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Overview

Brief Summary

Pachycondyla is a diverse group of 261 species and 61 species of stinging ponerine ants that are widespread in the world's tropics and subtropics.  Most are general predators or scavengers, with some specializing in hunting termites.  They nest on the ground, sometimes in the open, sometimes under rocks, logs or grass tufts.  16 fossil species have also been identified (Wikipedia 2013; Bolton 2014).

Although officially a genus, Pachycondyla is a polyphyletic group, consisting of many subgenera with unclear relationships that will likely prove to be valid, distinct genera (Wikipedia 2013; TOL 2004).

Because they are similar in body shape, Pachycondyla workers are often confused with workers of species in the genera Cryptopone, Hypoponera and Ponera.  Pachycondyla can be distinguished by the two spurs on the tip of the tibia on their hind legs: a larger serrated one and a smaller simple one.  Species in the other genera have just the large spur (Shattuck 2000). 

Two known Malayan Pachycondyla species are extraordinary in producing large quantities of defensive foam when threatened.  These species have enlarged venom glands in their sting, in which they produce proteinaceous secretions.  Scientists suggest that spiricles on the spiracular plate force air into the sting chamber to froth the secretions into a foam, which is then expelled in threads.  These species also have a reduced Defore’s gland, so don’t produce the lipophilic hydrocarbons usually contributed by this organ to venom; when tested, these lipophilic hydrocarbons inhibited foaming of protein solutions, suggesting that in order to produce the foam, Defore’s gland must be deactivated.  These ants do retain the ability to sting which is useful for prey capture and defense from large predators, but far less effective against small, fast, numerous invading arthropods (such as ants).  Production of defensive foam, on the other hand, successfully fights off these smaller pests (Wikipedia 2013; Maschwitz et al. 1981).

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Comprehensive Description

Genus 7. PACHYCONDYLA HNS .

Head oblong, subquadrate, the anterior margin of the clypeus rounded; mandibles large, stout and produced, their inner margin denticulate; antennae clavate; eyes placed forward on the sides of the head, ovate, and of a medium size; the labial palpi 4-jointed, the maxillary palpi 4-jointed. Thorax oblong, and slightly narrowed posteriorly; the calcaria pectinate. Abdomen elongate; the node of the peduncle incrassate, quadrate or subquadrate, elevated to the same level as the first segment, and usually of nearly the same width.

  • Smith, F. (1858): Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London, British Museum: 105-105, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/8127/8127.pdf
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Pachycondyla HNS { Bothroponera HNS ) tasmaniensis Forel HNS , Bull. Soc.

Vaud. Sc. Nat., xlix, p. 176. 1913. [worker]

I have not seen this species, but from the description given by Forel I am of the opinion that it is congeneric with the three preceding.

  • Clark, J. (1930): New Formicidae, with notes on some little-known species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 43, 2-25: 11-11, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/6104/6104.pdf
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Pachycondyla Smith HNS , F., 1858

(Fig. 9)

Males winged. Antennal scrobe absent. Mandibles reduced in size. If triangular in form (one species) then the masticatory margins do not completely overlap each other even when fully closed. Basal cavity of mandible extends to its front face. Basal cavity visible in full-face view in species with reduced mandibles, but invisible in species with triangular mandible. Notauli not impressed on mesoscutum in large species but clearly impressed in several medium or small species. Mesepimeron bearing distinct (epimeral) lobe posterodorsally, lobe covering mesothoracic spiracle and forming a seemingly isolated plate. Dorsolateral corner of petiole in anterior view without distinct projection, usually evenly rounded. Apical margin of abdominal tergum VIII projecting strongly into sharp spine in most cases, though spine lacking in several small species. Jugal lobe of hind wing present in most but not all species. Each middle and hind tibia with two spurs. Claws simple or with one or two preapical teeth, but never multidentate or pectinate.

Remarks. This genus (sensu Bolton 1995) is now considered to be paraphyletic (P. S. Ward unpublished). In the region, the males are divided into four distinct groups (Table 1). We keep these groups separate to facilitate naming them once a new generic classification for Pachycondyla HNS is developed based on molecular work.

