Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

A slender and elongate aquatic salamander lacking hindlimbs. The lack of hindlimbs is a feature of sirens and dwarf sirens (Family Sirenidae). Other features of sirens and dwarf sirens are lack of eyelids and the presence of a horny beak on the upper and lower jaws (Martof 1974). Pseudobranchus have a single gill slit (Martof 1972 1974). There are only three toes on the front limbs, which are reduced and often hard to see. Individuals bear bushy, external gills throughout life. Adults may reach 25 cm total length, with 29-37 costal grooves (Martof 1972; Petranka 1998). The tail is about 40% of the total length (Martof 1972). There is sexual dimorphism, with females reaching adult size about 28% greater than males (Netting and Goin 1942; Petranka 1998).

Adult P. axanthus have a brownish black to light grey ground color and parallel yellow or tan stripes on the back and sides. The stripes run from the head to the tip of the tail (Petranka 1998).The two recognized subspecies may be distinguished by differences in coloration and number of costal grooves. Pseudobranchus a. belli, the Everglades dwarf siren, has 29-33 costal grooves, three narrow, light lines within the mid-dorsal stripe, and two wider, buff-colored bands along the sides of the body. Pseudobranchus a. axanthus, the narrow-striped dwarf siren, has 34-37 costal grooves, a gray ground color, lacks well-defined light stripes and has poorly defined, grayish lateral stripes. Descriptions from Petranka (1988).

Hatchling size is 10-11.5 mm snout to vent length (14.5-16 mm total length) (Petranka 1998).Juveniles differ from adults in the presence of a dorsal fin which extends from the base of the head to the tail tip. (Martof 1972; Petranka 1998).

Prior to 1993, a single species of dwarf siren was recognized (e.g. Conant and Collins 1991). Moler and Kezer (1993) studied the chromosomes of Pseudobranchus striatus and split it into two separate species with different chromosome complements: Pseudobranchus striatus (n = 24) and Pseudobranchus axanthus (n = 32). The two species are found in sympatry in northern and mid-Florida, although they seem to prefer different micro-habitats. Pseudobranchus axanthus occur in open ponds and marshes, and P. striatus in cypress swamps. In addition, P. axanthus are commonly found in mats of floating water hyacinth and P. striatus are never found in water hyacinth, preferring a different floating plant called frog's bit (Limnobium spongia) (Moler and Kezer 1993). Within P. axanthus there is evidence of intergradation between the two subspecies (Moler and Kezer 1993).

  • Conant, R. and Collins, J. T. (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
  • Martof, B. S. (1972). ''Pseudobranchus, P. striatus.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 118.1-118.4.
  • Martof, B. S. (1974). ''Sirenidae. Sirens.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 151.1-151.2.
  • Moler, P. E., and Kezer, J. (1993). ''Karyology and systematics of the salamander genus Pseudobranchus (Sirenidae).'' Copeia, 1993, 39-47.
  • Netting, M. G., and Goin, C. J. (1942). ''Descriptions of two new salamanders from peninsular Florida.'' Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 29, 175-196.
  • Sever, D. M., Rania, L. C. and Krenz, J. D. (1996). ''Reproduction of the salamander Siren intermedia Le Conte with especial reference to oviducal anatomy and mode of fertilization.'' Journal of Morphology, 227, 335-348.
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Distribution

endemic to a single nation

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) Widespread in peninsular Florida; Moler and Kezer (1993) did not encounter it north of the St. Johns River drainage in Alachua and Putnam counties, though they stated that it may follow the St. Johns River north along the east coast. Reported occurrence in the Okefenokee Swamp requires confirmation (Moler and Kezer 1993). Liu et al. (2004) found that all sampled Pseudobranchus in northernmost Florida and in Georgia were P. striatus.

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Range Description

This species is widespread in peninsular Florida, USA; Moler and Kezer (1993) did not encounter it north of the St. Johns River drainage in Alachua and Putnam counties, though they stated that it might follow the St. Johns River north along the east coast. Reported occurrence in the Okefenokee Swamp requires confirmation (Moler and Kezer 1993).
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Distribution and Habitat

This species is distributed throughout peninsular Florida, occurring in open marshes, prairie ponds, and other permanent and semi-permanent aquatic habitats (Moler and Kezer 1993; Petranka 1998).Individuals are frequently found in floating mats of water hyacinth, a plant introduced to the region (Moler and Kezer 1993; Petranka 1998).

