Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Head wider than body, large eyes with a scarlet colored iris, tips of digits round and webbed at the base, and smooth skin. Adults are dark above, patterned with darker circles, with a white ventral surface with black blotches. Juveniles are bluish in color. Females larger than males (70mm SVL vs. 60mm SVL, respectively).

  • ''Species and Ecosystem Diversity in Protected Areas: Mt. Apo Natural Park (MANP).'' psdn.org.ph. 22 Feb. 2006 .
  • ''Taxonomic Listing of Frogs Recorded from Mindoro.'' malampaya.com/mindoro. 22 Feb. 2006 .
  • Iskandar, D. T. (1998). The Amphibians of Java and Bali. Research and Development Centre for Biology-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia.
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Biology

The genus Leptobrachium is part of a large family of unique frogs (Megophryidae), consisting of roughly 140 species in 10 genera (Brachytarsophrys, Borneophrys, Leptobrachella, Leptolalax, Leptobrachium, Megophrys, Ophryophryne, Oreolalax, Scutiger, Xenophrys; Brown et al., 2009). Common names for some of the unique genera include “spadefoot toads,” “moustache toads,” “litter frogs,” and “horned frogs” (Brown et al., 2009). For more than half a century, only two megophryid genera have been recognized in the Philippines: Megophrys and Leptobrachium (Taylor, 1920; Inger, 1954; Brown and Alcala, 1970; Alcala, 1986; Alcala and Brown, 1998; Brown and Diesmos, 2002; Diesmos et al., 2004; Brown 2007; Brown et al., 2009).

Until recently, a single species of Leptobrachium, Leptobrachium hasseltii, was recognized in the Philippines. Upon closer examination of populations in each of the three major faunal regions in the Philippines that it is recognized to occur in, Brown et al. (2009) revised the taxonomy of the species, and described three unique Philippine endemics. Leptobrachium lumadorum is recognized to occur in the Mindanao faunal region, Leptobrachium mangyanorum is recognized to occur in the Mindoro faunal region, and Leptobrachium tagbanorum is known only from the Palawan faunal region. Interestingly, no populations of Leptobrachium have ever been recorded from the Visayan (central) or Luzon (northern) faunal regions in the country. These bizaar species of frogs have incredibly long arms and move by crawling across the surface of the substrate rather than hopping.

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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in Palawan, Mindoro, Bohol, Basilan, and Mindanao in the Philippines and in Java, Sumatra, Madura and in Kangean in Indonesia. It has been recorded from sea level to 1,570 m asl.
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Distribution and Habitat

Found in forested areas over much of southeast Asia (China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand). In Indonesia, this taxon is present on Java, Madura, Bali, and Kangean Island. In the Philippines, on Marinduque, Mindanao, Bohol, Basilan, and Palawan.

  • ''Species and Ecosystem Diversity in Protected Areas: Mt. Apo Natural Park (MANP).'' psdn.org.ph. 22 Feb. 2006 .
  • ''Taxonomic Listing of Frogs Recorded from Mindoro.'' malampaya.com/mindoro. 22 Feb. 2006 .
  • Iskandar, D. T. (1998). The Amphibians of Java and Bali. Research and Development Centre for Biology-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia.
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Type Locality

"Java" Indonesia; syntypes stored in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum (formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie), Leiden, Netherlands; RMNH 2014-2015; RMNH 2015 designated as lectotype

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This species is recognized to occur on the islands of Java, and Bali to Kangean Island in Indonesia

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Physical Description

Size

37.5-62.0 mm SVL

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Diagnostic Description

Leptobrachium hasseltii can be distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: 1) body size moderate (SVL 37.5-62.0 mm); 2) tympanum covered or not covered by dark coloration; 3) canthal stripe thick or absent; 4) tibial bars 3-4; 5) predominant dorsal coloration and dorsal markings tanw ith distinct dark brown spots and blotches; 6) relative hind limb (HL/SVL) 0.38-0.43; 7) relative tibia length (TBL/SVL) 0.33-0.38; 8) realative forearm length (FA/SVL) 0.27-0.33; 9) relative pes (foot) length (PL/SVL) 0.35-0.38; and 10) sexual dimorphism (mean female:male SVL) 1.34 (Brown et al. 2009).