Each is characterized by a combination of characters in the notauli, the terminal spine on abdominal tergum VIII, and the jugal lobe (Table 1). Section 01 consists of large, blackish-colored males (Figs. 9a-e), section 02 of small, yellowish-colored males (Figs. 9f-i), section 03 includes males having somewhat developed mandibles, and section 04 consists of reddish-colored males having a clypeus as long as males in Leptogenys HNS . Several sections are similar to other genera; characters distinguishing Pachycondyla HNS from those genera are given under the respective genera.

  • Yoshimura, M., Fisher, B. L. (2007): A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae. Zootaxa 1654, 21-40: 34-38, URL:http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2007f/zt01654p040.pdf
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Pachycondyla haratsingy Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. nov.

(Figures 4, 40, 41, 42, 74)

Holotype worker: Madagascar, Antsiranana, RS Ankarana, 7 km SE Matsaborimanga, -12.9, 49.1167, 150 m, sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 28 Nov 1990, (P.S. Ward) collection code: PSW11010 specimen code: CASENT0195184 (PSWC).

WORKER. Diagnosis: Anterior margin of clypeus widely transverse and slightly medially notched; metanotal groove weakly impressed; posterior surface of petiolar node with numerous slender hairs and abundant pubescence; anterior surface of first gastral segment concave, forming shallow impression to lodge posterior surface of petiole; lateral portion of head densely and finely reticulate-rugulose, sides of petiolar node densely and finely punctate.

Measurements (1 specimen): HW: 1.51, HL: 1.67, CI: 90, SL: 1.16, SI: 77, PW: 1.06, WL: 2.37, NH: 0.83, NL: 0.63, NW: 0.86, DNI: 137, LNI: 132.

Description: Head oblong, broadest at midlength; lateral borders generally convex and posterior margin weakly medially excised. Head capsule densely and finely reticulate-punctate. Eyes small, flushing with the head surface. Antennal scape short, not attaining posterior cephalic margin. Anterior margin of clypeus broad and transverse, not medially convex but slightly notched. Mandibular blades smooth and shiny apart from scattered punctures ; masticatory margins with ten teeth or denticles; outer margin of mandibles, from the base to apical portion, gradually curving towards the midline.

With mesosoma in dorsal view, metanotal groove a shallowly impressed transverse line; posterior margin of propodeum simple, not lamellate, and without a series of sharp teeth; dorsum of mesosoma reticulate-rugulose, superimposed with small punctures. Petiolar node broader than long in dorsal view, with medially bluntly angulate posterior margin and broadly convex anterior border; dorsum of node with large punctures; posterior surface covered with abundant pubescence; subpetiolar process anteriorly subquadrate followed by posteriorly acute angle. Anterior face of first gastral segment, from lower level of tergite towards anterodorsal angle, inclined posteriorly and shallowly impressed to lodge posterior face of petiolar node; this impression is deepest immediately above helcium and turns into a superficial cavity near the anterodorsal angle. First two gastral tergites covered with denser fine punctures. and dorsal view of body and full-face view of head,

FIGURES 40-42. Worker caste of Pachycondyla haratsingy : lateral holotype CASENT0195184.

Head and the rest of body dorsum with slender, elongate, erect hairs and abundant pubescence; dark brown in color with red to light brown appendages and tip of gaster.

Queen: unknown.

Discussion: Pachycondyla haratsingy may be confused with P. ivolo but the former has reticulate-rugulose sculpture on the lateral portion of the head and petiolar node, whereas the sides of the head and petiolar node of the latter are smooth and shiny between small piligerous punctures.

Distribution and biology: Pachycondyla haratsingy is only known from the RS Ankarana in northwestern Madagascar and represented by a single worker found foraging through leaf litter.

  • Rakotonirina, J. C., Fisher, B. L. (2013): Revision of the Pachycondyla sikorae species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Madagascar. Zootaxa 3683 (4), 447-485: 464-466, URL:http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2013/f/zt03683p485.pdf
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Diagnosis of workers and queens of P. wasmannii-group species

It should be noted that all diagnostic characters listed below are not unique to Malagasy P. wasmannii-group species but are shared with some Bothroponera (sensu Wheeler 1922 ) species from the Afrotropics.