  • Conant, R. and Collins, J. T. (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
  • Martof, B. S. (1972). ''Pseudobranchus, P. striatus.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 118.1-118.4.
  • Martof, B. S. (1974). ''Sirenidae. Sirens.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 151.1-151.2.
  • Moler, P. E., and Kezer, J. (1993). ''Karyology and systematics of the salamander genus Pseudobranchus (Sirenidae).'' Copeia, 1993, 39-47.
  • Netting, M. G., and Goin, C. J. (1942). ''Descriptions of two new salamanders from peninsular Florida.'' Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 29, 175-196.
  • Sever, D. M., Rania, L. C. and Krenz, J. D. (1996). ''Reproduction of the salamander Siren intermedia Le Conte with especial reference to oviducal anatomy and mode of fertilization.'' Journal of Morphology, 227, 335-348.
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Differs from P. STRIATUS in having N=32 chromosomes rather than N=24 chromosomes (Moler and Kezer 1993).

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Type Information

Paratype for Pseudobranchus axanthus
Catalog Number: USNM 67353
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1924
Locality: Gainesville, Alachua, Florida, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Netting, M. G. & Goin, C. J. 1942. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 29: 183.
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Paratype for Pseudobranchus axanthus
Catalog Number: USNM 67352
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1924
Locality: Gainesville, Alachua, Florida, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Netting, M. G. & Goin, C. J. 1942. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 29: 183.
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Paratype for Pseudobranchus axanthus
Catalog Number: USNM 92566
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1931
Locality: Gainesville, Alachua, Florida, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Netting, M. G. & Goin, C. J. 1942. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 29: 183.
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Paratype for Pseudobranchus axanthus
Catalog Number: USNM 118790
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1932
Locality: Gainesville, near, Paine's Prairie (= Paynes Prairie), Alachua, Florida, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Netting, M. G. & Goin, C. J. 1942. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 29: 183.
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Paratype for Pseudobranchus axanthus
Catalog Number: USNM 107294
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Juvenile
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1938
Locality: Gainesville, near, Newnan's Lake, Alachua, Florida, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Netting, M. G. & Goin, C. J. 1942. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 29: 183.
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Paratype for Pseudobranchus axanthus
Catalog Number: USNM 107293
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Juvenile
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1938
Locality: Gainesville, near, Newnan's Lake, Alachua, Florida, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Netting, M. G. & Goin, C. J. 1942. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 29: 183.
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Paratype for Pseudobranchus axanthus
Catalog Number: USNM 107292
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Juvenile
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1938
Locality: Gainesville, near, Newnan's Lake, Alachua, Florida, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Netting, M. G. & Goin, C. J. 1942. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 29: 183.
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Paratype for Pseudobranchus axanthus
Catalog Number: USNM 107291
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Juvenile
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1938
Locality: Gainesville, near, Newnan's Lake, Alachua, Florida, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Netting, M. G. & Goin, C. J. 1942. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 29: 183.
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Paratype for Pseudobranchus axanthus
Catalog Number: USNM 107290
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Juvenile
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1938
Locality: Gainesville, near, Newnan's Lake, Alachua, Florida, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Netting, M. G. & Goin, C. J. 1942. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 29: 183.
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Paratype for Pseudobranchus axanthus
Catalog Number: USNM 107288
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Juvenile
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1938
Locality: Gainesville, near, Newnan's Lake, Alachua, Florida, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Netting, M. G. & Goin, C. J. 1942. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 29: 183.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Open marsh and open prairie ponds; low gradient streams tributary to lakes; most easily collected from mats of floating water hyacinths (Moler and Kezer 1993). Eggs are attached to or scattered among submerged vegetation.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It can be found in open marsh and open prairie ponds; low gradient streams and lake tributaries; most easily collected from mats of floating water hyacinths (Moler and Kezer 1993). Eggs are attached to or scattered among submerged vegetation.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Eats small, slow-moving or dead aquatic invertebrates.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300

Comments: This species is represented by many occurrences (subpopulations).

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Global Abundance

100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but probably exceeds 100,000. The species is often locally abundant where suitable habitat remains (Petranka 1998, Moler 2005).

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: May remain inactive (burrowed in substrate) for extended periods during drought.

