Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Males 44-64 mm SVL; females 46-74 mm SVL (Wright and Wright 1949). This species resembles Rana pipiens and Rana onca; R. fisheri can be distinguished by more reduced dorsal/head spotting and shorter legs than R. onca, which in turn has smaller and fewer spots and shorter legs than R. pipiens (Linsdale 1940).

Heel of extended hind limb falls considerably short of snout tip (Stejneger 1893). Tympanic disc has vertical diameter greater than the distance between the nostrils and eye (Stejneger 1893). Vomerine teeth between choanae and projecting beyond choanae posteriorly (Stejneger 1893). Hind feet about 2/3 webbed (Stejneger 1893). Single small metatarsal tubercle (Stejneger 1893). Paired weak dorsolateral ridges, and lacking longitudinal folds between the dorsolateral ridges (Stejneger 1893). Skin is granular on posterior lower aspect of femur (Stejneger 1893). Dorsum and flanks with numerous small dark spots "surrounded by lighter" (Stejneger 1893). No black ear patch (Stejneger 1893). Although Stejneger (1893) stated that external vocal sacs were not present, Wright and Wright (1949) report the presence of vocal sacs both from field experience with live frogs and from preserved specimens.

Olive green ground color, sometimes with the anterior body a brighter green, and with dark greenish olive to green spots. Spots often reduced or indistinct on anterior body/head, especially in males. Light stripes along dorsolateral folds. Throat light green with some pinkish suffusion, clouded with dark grayish olive green. Chest and belly may have pinkish cinnamon and may be clouded like the throat. Ventral surfaces of hindlimbs honey yellow to chamois. Males have nuptial pads. Females have more spotting dorsally than males (Wright and Wright 1949, from 1925 field notes on Tule Springs specimens, collected about 16 miles from what was Las Vegas at the time). Linsdale (1940) notes that R. fisheri had a "peculiar shade of ground color" compared to R. pipiens, but the shade is not otherwise described by that author.

Holotype USNM 18957 (adult female) was collected on March 13, 1891 (Jennings 1988). Specimens collected at Vegas Valley in 1891 are at USNM (HerpNET); specimens are also present in the MVZ, Stanford and California Academy of Sciences collections (Wright and Wright 1949), and at LACM (HerpNET).

This taxon has been treated as Rana fisheri (Stejneger 1893; Jennings et al. 1995) and as synonymous with (Slevin 1928) or a subspecies of R. onca (Jennings 1988; Stebbins 2003). Linsdale (1940) and Jennings et al. (1995) suggested on the basis of morphological analysis that R. fisheri was in fact a distinct species and not a subspecies of R. onca.

Hillis and Wilcox (2005) also noted that populations of leopard frogs (characterized as R. chiricahuensis) from the Mogollon Rim, Arizona, may be referrable to R. fisheri, based on morphological similarity.

In 2011, Hekkala and colleagues used ancient DNA methods with frogs fixed in ethanol in 1915 and preserved at the California Academy of Sciences to show that samples of R. fisheri cluster within the northwestern clade (of two clades currently assigned to Rana chiricahuensis), and they have assigned members of that clade (mainly from the Mogollon Rim region) to R. fisheri. The status of the second clade, currently R. chiricahuensis, is now in question, especially important given recent focus on conservation efforts.