1. Mandible subtriangular and robust, with masticatory margins bearing 7-9 teeth and denticles; groove running along the lateral portion from the base to the apex, but without a basilateral pit. 2. Palp formula 4,4. 3. Frontal lobes noticeably widely rounded anteriorly, the outer margins posteriorly narrow and compressed laterally at about the level of the eyes. 4. Clypeus usually with a truncate anteromedian margin, the shape of which is straight or slightly excised medially, but in P. tavaratra projects into a triangular lobe. The median portion posteriorly pinched into a slight triangle between the frontal lobes and extending backwards as a line at about the midlength of the head. 5. Antenna with 12 segments, the funiculus gradually increasing in width towards the apex and without a distinct club. 6. Compound eyes present and generally quite large but their maximum diameter less than the maximum width of the scape; posterior margin of the eye placed in the front of the midline of the head when viewed in profile. 7. Tibia of the hind legs with a pair of apical spurs, the posterior pectinate and the anterior smaller and simple. 8. Pretarsal claws generally simple, preapical tooth may be present at the base in larger species ( P. comorensis , P. tavaratra ). 9. Metanotal groove obsolete or lacking in the worker caste. 10. Mesopleural sulcus either clearly visible in P. masoala , P. wasmannii , and in some P. cambouei or indistinct in P. perroti , P. vazimba , and in some P. planicornis . 11. Propodeum generally broad in dorsal view, the rear margin rounded, not bidentate or bispinose. 12. Propodeal spiracle slit-like. 13. Metapleural gland opening just above the posteroventral angle of mesosoma. 14. Basal fourth of all femora strongly laterally flattened (Fig. 52). 15. Petiole nodiform, usually thick, tapered towards the apex in P. masoala . 16. Subpetiolar process hook-like anteriorly and with nearly flattened or very slightly convex surface; sometimes with transverse ridges in the posterior portion in P. comorensis , P. tavaratra , and in some P. cambouei . 17. Helcium almost on the anteroventral angle of the first gastral segment (abdominal segment IV). 18. Strong constriction between the first and second gastral segments. 19. Stridulitrum present. 20. Sting well developed. 21. Queen caste-specific characteristics: broader head, presence of ocelli, eyes larger than the greatest width of antennal scape; mesopleuron divided into an episternum and katepisternum by a transverse sulcus, the mesosomal flight sclerites fully developed; petiole node more flattened anteroposteriorly relative to that of worker; somewhat larger body size with usually larger gaster and denser and more elongate pubescence.

In the Malagasy P. wasmannii-group species, the worker caste can generally be identified by the following character combination: mandibles without basi-lateral pit; obsolete metanotal groove; propodeal spiracle opening slit-shaped; hind leg with two tibial spurs, of which one is large and pectinate and the other smaller and simple; roughly basal fourth of all femora strongly laterally flattened; propodeal rear margin simple; petiolar node thick whithout spines on rear margin; and first and second gastral segments seperated by a strong constriction. In addition, the mesosoma and petiole node usually strongly sculptured, frontal lobes broadly rounded, and propodeal dorsum wide.

Synopsis of the taxonomic history of the P. wasmannii species-group

The four previously described species in the P. wasmannii-group were all described between 1887 and 1892 in the genus Bothroponera . We summarize the taxonomic history of Bothroponera below.

BothroponeraMayr, 1862 :713, 717 [as subgenus of Ponera by Emery, 1895b : 767 and Forel, 1900 : 322; as subgenus of Pachycondyla by Emery, 1901 : 42; Wheeler, 1910 : 135, 1911 : 160, 1917 : 489; Emery, 1911 : 74, 75, 76; Arnold, 1915 : 55; Forel, 1917 : 237; Donisthorpe, 1943 : 628. As genus by Forel, 1891 : 127; Dalla Torre 1893 : 35; Bingham, 1903 : 95; Ashmead, 1905 : 382; Wheeler 1918 : 299, 1922 : 1008; Taylor and Brown, 1985 : 21; Tiwari, 1999 : 11, 27, 28; Schmidt, 2009 : 119 (PhD thesis). As junior synonym of Pachycondyla by Brown, 1973 : 179 [provisional]; Snelling 1981 : 389; Hölldobler and Wilson, 1990 : 11; Bolton, 1994 : 164; Bolton, 2003 : 166]. Type species: Ponera pumicosa Roger, 1860 : 290; by subsequent designation of Emery, 1901 : 42.

