spreading horns are found on animals in the Nile valley, where populations are concentrated.[4]

Ticks and parasites[edit]

The bohor reedbuck is host to several parasites. The most notable helminths found in the bohor reedbuck are Carmyerius papillatus (in the rumen), Stilesia globipunctata (in the small intestine), Trichuris globulosa (in the caecum), Setaria species (in the abdominal cavity), Dictyocaulus species (in the lungs) and Taenia cysts (in the muscles). Other parasites include Schistosoma bovis, Cooperia rotundispiculum, Haemonchus contortus, species of Oesophagostomum, Amphistoma and Stilesia. The common ticks found on the bohor reedbuck are Amblyomma species and Rhipicephalus evertsi.[3]

Ecology and behaviour[edit]

Bohor reedbuck are active throughout the day, seeking cover during the daytime and grazing in the night. A large proportion of the whole day is spent on feeding and vigilance.[13] They can easily camouflage in grasses and reeds, and hide themselves rather than running from danger.[8] When threatened, they usually remain motionless or retreat slowly into cover for defense, but if the threat is close, they flee, whistling shrilly to alert the others. It hides from predators rather than forming herds in defense. Many predators, including lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, African wild dogs and Nile crocodiles, prey on the reedbuck.[5]

If shade is available, females remain solitary; otherwise they, along with their offspring, congregate to form herds of ten animals. Female home ranges span over 15–40 hectares (37–99 acres; 0.058–0.154 sq mi), while the larger territories of males cover 25–60 hectares (62–148 acres; 0.097–0.232 sq mi). These home ranges keep overlapping. As the daughters grow up, they distance themselves from their mothers' home ranges. Territorial males are much tolerant; they may even associate with up to 19 bachelor males in the absence of females. As many as five females may be found in a male's territory. Territorial bulls drive out their sons when they start developing horns (when they are about a year-and-a-half old). These young males form groups of two to three individuals on the borders of territories, till they themselves mature in their fourth year.[8] Large aggregations are observed during the dry season, when hundreds of bohor reedbuck assemble near a river.[6]

Two prominent forms of display among these animals is whistling and bounding. Instead of scent-marking its territory, the reedbuck will give a shrill whistle to make the boundaries of its territory be known. As it whistles, it expels air through its nose with such a force that the whole of its body vibrates. These whistles, usually one to three in number, are followed by a few stotting bounds. This behaviour is also used to raise alarm in herds. In this, the reedbuck raises its neck, exposing the white patch on its throat, but keeping the tail down, and leaps in a way similar to the impala's jumps, landing on its forelegs. This is accompanied by the popping of the inguinal glands in the legs. Fights begin with both opponents holding their horns low, in a combat stance; followed by the locking of horns and pushing one another. These fights can even lead to deaths.[9]

Diet[edit]

A herbivore, the bohor reedbuck prefers grasses and tender reed shoots with high protein and low fiber content. This reedbuck is dependent on water, though green pastures can fulfill its water requirement.[6] A study of the bohor reedbuck's diet in Rwenzori Mountains National Park (Uganda) revealed that, throughout the year, the most preferred species was Sporobolus consimilis. Other grasses the animals fed on included Hyparrhenia filipendula, Heteropogon contortus and Themeda triandra, all of which are species commonly found in heavily grazed grasslands. Bohor reedbuck preferred Cynodon dactylon and Cenchrus ciliaris in the wet season, and switched to Sporobolus pyramidalis and Panicum repens in the dry season. Though they rarely feed on dicots, these can include Capparis and Sida species. On regularly burnt pastures, the bohor reedbuck feeds on Imperata species, while in places close by water sources, it eats Leersia and newly sprouted Vossia species (like topi and puku).[3]

Primarily a nocturnal grazer, the bohor reedbuck may also feed at daytime. A study showed that feeding peaked at dawn and late afternoon. In the night, two feeding peaks were observed once again: at dusk and midnight.[14] They traverse a long way from their daytime refuges while grazing. Seasonal differences in the amount of time spent while grazing in a particular area is possibly related to the availability and quality of grasses there.[3] The bohor reedbuck often grazes in association with other grazers such as hartebeest, topi, puku and kob. In Kenyan farmlands, the reedbuck may feed on growing wheat and cereals.[8]