  • Wright, A. H. and Wright, A. A. (1949). Handbook of Frogs and Toads of the United States and Canada. Comstock Publishing Company, Inc., Ithaca, New York.
  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • HIllis, D. M., and Wilcox, T. P. (2005). ''Phylogeny of the New World true frogs (Rana).'' Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 34, 299-314.
  • Hekkala, E.R., Saumure, R.A., Jaeger, J.R., Herrmann, H-W., Sredl, M.J., Bradford, D.F., Drabeck, D., and Blum, M.J. (2011). ''Resurrecting an extinct species: archival DNA, taxonomy, and conservation of the Vegas Valley leopard frog.'' Conservation Genetics, published online 28 May 2011.
  • Jennings, M. R. (1988). ''Rana onca Cope, relict leopard frog.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 417.1-417.2.
  • Jennings, M. R. and Hayes, M. P. (1994). ''Decline of native ranid frogs in the desert southwest.'' Herpetology of the North American Deserts, Special Publication, Number 5. P. R. Brown and J. W. Wright (Eds.), eds., Southwestern Herpetologists Society, Van Nuys, California.
  • Jennings, R. D., Riddle, B. R. and Bradford, D. (1995). ''Rediscovery of Rana onca, the relict leopard frog, in southern Nevada with comments on the systematic relationships of some leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) and the status of populations along the Virgin River.'' Report prepared for Arizona Game and Fish Dept., U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Las Vegas Valley Water District, U.S. National Park Service, and Southwest Parks and Monuments Association. 73 pp.
  • Linsdale, J. M. (1940). ''Amphibians and reptiles in Nevada.'' Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 73(8), 197-257.
  • Slevin, J.R. (1928). "The amphibians of western North America." Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, 16, 1-152.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

This species was known from a small number of localities, elevation ca. 600m asl, in the northern portions of Las Vegas Valley, Clark County, Nevada, USA (Jennings, Riddle and Bradford 1995).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution and Habitat

Rana fisheri was known from several localities in the northern Las Vegas Valley, Clark County, Nevada, USA, at elevations of about 600 m. This species was associated with springs and trickling streams in "springy fields", with the habitat isolated by the surrounding desert (Wright and Wright 1949). It was reported to be sympatric with Pseudacris regilla and Bufo compactilis at what was Tule Springs in 1925 (Wright and Wright 1949).

  • Wright, A. H. and Wright, A. A. (1949). Handbook of Frogs and Toads of the United States and Canada. Comstock Publishing Company, Inc., Ithaca, New York.
  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • HIllis, D. M., and Wilcox, T. P. (2005). ''Phylogeny of the New World true frogs (Rana).'' Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 34, 299-314.
  • Hekkala, E.R., Saumure, R.A., Jaeger, J.R., Herrmann, H-W., Sredl, M.J., Bradford, D.F., Drabeck, D., and Blum, M.J. (2011). ''Resurrecting an extinct species: archival DNA, taxonomy, and conservation of the Vegas Valley leopard frog.'' Conservation Genetics, published online 28 May 2011.
  • Jennings, M. R. (1988). ''Rana onca Cope, relict leopard frog.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 417.1-417.2.
  • Jennings, M. R. and Hayes, M. P. (1994). ''Decline of native ranid frogs in the desert southwest.'' Herpetology of the North American Deserts, Special Publication, Number 5. P. R. Brown and J. W. Wright (Eds.), eds., Southwestern Herpetologists Society, Van Nuys, California.
  • Jennings, R. D., Riddle, B. R. and Bradford, D. (1995). ''Rediscovery of Rana onca, the relict leopard frog, in southern Nevada with comments on the systematic relationships of some leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) and the status of populations along the Virgin River.'' Report prepared for Arizona Game and Fish Dept., U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Las Vegas Valley Water District, U.S. National Park Service, and Southwest Parks and Monuments Association. 73 pp.
  • Linsdale, J. M. (1940). ''Amphibians and reptiles in Nevada.'' Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 73(8), 197-257.
  • Slevin, J.R. (1928). "The amphibians of western North America." Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, 16, 1-152.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Type Information