Synoptic checklist of Malagasy P. wasmannii-group species

cambouei Forel 1891

comorensis Andre 1887

masoala Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

perroti Forel 1891

= perroti admista Forel 1892syn. n.

planicornis Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

tavaratra Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

vazimba Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. n.

wasmannii Forel 1887

Key to species of the Malagasy P. wasmannii-group worker:

The following key also identifies ergatoid and winged queens to species as long as the form of the mesosoma and the presence of the mesopleural sulcus are not applied.

1. Larger species (HW: 2.49-3.13 mm); with head in full-face view, antennal scape surpassing the posterior margin of the head (SI: 94-104) (Figs 1, 3); dorsum of head and mesosoma finely striate and interspersed with scattered punctures; dorsum of the body covered with erect stout hairs (Figs 30, 38).............................................................2

Smaller species (HW: 1.19-2.58 mm); with head in full-face view, antennal scape not surpassing the posterior margin of the head (SI: 70-87) (Fig. 2); dorsum of head and mesosoma variably sculptured but not finely striate, dorsum of the body with erect slender hairs and pubescence (e.g., Figs 35, 43, 45)......................................................3

FIGURES 1-2. Full-face view of the head showing the length of the antennal scape; Fig. 1: scape surpassing the posterior cephalic margin; Fig. 2: scape not surpassing the posterior cephalic margin.

2 . With head in full-face view, anterior margin of clypeus broadly rounded or medially triangular; eye breaking the outline of the side of the head (Fig. 3); hairs on the dorsum of the mesosoma and petiole node distinctly erect relative to the body surface (Fig. 47)..................................................................................... .. tavaratra With head in full-face view, anterior margin of clypeus truncate; eye not breaking the outline of the side of the head (Fig. 4); hairs on the dorsum of the body decumbent and much more inclined to the body surface (Fig. 39).............. comorensis

With head in full-face view, anterior margin of clypeus truncate; eye not breaking the outline of the side of the head (Fig. 4); hairs on the dorsum of the body decumbent and much more inclined to the body surface (Fig. 39).............. comorensis

FIGURES 3-4. Shape of the clypeus and location of the eyes when head in full-face view; Fig. 3: P. tavaratra , anterior clypeal margin broadly triangular; eyes breaking the lateral margin of head; Fig. 4: P. comorensis , anterior clypeal margin truncate; eyes not breaking the lateral margin of head.

3. Basal half of the antennal scape dorsoventrally flattened, the leading edge very thin (Fig. 5); basitarsus of the hind leg laterally compressed, basal half of its inner surface concave................................................... planicornis

Basal half of the antennal scape subcylindrical, not dorsoventrally flattened; the leading edge rounded (Fig. 6); basitarsus of the hind leg generally rounded, without concavity............................................................4

FIGURES 5-6. Antennal scape and leading edge viewed from the back; Fig. 5: basally dorsoventrally flattened and thin in P. planicornis ; Fig. 6: subcylindrical and rounded (e.g., P. cambouei ).

4. With petiole in dorsal view, the node flattened, about twice as broad as long (Fig.7); higher than long in profile; erect hairs on dorsum of propodeum most frequently absent (Fig. 41), if present then reduced in number...................... masoala

With petiole in dorsal view, the node thick, approximately as long as broad (Fig. 8), about as high as long in profile; erect hairs on dorsum of propodeum numerous (e.g., Figs 18, 43, 51) or rarely absent (Fig. 31).................................5

FIGURES 7-8. Petiole in dorsal view; Fig. 7: petiole node anteroposteriorly flattened in P. masoala , about twice as broad as long; Fig. 8: petiole nodiform, about as long as broad (e.g., P. cambouei ).

