The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bailey, L.H. & E.Z. Bailey. 1976. Hortus Third i–xiv, 1–1290. MacMillan, New York.
  • Farjon A. (2013). Conifer Database (version Jul 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Gymnosperm Database. 2011. Abies nordmanniana (Steven) Spach 1841.
  • Histoire Naturelle des Végétaux. Phanérogames 11: 418. 1842. (Hist. Nat. Vég.)
  • IUCN. 1999. World Heritage Nomination—IUCN Technical Evaluation, Western Caucaus (Russian Federation). International Union. Retrieved 6 December 2011 from
  • Kees, S. & Gardner, M. 2011. Abies nordmanniana. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. Retrieved 12 December 2011 from
  • Landscape Architecture Blog. 2011. Plant of the Week: Abies nordmanniana subsp. nordmanniana. Davis Landscape Architecture.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • PNW Plants Database. 2011. Golden Spreader Nordmann Fir. Washington State University, Clark County Extension, PNW Plants. Retrieved 11 December 2011 from">'>
  • Spach. 1841. In: Hist. Nat. Vég. Phan. 11: 418.
  • Wikipedia. 2011. "Abies nordmanniana." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 6 Jul 2011, 03:53 UTC. Retrieved 6 Dec 2011.


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