Paratype for Lithobates fisheri
Catalog Number: USNM 18963
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Las Vegas Ranch, Vegas Valley, Clark, Nevada, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1893. North American Fauna. 7: 227, plate 3, figures 5a-c.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Paratype for Lithobates fisheri
Catalog Number: USNM 18961
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Las Vegas Ranch, Vegas Valley, Clark, Nevada, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1893. North American Fauna. 7: 227, plate 3, figures 5a-c.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Paratype for Lithobates fisheri
Catalog Number: USNM 18964
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Las Vegas Ranch, Vegas Valley, Clark, Nevada, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1893. North American Fauna. 7: 227, plate 3, figures 5a-c.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Paratype for Lithobates fisheri
Catalog Number: USNM 18962
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Las Vegas Ranch, Vegas Valley, Clark, Nevada, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1893. North American Fauna. 7: 227, plate 3, figures 5a-c.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Paratype for Lithobates fisheri
Catalog Number: USNM 18965
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Las Vegas Ranch, Vegas Valley, Clark, Nevada, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1893. North American Fauna. 7: 227, plate 3, figures 5a-c.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Paratype for Lithobates fisheri
Catalog Number: USNM 18959
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Vegas Valley, Clark, Nevada, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1893. North American Fauna. 7: 227, plate 3, figures 5a-c.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Paratype for Lithobates fisheri
Catalog Number: USNM 18958
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Vegas Valley, Clark, Nevada, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1893. North American Fauna. 7: 227, plate 3, figures 5a-c.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Holotype for Lithobates fisheri
Catalog Number: USNM 18957
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Adult
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Vegas Valley, Clark, Nevada, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Stejneger, L. 1893. North American Fauna. 7: 227, plate 3, figures 5a-c.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This frog was restricted to freshwater streams, springs, seeps, and adjacent riparian habitat associated with the Upper Las Vegas Valley (Wright and Wright 1949). Egg masses are not known, but metamorphic individuals were collected in the same habitats as those used by adults (Wright and Wright 1949).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EX
Extinct

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Randy Jennings, Geoffrey Hammerson

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Extinct because it has not been recorded for over 60 years, and extensive searches have failed to locate this species.

History
  • 1996
    Extinct
  • 1994
    Extinct?
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Endangered
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Endangered
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Endangered
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
It was last seen in 1942 (Wright and Wright 1949) and is now believed to be extinct (Jennings, Riddle and Bradford 1995).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

This species was last documented prior to 1942 and it is now presumed to be extinct (Jennings et al. 1995; Stuart et al. 2008). Two specimens in the LACM collection were obtained from Tule Springs in 1941 (HerpNET). By the following year (1942) the habitat at Tule Springs had clearly been altered by urbanization; during searches in May 1942 (see below), splashes were heard near tules, thought to be from R. fisheri leaping into the water, but frogs were not seen (Wright and Wright 1949).

In field notes (MVZ) from 1942, Wright and Wright (1949) say:

"May 16. What frog hunters we are! I thought I was good at it. I came here once with a golden spoon in my mouth. Seventeen years have gone since we were here last. Las Vegas has grown, but how? Thirty-five men sleeping on the Union Pacific lawn. Roads are changed. Took us most of the day to locate where the old artesian well and the springs were. At the U. S. Fish Hatchery found bullfrogs. The municipal golf course and possibly the hatcheries are where the springs were. Looked these over but no R. fisheri. Tried Las Vegas Creek upper stretches. Found a minnow and plenty of crayfish but no frogs.

May 17. Went out Main Ave. to U. S. Fish Hatchery. Looked around the big pond. No frogs. Walked from municipal golf course along water to main Tonopah road. Heard one jump in tules, probably my game. Went to Fifth St. crossing of Las Vegas Creek. Looked it over. West of this crossing in tules heard one splash of frogs. Never saw them. This afternoon at 4:30 went to Main Street crossing and walked up to old artesian well, a mile or so. Some minnows in stream, lots of crayfish-heard four splashes in tules but never saw frogs. What a state! Men sleeping under trees, unemployed, unhoused, and some unclean, one group quarreling.

Our R. fisheri may go with the old springs gone, the creek a mess."