5. Anterior half of the fourth abdominal tergite (gastral tergite 2) covered with numerous and very dense small punctures between larger ones (Fig. 9) which become moderate on mesosoma and petiole node; integument usually matte; mostly found in dry forest habitats........................................................................................6

Anterior half of the fourth abdominal tergite (gastral tergite 2) mostly smooth and shiny between large punctures, sometimes with randomly scattered small punctures (Fig. 10); mesosoma and petiole node sparsely punctulate between coarse punctae; integument mostly shiny; humid forest species.............................................................. 7

FIGURES 9-10. Fourth abdominal tergite in dorsal view; Fig. 9: Anterior half of the fourth abdominal tergite with dense small punctures between larger ones; Fig. 10: Anterior half of the fourth abdominal tergite smooth and shining.

6. Larger species (HW: 1.72-2.21 mm); mesopleural sulcus usually distinct and complete (Fig. 11); dorsum of mesosoma and petiole node covered with more robust and longer standing hairs (Fig. 51); antennal segments 6, 7, and 8 nearly as wide as long; with petiole in dorsal view, the posterior margin straight or with weak median notch; outer surface of the hind tibia with erect hairs................................................................................... wasmannii

Smaller species (HW: 1.38-1.5 mm); mesopleural sulcus indistinct or incomplete (Fig. 12); dorsum of mesosoma and petiole node with short and thin erect hairs (Fig. 49); antennal segments 6, 7, and 8 nearly twice as wide as long (Fig. 48); with petiole in dorsal view, the posterior margin broadly concave; outer surface of the hind tibia usually without erect hairs..... vazimbasulcus of P. wasmannii complete; Fig. 12: mesopleural

FIGURES 11-12. Mesosoma in lateral view; Fig. 11: mesopleural sulcus of P. vazimba indistinct.

7. With mesosoma in profile, the dorsal outline forming a continuous convexity with a nearly rounded junction between the propodeal dorsum and the declivitous margin (Fig. 13), which is short and strongly inclined posteriorly; in full-face view, head heart-shaped, with the posterior margin strongly concave, and anterior clypeal margin strongly excised medially (Fig. 42); larger species (HW: 2.34-2.58 mm).................................................................. perroti

With mesosoma in profile, the dorsal outline not forming a continuous convexity, propodeal dorsum meeting the declivity at a distinct angle (Fig. 14); propodeal declivity nearly vertical, but not distinctly inclined posteriorly; in full-face view head not heart-shaped, the posterior margin usually straight (Figs 30, 34, 36) or slightly concave (Figs 26, 28, 32); smaller species (HW<2.3 mm)................................................................................. cambouei

  • Rakotonirina, J. C., B. L. Fisher (2013): Revision of the Pachycondyla wasmannii - group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Malagasy region. Zootaxa 3609, 101-141: 104-108, DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.3609.2.1, URL:http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2013/f/zt03609p141.pdf
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Pachycondyla nosy Rakotonirina and Fisher , sp. nov.

(Figures 5, 15, 52, 53, 54, 76)

Holotype worker: Madagascar, Antsiranana, Makirovana Forest, -14.1707, 49.9541, 415 m, 28 Apr 2011, ex rotten log (B.L. Fisher et al.) collection code: BLF26582, specimen code: CASENT0231239 (CASC).

WORKER. Diagnosis: Anterior margin of clypeus wide and straight, weakly medially notched; eyes medium, with 14 ommatidia; metanotal groove an incomplete dotted line; numerous slender erect hairs lacking and pubescence reduced from posterior face of petiole node; anterior surface of third abdominal segment straight, not forming a shallow impression; antennal scape and outer surface of each tibia covered with long, erect hairs.

Measurements (1 specimen): HW: 1.44, HL: 1.62, CI: 89, SL: 1.25, SI: 87, PW: 1.09, WL: 2.34, NH: 0.76, NL: 0.58, NW: 0.80, DNI: 138, LNI: 131.

