IUCN threat status:

Least Concern (LC)

Comprehensive Description

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Description

Smilisca fodiens is a frog that can reach sizes of 54 - 63 mm. Females do not differ significantly from males in proportions. The relatively small head is slightly wider than long. The skin of the head is partly co-ossified with underlying cranial bones. The snout when dorsally viewed is acutely rounded and bluntly rounded from the lateral view. The canthal ridges are distinct, where they meet forms a bony internasal ridge. The ridge extends anteriorly to the tip of the snout. The pupil is horizontal and the iris is dull bronze. The hind limbs are short and robust. The fingers are long and have small discs. The fingers are slender and have no webbing. The toes have small amount of webbing. The terminal discs are smaller than the finger discs. The inner metatarsal tubercle is large, elliptical, and spade-like. The skin is granular on the belly, dorsum, and parts of the thighs but otherwise smooth. The vocal sac is subgular and bilobate, and the halves are narrowly separated. The tadpoles have short tails, are pelagic type, have a anteroventral mouth with a large beak, have large papillae both laterally and ventrally, and have two-thirds tooth rows (Trueb 1969).

Smilisca fodiens's closest relative is Smilisca dentata, from which it can be differentiated by S. fodiens having a bony ridge extending from a point between the nostrils to the tip of the acutely rounded snout, digits expanded into small discs, and vocal sacs connected medially in breeding males (Trueb 1969).

In life, the dorsum coloration ranges from tan, pale olive-brown, grey-brown, and pink-brown. There are longitudinal stripes and small spots with dark brown or red-brown coloration and dark brown or black outline. In preservative, the dorsal ground color varies from pale grey-tan to creamy/pink-tan (Trueb 1969).

There is variation in the pattern of stripe/spot arrangement, as well as slight coloration differences (Trueb 1969).

Modifications such as short, robust limbs, squat body, and heavily ossified head allow the frog to live a fossorial existence. The internasal and labial flanges of the frog are adaptations for phragmotic behavior (Trube 1969). Phragmosis involves the frogs using the bony skull to plug the burrow against predators, wind, and loss of moisture (Ford and Finch 1994).

Smilisca fodiens was previously within the genus Pternohyla, which was recently synonymized with Smilisca (Faivovich et al. 2005).

The species epithet, fodiens, comes from the Latin word fodio, meaning to dig; this refers to the digging adaptations of the spade-like inner metatarsal tubercles (Trueb 1969).

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