  • Wright, A. H. and Wright, A. A. (1949). Handbook of Frogs and Toads of the United States and Canada. Comstock Publishing Company, Inc., Ithaca, New York.
  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • HIllis, D. M., and Wilcox, T. P. (2005). ''Phylogeny of the New World true frogs (Rana).'' Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 34, 299-314.
  • Hekkala, E.R., Saumure, R.A., Jaeger, J.R., Herrmann, H-W., Sredl, M.J., Bradford, D.F., Drabeck, D., and Blum, M.J. (2011). ''Resurrecting an extinct species: archival DNA, taxonomy, and conservation of the Vegas Valley leopard frog.'' Conservation Genetics, published online 28 May 2011.
  • Jennings, M. R. (1988). ''Rana onca Cope, relict leopard frog.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 417.1-417.2.
  • Jennings, M. R. and Hayes, M. P. (1994). ''Decline of native ranid frogs in the desert southwest.'' Herpetology of the North American Deserts, Special Publication, Number 5. P. R. Brown and J. W. Wright (Eds.), eds., Southwestern Herpetologists Society, Van Nuys, California.
  • Jennings, R. D., Riddle, B. R. and Bradford, D. (1995). ''Rediscovery of Rana onca, the relict leopard frog, in southern Nevada with comments on the systematic relationships of some leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) and the status of populations along the Virgin River.'' Report prepared for Arizona Game and Fish Dept., U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Las Vegas Valley Water District, U.S. National Park Service, and Southwest Parks and Monuments Association. 73 pp.
  • Linsdale, J. M. (1940). ''Amphibians and reptiles in Nevada.'' Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 73(8), 197-257.
  • Slevin, J.R. (1928). "The amphibians of western North America." Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, 16, 1-152.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
It is extinct evidently due to habitat loss resulting from spring capture and ground water pumping by the growing city of Las Vegas (URS 1977), and exacerbated by the introduction of the Bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. Although some suitable habitat persists within or near the former range of this species, only R. catesbeiana can be found.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Habitat loss is probably the main factor that led to this species' demise, from depletion of spring water and ground water as the city of Las Vegas expanded. It is likely that competition with introduced Rana catesbeiana also contributed to the extinction of Rana fisheri. Only Rana catesbeiana were seen in May 1942 near the original site; a few splashes were heard that were thought to be R. fisheri but none were seen (Wright and Wright 1949). Introduced crayfish and game fish may also have contributed (Jennings and Hayes 1994).

  • Wright, A. H. and Wright, A. A. (1949). Handbook of Frogs and Toads of the United States and Canada. Comstock Publishing Company, Inc., Ithaca, New York.
  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • HIllis, D. M., and Wilcox, T. P. (2005). ''Phylogeny of the New World true frogs (Rana).'' Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 34, 299-314.
  • Hekkala, E.R., Saumure, R.A., Jaeger, J.R., Herrmann, H-W., Sredl, M.J., Bradford, D.F., Drabeck, D., and Blum, M.J. (2011). ''Resurrecting an extinct species: archival DNA, taxonomy, and conservation of the Vegas Valley leopard frog.'' Conservation Genetics, published online 28 May 2011.
  • Jennings, M. R. (1988). ''Rana onca Cope, relict leopard frog.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 417.1-417.2.
  • Jennings, M. R. and Hayes, M. P. (1994). ''Decline of native ranid frogs in the desert southwest.'' Herpetology of the North American Deserts, Special Publication, Number 5. P. R. Brown and J. W. Wright (Eds.), eds., Southwestern Herpetologists Society, Van Nuys, California.
  • Jennings, R. D., Riddle, B. R. and Bradford, D. (1995). ''Rediscovery of Rana onca, the relict leopard frog, in southern Nevada with comments on the systematic relationships of some leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) and the status of populations along the Virgin River.'' Report prepared for Arizona Game and Fish Dept., U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Las Vegas Valley Water District, U.S. National Park Service, and Southwest Parks and Monuments Association. 73 pp.
  • Linsdale, J. M. (1940). ''Amphibians and reptiles in Nevada.'' Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 73(8), 197-257.
  • Slevin, J.R. (1928). "The amphibians of western North America." Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, 16, 1-152.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© AmphibiaWeb © 2000-2011 The Regents of the University of California

Source: AmphibiaWeb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
No conservation measures are needed; this species is extinct.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Vegas Valley leopard frog

The Vegas Valley leopard frog (Lithobates fisheri) is a species of frog previously declared extinct.[1] Once it occurred in the Las Vegas Valley, as well as Tule Springs, Clark County, southern Nevada, United States of America, at elevations between 370 and 760 m (1,210 and 2,490 ft).[2][3][4][5] It was believed to be the only frog endemic to the United States to have become extinct in modern times.[6]