Description: Head rectangular, broadest at midlength; posterior cephalic margin more or less straight. Head dorsum densely and finely reticulate-punctate; lateral section generally punctate and sparsely punctulate toward lateroventral angle. Eyes medium, with 14 ommatidia, and located at anterior fourth of head when viewed from the front. Antennal scape short, not reaching posterior cephalic margin; scape with long, erect hairs roughly equal in length to its maximum diameter. Anterior clypeal margin broadly straight, with weak median notch. Mandibles sparsely punctate with a smooth and shiny surface.

With mesosoma in dorsal view, metanotal groove a simple, shallowly dotted line; in lateral view, dorsal outline roughly a continuous line; mesopleural suture obsolete; posterior margin of propodeum narrowly lamellate and projecting into a blunt angle near midlength. In dorsal view, promesonotum with reticulate-punctulate sculpture close to dorsolateral angles and punctate towards the midline; propodeum punctulate. Petiole nodiform, with convex posterior margin in lateral view; in dorsal view, posterior margin slightly convex, anterior margin broadly rounded; sculpture coarsely punctate. Anterior face of first gastral segment straight, not forming a shallow cavity. First two gastral tergites rugulose punctate, with smooth and shiny spaces between coarse punctures.

Erect standing hairs present; pubescence abundant on head dorsum and promesonotum and sparse on the rest of body dorsum. Body color dark red, with brown tip of gaster and appendages.

QUEEN. Measurements (2 specimens): HW: 1.65-1.68, HL: 1.74-1.75, CI: 95-96, SL: 1.35-1.36, SI: 80- 83, PW: 1.35-1.38, WL: 2.56, NH: 0.80-0.88, NL: 0.55-0.60, NW: 0.86-0.89, DNI: 147-155, LNI: 144-146. Two winged queens were captured using malaise traps from the montane humid forests in the north and in the central eastern Madagascar. They have the usual characteristics of alate queens, including three ocelli, developed thoracic sclerites, more abundant standing slender hairs; much broader head, and a wider, more anteroposteriorly flattened petiolar node.

Distribution and biology: Pachycondyla nosy is known from northeastern Madagascar, where a colony nest was found in a rotten log in Makirovana Forest. The species also occurs in the disjunct montane rainforests of the PN Montagne d’Ambre and the PN Andasibe (Fig. 76), where two alate queens were recorded from malaise traps.

Additional material examined: Province Antsiranana: PN Montagne d'Ambre [Petit Lac road], 1125 m, montane rainforest (R. Harin'Hala) (CASC); Province Toamasina: 7 km SE PN Andasibe Headquarters, 1050 m, montane rainforest (R. Harin'Hala) (CASC).

  • Rakotonirina, J. C., Fisher, B. L. (2013): Revision of the Pachycondyla sikorae species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Madagascar. Zootaxa 3683 (4), 447-485: 471-472, URL:http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2013/f/zt03683p485.pdf
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

(Fig. 9)

 

Males winged. Antennal scrobe absent. Mandibles reduced in size. If triangular in form (one species) then the masticatory margins do not completely overlap each other even when fully closed. Basal cavity of mandible extends to its front face. Basal cavity visible in full-face view in species with reduced mandibles, but invisible in species with triangular mandible. Notauli not impressed on mesoscutum in large species but clearly impressed in several medium or small species. Mesepimeron bearing distinct (epimeral) lobe posterodorsally, lobe covering mesothoracic spiracle and forming a seemingly isolated plate. Dorsolateral corner of petiole in anterior view without distinct projection, usually evenly rounded. Apical margin of abdominal tergum VIII projecting strongly into sharp spine in most cases, though spine lacking in several small species. Jugal lobe of hind wing present in most but not all species. Each middle and hind tibia with two spurs. Claws simple or with one or two preapical teeth, but never multidentate or pectinate.

 

Remarks. This genus (sensu Bolton 1995) is now considered to be paraphyletic (P. S. Ward unpublished). In the region, the males are divided into four distinct groups (Table 1). We keep these groups separate to facilitate naming them once a new generic classification for Pachycondyla is developed based on molecular work.

 

Each is characterized by a combination of characters in the notauli, the terminal spine on abdominal tergum VIII, and the jugal lobe (Table 1). Section 01 consists of large, blackish-colored males (Figs. 9a-e), section 02 of small, yellowish-colored males (Figs. 9f-i), section 03 includes males having somewhat developed mandibles, and section 04 consists of reddish-colored males having a clypeus as long as males in Leptogenys . Several sections are similar to other genera; characters distinguishing Pachycondyla from those genera are given under the respective genera.