Reproduction[edit]

Males become sexually mature at the age of three to four years, while females can conceive at just one year of age, reproducing every nine to fourteen months. Though there is no fixed breeding season, mating peaks in the rainy season.[9] Fights for dominance take place in some particular "assembly fields", where up to 40 males may assemble in an area of 1 hectare (2.5 acres; 0.0039 sq mi). Some parts of these grounds are the main attractions - marked with dung and urine. The reason behind the attractiveness of these few spots for sexually active males is the oestrogen in the females' urine.[4]

Courtship begins with the dominant male approaching the female, who then assumes a low-head posture and urinates. Unresponsive females run away on being pursued by a male. A male keen on sniffing the female's vulva keeps flicking his tongue. As they continue their "mating march", the male licks the female's rump and persistently attempts mounting her. On mounting, the males tries to clasp her flanks tightly. If she stands firmly, it is a sign that she is ready to mate. Copulation is marked by a single ejaculation, after which both animals stand motionless or a while, and then resume grazing.[6][9]

The gestation period is seven and a half months long, after which a single calf is born. The mothers keep their offspring concealed for as long as eight weeks. The mother keeps within a distance of 20–30 m (66–98 ft) of its calf. Nursing, usually two to four minutes long, involves licking the whole body of the calf and suckling. The infant is suckled usually once in the day and one to two times at night. The female's previous calf usually resists separation. At the age of two months, the calf begins grazing alongside its mother, and seeks protection from her if alarmed. Though after four months the calf is no more licked, it may still be groomed by its mother.[9] The calves are weaned at eight to nine months of age.[6]

Habitat and distribution[edit]

Bohor reedbuck inhabit grasslands.

The bohor reedbuck inhabits moist grasslands and swamplands as well as woodlands. It is found in two kinds of habitat in northern Cameroon: the seasonally flooded grasslands rich in grasses like Vetiveria nigritana and Echinochloa pyramidalis (in the Sahelo-Sudan region) and Isoberlina woodlands (in the Sudano-Guinean region).[3] Often found on grasslands susceptible to floods and droughts, the bohor reedbuck can adapt remarkably well to radical seasonal changes and calamities.[15] It is not so widespread as the bushbuck due to its habitat requirements.[16] In some margins of its range, the bohor reedbuck shares its habitat with the mountain reedbuck. The ranges of the bohor reedbuck and southern reedbuck extensively overlap in Tanzania.[3]

Endemic to Africa, the bohor reedbuck is native to Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania and Togo. The animal is possibly extinct in Ivory Coast and Uganda.[1] Formerly widespread in western, central and eastern Africa, its present range extends from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east.[17] Among the three reedbuck species, bohor reedbuck is the most widespread in Tanzania.[18] Its status in Burundi, Eritrea, Ghana and Togo is uncertain, while it is rare in Niger and Nigeria.[3]

Threats and conservation[edit]

Reckless hunting and loss of habitat as a result of human settlement have led to significant decline in the numbers of the bohor reedbuck,[19][20] although this antelope tends to survive longer in such over-exploited areas as compared to its relatives.[17] Natural calamities, like drought, are also major threats. While populations have declined in northern Cameroon due to degradation of floodplains through the construction of upstream dams,[1] their habitat has been destroyed in Chad and Tanzania due to expansion of agriculture and settlement.[3] Several deaths occur due to roadkill and drowning as well.[3] During the dry season, bohor reedbuck are hunted with dogs and nets in Uganda. Reedbuck with the largest horns are prized by hunters.[6]

The total populations of the bohor reedbuck are estimated to be above 100,000. Though the populations are decreasing, it is not sufficiently low to meet the Near Threatened criterion. Thus, the IUCN rates the bohor reedbuck as of Least Concern. Around three-fourth of the populations survive in protected areas.[1] Populations of the reedbuck are either declining or uncertain in Boucle du Baoulé National Park (Mali); Comoé National Park (Ivory Coast); Mole and Digya National Parks (Ghana). Numbers in the Akagera National Park, where its last-known populations in Rwanda exist, have seen a steep fall.[3]