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Type Information

Holotype for Leptobrachium hasseltii
Catalog Number: USNM 39097
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Balikpapan Bay, Kalimantan Timur, Kalimantan, Borneo - Indonesia
  • Holotype: Cochran, D. M. 1926. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 16 (16): 446.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It inhabits the forest floor litter of montane and lowland rainforests. In Indonesia, tadpoles have been collected from quiet pools and ponds. In the Philippines, tadpoles have been taken in flowing streams in lowland forest. Examined females have been found to contain 400-1,300 eggs (M. Kusrini pers. comm. August 2009).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Diesmos, A., Alcala, A., Brown, R., Afuang, L., Gee, G., Sukumaran, J., Yaakob, N., Leong Tzi Ming, Yodchaiy Chuaynkern, Kumthorn Thirakhupt, Das, I., Iskandar, D., Mumpuni, Robert Inger, Stuebing, R., Yambun, P., Maklarin Lakim & Kusrini, M.

Reviewer/s
Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Stuart, S.N.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
The population status of this species is unknown.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Restricted to forested areas, adults are terrestrial while tadpoles are usually found in mountain streams.

  • ''Species and Ecosystem Diversity in Protected Areas: Mt. Apo Natural Park (MANP).'' psdn.org.ph. 22 Feb. 2006 .
  • ''Taxonomic Listing of Frogs Recorded from Mindoro.'' malampaya.com/mindoro. 22 Feb. 2006 .
  • Iskandar, D. T. (1998). The Amphibians of Java and Bali. Research and Development Centre for Biology-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia.
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Threats

Major Threats
The major threat to this species is deforestation. In Java, this is mainly due to small-scale agriculture and urban development (M. Kusrini pers. comm. September 2009). More recently, the species has tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, although there are currently no records of population declines for this species (Kusrini et al. 2008).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The range of the species includes numerous protected areas. It is important to assess the presence and extent of the impact of the chytrid fungus on frog populations in Indonesia (Kusrini et al. 2008).
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Wikipedia

Leptobrachium hasseltii

Leptobrachium hasseltii (Hasselt's toad, Java spadefoot toad, Hasselt's litter frog, Tschudi's frog) is a species of toad found in Southeast Asia. According to the current understanding, this species is known with certainty only from Java (also the type locality), Madura, Bali, and Kangean Islands, Indonesia.[2] The species is also commonly reported to occur in the Philippines ( Palawan, Mindoro, Bohol, Basilan, Mindanao islands),[3] but these are believed to refer to another, unnamed species.[1][2]

As Leptobrachium hasseltii is the type species of genus Leptobrachium, populations from many areas were first referred to as conforming with this species, only to be later recognized as separate species.[4] This applies, for example, to Leptobrachium hainanense from Hainan[5] and Leptobrachium liui from the mainland China,[2] and Leptobrachium smithi from Thailand and Burma.[4][6]

Description and habitat[edit]

Leptob hasselt M 080208-4532 clobk.jpg

Leptobrachium hasseltii has a large head that is wider than the body and with large eyes with a scarlet coloured iris, tips of digits round and webbed at the base, and smooth skin. Adults are dark above, patterned with darker circles, with a white ventral surface with black blotches. Juveniles are bluish in color. Females are larger (70 mm (2.8 in) snout-vent length) than males (60 mm (2.4 in) SVL).[3]

Leptobrachium hasseltii inhabits the forest floor litter of montane and lowland rainforests. Tadpoles live in quiet pools and ponds. The species is threatened by deforestation.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Diesmos, A., Alcala, A., Brown, R., Afuang, L., Gee, G., Sukumaran, J., Yaakob, N., Leong Tzi Ming, Yodchaiy Chuaynkern, Kumthorn Thirakhupt, Das, I., Iskandar, D., Mumpuni, Robert Inger, Stuebing, R., Yambun, P., Maklarin Lakim & Kusrini, M. (2009). "Leptobrachium hasseltii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2013). "Leptobrachium hasseltii Tschudi, 1838". Amphibian Species of the World 5.6, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Marcelino, Janel (27 February 2006). "Leptobrachium hasseltii". Leptobrachium hasseltii. Amphibiaweb. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Matsui, Masafumi; Jarujin Nabhitabhata, Somsak Panha (1999). "On Leptobrachium from Thailand with a description of a new species (Anura: Pelobatidae)". Japanese Journal of Herpetology 18 (1): 19–29. 
  5. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2013). "Leptobrachium hainanense Ye and Fei, 1993". Amphibian Species of the World 5.6, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  6. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2013). "Leptobrachium smithi Matsui, Nabhitabhata, and Panha, 1999". Amphibian Species of the World 5.6, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
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