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Yoshimura, M.

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[[ worker ]] Der Kopf ohne Oberkiefer viereckig, diese sind lang dreieckig mit saegezaehnigem Kaurande, vom Rande des Mandibelgelenkes zieht bei manchen Arten eine Kante zum Auge. Der Clypeus ist in der Mitte gewoelbt, vor den Fuehlergelenken bogenfoermig ausgeschnitten, zwischen den Stirnleisten verschmaelert sich der Clypeus stark zwischen den Fuehlern zu einem schmalen Kiele und erweitert sich zuletzt abgerundet lanzettlich vor dem hintern Ende der Stirnleisten. Die Fuehler zwoelfgliedrig, das erste Geisselglied ist kuerzer als das zweite. Die Augen liegen meist vor, selten in der Mitte am Seitenrande des Kopfes. Die Ocellen fehlen. Der Thorax ist unbewehrt, oben von vorne nach hinten gerade oder schwach gekruemmt, nicht oder sehr wenig eingeschnuert. Das Pronotum ist oben ziemlich abgeflacht und hat seitlich eine scharfe oder stumpfe Kante. Das Mesonotum ist halb oder mehr als halb so lang als das Pronotum. Schuppe knotenfoermig oder mehr oder weniger wuerfelig, stark wechselnd in der Form, stets ungezaehnt. Der Hinterleib ist zwischen dem ersten und zweiten Segmente massig oder kaum merklich eingeschnuert. Die Krallen der Tarsen sind einfach.

 

[[ queen ]] Dem [[ worker ]] sehr aehnlich. Das Pronotum ebenfalls beiderseits mit einer Laengskante. Die Vorderfluegel mit zwei Cubital- und einer Discoidalzelle.

 

[[ male ]] Die Mandibeln sind sehr klein und ungezaehnt. Der Clypeus gross, vorne gewoelbt, vor den Fuehlern mit einem bogigen nach vorne concaven Eindrucke, hinten verlaengert sich der Clypeus zwischen den Fuehlergelenken und endet abgerundet zwischen den Stirnleisten. Die Stirnleisten sind hoechst unentwickelt und schuetzen das Fuehlergelenk nur als kurze, schmale, schief von vorne innen nach hinten aussen gerichtete Leistchen. Der Schaft der 13 gliedrigen langen Fuehler ist sehr kurz, der Gelenkskopf abgerechnet, nur unbedeutend laenger als breit. Das erste Glied der fadenfoermigen Geissel ist nur so lang als breit, das zweite Geisselglied ist das laengste und die folgenden nehmen stetig an Laenge und auch sehr unbedeutend an Dicke ab. Die Fuehler entspringen zwischen den Netzaugen, welche gross, oval und so ziemlich in der Mitte der Kopfseiten gelegen sind. Das Pronotum ist seitlich stumpf und schwach gerandet. Das Mesonotum, welches das Pronotum nicht ueberragt, sondern vom Vorderrande des Thorax entfernt liegt, hat oben zwei nach hinten convergirende, eingedrueckte Linien, welche mit der Pro- und Mesonotalnaht ein gleichschenkliges Dreieck einschliessen. Das Schildchen ist gewoelbt und nimmt den hoechsten Punct des Thorax ein. (Dr. Roger gibt in der Beschreibung des [[ male ]] seiner P. villosa in seinen „ Poneraartigen Ameisen " an, dass das Schildchen niedriger als das Mesonotum ist, was wol ein Schreibfehler sein duerfte). Schuppe knotenfoermig. Das 1. Hinterleibssegment ist vom 2. stark abgeschnuert. Das Dorsalstueck des letzten Hinterleibssegmentes endet in einen dreieckigen lang spitzigen, gekruemmten Dorn. Die aeusseren Genitalklappen sind laenglich, parallelrandig, am Ende schief abgestutzt mit stark gerundeten Ecken. Die Krallen der Tarsen haben in der Mitte einen kleinen spitzen Zahn. Die Fluegel sind wie beim [[ queen ]].