Though populations have substantially decreased in western Africa, bohor reedbuck still exist in Niokolo-Koba National Park (Senegal); Corubal River (Guinea-Bissau); Kiang West National Park (Gambia);[21] Arly-Singou and Nazinga Game Ranch (Burkina Faso). Larger numbers occur in eastern and central Africa, mostly in protected areas such as Bouba Ndjida (Cameroon); Manovo-Gounda St. Floris National Park (Central African Republic); Bale Mountains National Park (Ethiopia); Murchison Falls National Park and Pian Upe Wildlife Reserve (Uganda); Maasai Mara (Kenya); Serengeti National Park, Moyowosi-Kigosi and Selous Game Reserve (Tanzania).[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). Redunca redunca. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 18 January 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern
  2. ^ a b c Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 722. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Kingdon, J.; Hoffman, M. (2013). Mammals of Africa. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 421, 431–6. ISBN 1-4081-8996-8. 
  4. ^ a b c Kingdon, J. (2013). The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. London: Bloomsbury Pub. ISBN 1-4081-7481-2. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Huffman, B. "Bohor reedbuck". Ultimate Ungulate. Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Newell, T. L. "Redunca redunca". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Animal Diversity Web. 
  7. ^ Estes, R. D. (1993). The Safari Companion : A Guide to Watching African Mammals, Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, and Primates. Harare (Zimbabwe): Tutorial Press. pp. 75–8. ISBN 0-7974-1159-3. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Kingdon, J. (1988). East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa, Volume 3, Part C. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 351–9. ISBN 0-226-43718-3. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals : Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4th ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 91–3, 94–8. ISBN 0-520-08085-8. 
  10. ^ Kennedy, A. S.; Kennedy, V. (2012). Animals of the Masai Mara. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 1-4008-4491-6. 
  11. ^ Stuart, C.; Stuart, T. (2000). A Field Guide to the Tracks and Signs of Southern and East African Wildlife (3rd ed.). Cape Town: Struik. p. 86. ISBN 1-86872-558-8. 
  12. ^ Rafferty, J. P. (2011). Grazers (1st ed.). New York: Britannica Educational Pub. pp. 116–8. ISBN 1-61530-336-7. 
  13. ^ Djagoun, C. A. M. S.; Djossa, B. A.; Mensah, G. A.; Sinsin, B. A. (2013). "Vigilance efficiency and behaviour of bohor reedbuck (Pallas 1767) in a savanna environment of Pendjari Biosphere Reserve (northern Benin)". Mammal Study 38 (2): 81–9. doi:10.3106/041.038.0203. 
  14. ^ Afework, B.; Bekele, A.; Balakrishnan, M. (7 October 2009). "Population status, structure and activity patterns of the bohor reedbuck Redunca redunca in the north of the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia". African Journal of Ecology 48 (2): 502–10. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01139.x. 
  15. ^ "Bohor reedbuck". Wildscreen. ARKive. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  16. ^ East, R. (1990). Antelopes : Global Survey and Regional Action Plans. Gland: IUCN. p. 37. ISBN 2-8317-0016-7. 
  17. ^ a b c East, R. (1999). African Antelope Database 1998. Gland, Switzerland: The IUCN Species Survival Commission. pp. 153–7. ISBN 2-8317-0477-4. 
  18. ^ Skinner, A. (2005). Tanzania & Zanzibar (2nd ed.). London: Cadogan Guides. p. 34. ISBN 1-86011-216-1. 
  19. ^ Habtamu, T.; Bekele, A.; Belay, B. (2012). "The ecological and behavioural studies of bohor reedbuck in Jimma Airport Compound, southwestern Ethiopia". Asian Journal of Animal Sciences 6 (6): 278–90. doi:10.3923/ajas.2012.278.290. 
  20. ^ Edroma, E. L.; Kenyi, J. M. (March 1985). "Drastic decline in bohor reedbuck (Redunca redunca Pallas 1977) in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda". African Journal of Ecology 23 (1): 53–5. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.1985.tb00712.x. 
  21. ^ Stuart, S. N.; Jenkins, M. D.; Adams, R. J. (1990). Biodiversity in Sub-Saharan Africa and its Islands : Conservation, Management, and Sustainable Use. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. p. 96. ISBN 2-8317-0021-3. 
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