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Reproduction

Lays clutch of more than 100 widely spaced eggs in spring; hatching occurs about a month later. Paedomorphic.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pseudobranchus axanthus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ACCCGATGACTATTTTCAACTAATCATAAAGACATTGGCACCCTTTACTTAATTTTTGGTGCATGAGCAGGGATAGTAGGAACTGCCTTA---AGCCTTTTAATTCGAGCAGAGTTAAGTCAACCAGGAGCACTTATAGGCGAT---GACCAAATCTATAATGTCGTAGTAACAGCTCACGCTTTCGTAATAATCTTTTTTATAGTTATACCAATTATAATTGGAGGCTTTGGAAATTGACTTCTGCCCTTAATA---ATCGGGGCCCCTGATATAGCTTTTCCTCGAATAAATAACATAAGTTTCTGATTGCTTCCACCATCATTTCTTTTACTCTTAGCTTCCTCCGGAGTTGAAGCAGGGGCAGGAACCGGTTGAACAGTTTATCCCCCTCTTGCCGGCAATCTAGCCCACGCAGGAGCCTCAGTAGACCTC---ACTATTTTCTCCCTCCACTTAGCAGGAGTTTCATCCATCTTAGGGGCAATTAATTTTATCACCACCTCAATTAATATGAAACCTCCATCTATAACACAATATCAAACCCCACTATTCGTATGGTCAGTATTAATTACTGCAGTCCTATTATTATTATCATTGCCCGTACTAGCAGCA---GGAATTACAATATTACTAACAGATCGAAATCTAAATACTACATTTTTTGATCCAGCAGGCGGAGGTGACCCAGTATTATACCAACATCTATTTTGATTTTTTGGCCACCCAGAAGTATATATCCTCATCTTACCAGGCTTTGGAATAATCTCGCACATTGTTACATACTATTCATCTAAAAAA---GAACCCTTCGGCTACATAGGCATAGTCTGAGCTATAATATCTATTGGATTATTAGGATTTATTGTTTGGGCGCACCACATATTCACAGTTGATCTTAATGTAGACACCCGAGCATATTTTACATCGGCCACAATAATTATTGCAATCCCCACAGGCGTAAAAGTATTTAGCTGATTA---GCAACAATACATGGGG
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pseudobranchus axanthus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Narrow to moderate.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Geoffrey Hammerson

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable to decline of 30%

Global Long Term Trend: Decline of 30-50%

Comments: Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of occurences, and population size have been reduced as a result of drainage of wetlands in association with residential, agricultural, and silvicultural development (Moler 2005).

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Population

Population
It is often locally abundant where suitable habitat remains (Petranka 1998).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Courtship and mating have not been observed (Petranka 1998). Fertilization is presumed to be external (Martof 1972 1974; Sever et al. 1996).Eggs are deposited singly, and the oviposition period lasts from early November through March (Petranka 1998).

Often locally abundant. Diet consists of aquatic invertebrates, including earthworms, amphipods, chironomids, and ostracods. When semi-permanent pools dry, dwarf sirens aestivate in burrows 10-30 cm underground. Individuals are likely to be preyed upon by birds, turtles, alligators, and aquatic snakes. When disturbed, dwarf sirens sometimes emit a high-pitched yelp. See Petranka (1998) and references therein.

  • Conant, R. and Collins, J. T. (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
  • Martof, B. S. (1972). ''Pseudobranchus, P. striatus.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 118.1-118.4.
  • Martof, B. S. (1974). ''Sirenidae. Sirens.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 151.1-151.2.
  • Moler, P. E., and Kezer, J. (1993). ''Karyology and systematics of the salamander genus Pseudobranchus (Sirenidae).'' Copeia, 1993, 39-47.
  • Netting, M. G., and Goin, C. J. (1942). ''Descriptions of two new salamanders from peninsular Florida.'' Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 29, 175-196.
  • Sever, D. M., Rania, L. C. and Krenz, J. D. (1996). ''Reproduction of the salamander Siren intermedia Le Conte with especial reference to oviducal anatomy and mode of fertilization.'' Journal of Morphology, 227, 335-348.
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Threats

Degree of Threat: Medium

Comments: Many local populations undoubtedly have been eliminated by destruction of wetlands (Petranka 1998).

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Major Threats
It is not threatened overall but many local populations undoubtedly have been eliminated by destruction of wetlands (Petranka 1998), especially due to urbanization.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

There is no evidence that populations of this species are declining. However, the habitat of dwarf sirens is threatened, and therefore populations are at risk, by development and agriculture which lead to the destruction of wetlands (Petranka 1998).