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Head oblong, subquadrate, the anterior margin of the clypeus rounded; mandibles large, stout and produced, their inner margin denticulate; antennae clavate; eyes placed forward on the sides of the head, ovate, and of a medium size; the labial palpi 4-jointed, the maxillary palpi 4-jointed. Thorax oblong, and slightly narrowed posteriorly; the calcaria pectinate. Abdomen elongate; the node of the peduncle incrassate, quadrate or subquadrate, elevated to the same level as the first segment, and usually of nearly the same width.

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Ecology

Associations

Known prey organisms

Pachycondyla (Pachycondyla sp.) preys on:
Anaides
Coilodes castanea
Deltochilum lobipes
Eurysternus caribaeus
Eurysternus caludicans
Eurysternus plebejus
Onthophagus praecellens
toad carrion

Based on studies in:
Costa Rica: de Osa (Carrion substrate)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • B. W. Cornaby, 1974. Carrion reduction by animals in contrasting tropical habitats. Biotropica 6:51-63, from pp. 54, 59-62.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:1896
Specimens with Sequences:1582
Specimens with Barcodes:1547
Species:132
Species With Barcodes:102
Public Records:820
Public Species:38
Public BINs:59
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla sp. 5YB

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla sp. PK_PACHY 002

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla ferruginea_group

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Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JTL025

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JTL024

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Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla ARA01

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla ARA02

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla ARA07

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla ARA03

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla MAS016_apicalis

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 38
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla MAS015_verenae

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 34
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla MAS010

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla MAS017

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 213
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla MAS019

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla MAS018

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 99
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla MAS020

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla MY03

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla MY05

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla MY01

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR20

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla DR03

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla DR02

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla sp. 1

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR19

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR08

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR17

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR11

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR04

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR14

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR12

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR03

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR02

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR07

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR06

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 34
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR05

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR01

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR10

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Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla DRQ01

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Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JTL018

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Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JTL017

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Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JTL014

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 136
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JTL015

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Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JTL016

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JTL022

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 24
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla jcr-14

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Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla jcr-10

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Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla jcr-13

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Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla jcr-11

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Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla jcr-25

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Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla .Sp.Jcr-11

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Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JTL008

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Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachycondyla JCR09

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Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Pachycondyla

Ypresiomyrma rebekkae queen fossils (upper left) at the Geological Museum in Copenhagen. This ant was formerly classified under Pachycondyla until it was placed in the subfamily Myrmeciinae and assigned to a new genus by Archibald, Cover, and Moreau in 2006.[1]

Pachycondyla is a diverse group of ponerine ants that are widespread in the world's tropics and subtropics. Most are general predators or scavengers, with some specializing in hunting termites. In some species queens are replaced by fertilised workers. Apart from 200 to 300 described species, five fossil species have been identified.[2]

Systematics[edit]

While officially a genus, Pachycondyla is a polyphyletic group, consisting of many subgenera with unclear relationships, that will likely prove to be valid, distinct genera.[3]

Description[edit]

Pachycondyla workers are similarly shaped to those of the genera Cryptopone, Hypoponera and Ponera and are often confused. They can be identified by having a large comb-like and a smaller simple spur on the hind leg, while the others are missing the smaller one.[2] Many species in the genus produce a defensive foam in threads when threatened. This foam is made from proteinaceous secretions from an enlarged Dufour's gland in their sting.[4]

Species[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Archibald, S. Bruce; Stefan P. Cover; Corrie S. Moreau (2006). "Bulldog ants of the Eocene Okanagan Highlands and history of the subfamily (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmeciinae)". Annals of the Entomological Society (Entomological Society of America) 99 (3): 487–523. doi:10.1603/0013-8746(2006)99[487:BAOTEO]2.0.CO;2. 
  2. ^ a b Australian Ants Online
  3. ^ Tree of Life
  4. ^ Maschwitz, U; Karla Jessen, and Eleonore Maschwitz (1981). "Foaming in Pachycondyla: A New Defense Mechanism in Ants". Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 9: 79–81. doi:10.1007/BF00299857. 

References[edit]

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