A. Vanderhorst collected 10 specimens of this species at Tule Springs on January 13, 1942. These frogs were believed to be the last recorded specimens of the Vegas Valley leopard frog, and are now in the University of Michigan Museum of Comparative Zoology collection.[7][8] The Vegas Valley leopard frog was considered extinct[5] after extensive searches have failed to locate the species.[1]

In 2011, a genetic analysis using DNA from preserved museum specimens of the Vegas Valley leopard frog revealed it is 100% identical, genetically, to the northwestern Mogollon Rim populations[9] of the Chiricahua leopard frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis), which is extant but threatened.[10] While it has been extirpated from the Las Vegas area, the frog is no longer considered extinct because it is the same species as the Chiricahua leopard frog.[11] According to nomenclatural priority, the northwestern Mogollon Rim population of L. chiricahuensis, described in 1979, is referable to the 1893-described, extinct population of the species, L. fisheri.[9] L. chiricahuensis may remain a valid taxon for the southern and eastern range of the Chiricahua leopard frog.[9]

It appears then that there are two separate species within the fisheri/chiricahuensis complex - Lithobates fisheri, comprising the former Vegas Valley leopard frogs near Las Vegas and the Chiricahua leopard frogs from the Mogollon Rim, and Lithobates chiricahuensis, comprising the Chiricahua leopard frogs from the southern and eastern portions of the range in Arizona and New Mexico. The status of the Chiricahua leopard frogs in northern Mexico may be uncertain, and this may be yet another separate lineage. The fisheri/chiricahuensis complex has a close relationship with an unnamed leopard frog species called only "Lithobates species 2" known from San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Randy Jennings, Geoffrey Hammerson (2004) Lithobates fisheri. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.
  2. ^ Linsdale, J. M. (1940). "Amphibians and reptiles of Nevada". Proceeding of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 73 (8): 197–257. doi:10.2307/25130182. 
  3. ^ Stebbins, R. C. (1951) Amphibians of western North America. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
  4. ^ Stebbins, R. C. 1985. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.. Mild. Nat. 77:323–355 ISBN 039538253X.
  5. ^ a b Jennings, R.D., Riddle, B.R. and Bradford, D. (1995) Rediscovery of Rana onca, the relict leopard frog, in southern Nevada with comments on the systematic relationships of some leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) and the status of populations along the Virgin River. Unpublished report.
  6. ^ "'Extinct' frog was under our noses all the time". New Scientist. June 17, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  7. ^ Platz, J. E. (1984) Status report for Rana onca Cope. Unpublished report prepared for Office of Endangered Species, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
  8. ^ Center for Biological Diversity and Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance (2002) Petition to list the relict leopard frog (Rana onca) as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act. biologicaldiversity.org
  9. ^ a b c Hekkala, Evon R.; Saumure, Raymond A.; Jaeger, Jef R.; Herrmann, Hans-Werner; Sredl, Michael J.; Bradford, David F.; Drabeck, Danielle; Blum, Michael J. (2011). "Resurrecting an extinct species: Archival DNA, taxonomy, and conservation of the Vegas Valley leopard frog". Conservation Genetics 12 (5): 1379. doi:10.1007/s10592-011-0229-6. 
  10. ^ Bhanoo, S. N. A frog endangered but extinct no more. New York Times June 17, 2011. Accessed June 17, 2011.
  11. ^ "Breathing life into an extinct species". Machines Like Us. June 17, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Hillis, D.M., Frost, J.S.,& Wright, D.A. (1983). Phylogeny and biogeography of the Rana pipiens complex: A biochemical evaluation. Systematic Zoology' 32: 132–143.
  • Hillis, D.M. (1988). Systematics of the Rana pipiens complex: Puzzle and paradigm. Annual Review of Systematics and Ecology 19: 39–63.
  • Hillis, D.M. & Wilcox, T.P. (2005). Phylogeny of the New World true frogs (Rana). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 34(2): 299–314. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.10.007 PDF fulltext.
  • Hillis, D. M. (2007). Constraints in naming parts of the Tree of Life. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 42: 331–338.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!