  • Conant, R. and Collins, J. T. (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
  • Martof, B. S. (1972). ''Pseudobranchus, P. striatus.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 118.1-118.4.
  • Martof, B. S. (1974). ''Sirenidae. Sirens.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 151.1-151.2.
  • Moler, P. E., and Kezer, J. (1993). ''Karyology and systematics of the salamander genus Pseudobranchus (Sirenidae).'' Copeia, 1993, 39-47.
  • Netting, M. G., and Goin, C. J. (1942). ''Descriptions of two new salamanders from peninsular Florida.'' Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 29, 175-196.
  • Sever, D. M., Rania, L. C. and Krenz, J. D. (1996). ''Reproduction of the salamander Siren intermedia Le Conte with especial reference to oviducal anatomy and mode of fertilization.'' Journal of Morphology, 227, 335-348.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
None needed. It occurs in many protected areas.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

Dwarf sirens are sometimes seen in the pet trade.

  • Conant, R. and Collins, J. T. (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
  • Martof, B. S. (1972). ''Pseudobranchus, P. striatus.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 118.1-118.4.
  • Martof, B. S. (1974). ''Sirenidae. Sirens.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 151.1-151.2.
  • Moler, P. E., and Kezer, J. (1993). ''Karyology and systematics of the salamander genus Pseudobranchus (Sirenidae).'' Copeia, 1993, 39-47.
  • Netting, M. G., and Goin, C. J. (1942). ''Descriptions of two new salamanders from peninsular Florida.'' Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 29, 175-196.
  • Sever, D. M., Rania, L. C. and Krenz, J. D. (1996). ''Reproduction of the salamander Siren intermedia Le Conte with especial reference to oviducal anatomy and mode of fertilization.'' Journal of Morphology, 227, 335-348.
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Wikipedia

Southern dwarf siren

The southern dwarf siren (Pseudobranchus axanthus) is a perennibranch salamander lacking hind legs. Found exclusively in Florida, it is one of two currently recognized species of dwarf sirens. Two subspecies are currently recognized; P. a. axanthus, the narrow-striped dwarf siren, and P. a. belli, the Everglades dwarf siren.

Physical description[edit]

Southern dwarf sirens are thin, slimy salamanders that are frequently mistaken for eels. they have long bodies with bushy gills and small, three-toed fore legs. Coloration is generally brown, black, or gray, with yellow or tan stripes on their backs and sides. Adults reach a length of 10–25 cm.

Southern dwarf sirens can easily be distinguished from amphiumas by size and the presence of hind legs, and from Siren spp. salamanders by the presence of three toes on each foot. Distinguishing between P. axanthus and P. striatus is more difficult, requiring comparison of patterns with a field guide, known distribution, or a karyotype test. P. axanthus has 32 chromosomes, while P. striatus has 24. A costal groove count may assist in differentiating P. a. axanthus and P. a. belli, as the former has 34–37 costal grooves, while the latter has 29–33 (Petranka, 1998).

Distribution[edit]

P. axanthus is found throughout eastern Florida, with P. a. axanthus located in the northern two-thirds of the range and P. a. belli located in the southern third. P. axanthus prefers cypress ponds, ditches, swamps and marshes, and other aquatic and semiaquatic habitats.[2] P. axanthus is frequently associated with water hyacinth.

Reproduction[edit]

Little is known about the reproduction of wild sirenid salamanders. Eggs of P. axanthus have been found from November through March, and are usually attached singly to aquatic plants. Eggs average 3 mm in diameter and have three jelly envelopes.[3]

In captivity, eggs were attached singly at night to floating vegetation in groups of two to five a day. Larvae hatch out at about 5 mm after around three weeks.

Diet[edit]

Southern dwarf sirens eat a variety of food items, including small worms, chironomids, amphipods, and ostracods.[4] Dwarf sirens have surprisingly small mouths, but will likely eat any invertebrate they can swallow. In captivity, adult Daphnia magna, whiteworms, blackworms, and tubifex worms are readily taken.

Ecology[edit]

During dry spells, P. axanthus is known to aestivate in muddy burrows, and adults have been kept for periods longer than two months in dry soil with no ill effects in the laboratory.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Amphibian Species of the World 5.5. research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia.
  2. ^ Petranka, 1998
  3. ^ Petranka, 1998
  4. ^ Petranka, 1998
  5. ^ Petranka, 1998

Petranka, James W.; 1998, Salamanders of the United States and Canada, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Moler and Kezer (1993) conducted a karyological survey of Pseudobranchus and found two radically different karyotypes (N = 24 and N = 32). These two types were regarded as separate species, P. striatus and P. axanthus, respectively. Pseudobranchus striatus was regarded as including three subspecies (striatus, spheniscus, and lustricolus ), and P. axanthus was considered as including two subspecies (axanthus and belli). Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of allozyme data confirm the validity of the two currently recognized species of Pseudobranchus (Pseudobranchus axanthus from peninsular Florida and Pseudobranchus striatus from central and northern Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina) (Liu et al. 2004).

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