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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Summary

"
Habit

Colonial

Habitat

Widely distributed, many biotypes

Niche

Old building, caves, temples, tunnels, attics, stone mines, cow sheds, grain godowns - up to 923m.

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Distribution

Megaderma lyra is found from eastern Pakistan and Sri Lanka to southeastern China and the northern Malay Peninsula.

(Lekagul & McNeely, 1977)

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

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"
Global distribution

Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and Malaysia.

Known presence in Protected Areas

India Maharastra: Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve, Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary; Assam: Orang National Park; Andhra Pradesh: Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve; Madhya Pradesh: Kanha National Park; Chhattisgarh: Indravati National Park

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Physical Description

Morphology

Total body length ranges from 65-95 mm, with weights from 40-60 g. Fur is grayish brown above and whitish gray below (Lekagul & McNeely, 1977). Ears are large and connected above rostrum and there is no external tail (Nowak, 1994).

Range mass: 40 to 60 g.

Range length: 65 to 95 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Colonial
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Ecology

Habitat

Megaderma lyra uses day roosts in caves, pits, buildings and hollow trees. These bats reside in more arid areas than M. spasma .

They generally forage less than 1 meter from the ground among trees and undergrowth in tropical forested habitats (Lekagul & MCNeely, 1977).

Habitat Regions: tropical

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest

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General Habitat

"
Habitat

Widely distributed, many biotypes

Niche

Old building, caves, temples, tunnels, attics, stone mines, cow sheds, grain godowns - up to 923m.

"
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Trophic Strategy

Megaderma lyra is mostly carnivorous, with a diet consisting of large insects, spiders, and small vertebrates such as bats, birds, rodents, and fish. Prey are detected either by passive listening or with the help of echolocation, then gleaned from the substrate and removed to a night roost where they are consumed (Schmidt et al., 2000; Rajan & Marimuthu, 1999). They will occasionally enter houses to take prey, such as lizards and insects, from the walls (Nowak, 1994).

Animal Foods: birds; mammals; reptiles; fish; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates, Piscivore , Insectivore , Eats non-insect arthropods)

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Associations

Megaderma species are agile in flight, allowing them to avoid some predation. Although little is known of predation on this species, it is likely that much predation occurs on young in roosts by small predators such as snakes, viverrids, and birds of prey.

Known Predators:

  • snakes (Serpentes)
  • viverrids (Viverridae)
  • domestic cats (Felis silvestris)
  • herpestids (Herpestidae)
  • birds of prey (Falconiformes and Strigiformes)

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Known predators

Megaderma lyra is prey of:
Strigiformes
Serpentes
Herpestidae
Felis silvestris
Falconiformes
Viverridae

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Known prey organisms

Megaderma lyra preys on:
non-insect arthropods
Actinopterygii
Arthropoda
Insecta
Reptilia
Aves
Mammalia

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Life Expectancy

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
14 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 14 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Females segregate from males prior to parturition, otherwise both sexes occupy the same roost sites. Other aspects of mating behavior in this species are unknown (Nowak, 1994).

Mating takes place from November through January, with one (occasionally two) young born from April to June. Gestation lasts 150-160 days, with post-natal development following a logistic curve. The sex ratio is balanced at birth. Males are sexually mature by 15 months, females at 19 months (Goymann et al., 1999).

Breeding season: November through January

Range number of offspring: 1 to 2.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 150 to 160 days.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 15 to 19 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 15 to 19 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); viviparous

Average birth mass: 7.5 g.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Females carry young with them during foraging until the pups are between one and twenty-three days old, at which point they “park” them at either a day or a special night roost. Young are nursed for 2 to 3 months (Goymann et al., 1999).

Parental Investment: altricial ; female parental care

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Megaderma lyra

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 8 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACTCTGTACTTATTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCCGGTATAGTAGGAACAGCTCTTAGCCTGTTAATCCGAGCCGAACTAGGCCAACCCGGAGCCCTACTAGGTGATGATCAAATCTATAACGTAATTGTTACAGCCCATGCATTTGTTATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCCATCATGATCGGCGGGTTTGGCAACTGACTAGTTCCCCTAATAATTGGCGCCCCTGACATGGCATTCCCTCGAATAAATAATATAAGCTTCTGACTTCTTCCCCCATCCTTCCTACTTCTATTAGCCTCTTCAATAGTTGAAGCAGGCGCCGGGACAGGATGAACTGTTTACCCACCTCTAGCAGGCAATTTAGCTCACGCAGGAGCCTCTGTGGACCTGACAATTTTTTCTCTCCATTTAGCAGGTGTCTCCTCTATTCTAGGCGCTATCAATTTTATTACTACTATTATTAATATGAAACCCCCTGCTTTATCCCAATACCAAACCCCTTTATTCGTCTGATCTGTCCTAATTACAGCCGTACTACTACTCCTTTCTCTCCCTGTTCTCGCCGCTGGAATTACAATACTATTAACAGACCGTAACTTAAATACTACCTTCTTTGACCCCGCAGGAGGGGGAGATCCAATCTTGTACCAACACCTCTTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Megaderma lyra

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Populations of Megaderma lyra are not currently threatened.

US Migratory Bird Act: no special status

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Population stable.
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Threats

"Exploitation, illegal trade for food, human interference, renovation of old temples, quarrying, human habitation, habitat disturbance. The influence on the population well understood, not reversible and have not ceased to be a threat."
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

There are no known negative effects of Asian False Vampire Bats.

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Megaderma lyra will occasionally enter human dwellings to capture prey.

Positive Impacts: controls pest population

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Uses

Illegal trade for food
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Risks

Risk Statement

"
Habitat status

Increase in area due to human habitation, bats live in old, unused houses. Decrease in quality due to quarrying.

Data quality

Literature, field study; observed, inferred; 95% confidence.

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Wikipedia

Greater false vampire bat

The greater false vampire bat (Megaderma lyra) is a species of bat in the family Megadermatidae, the false vampire bats. It is native to Asia. It is also known as the Indian false vampire bat.[1]

Description[edit]

This species is 65 to 95 millimeters in length and weighs 40 to 60 grams. The average forearm length is about 66 millimeters. It has large ears and no tail. Its fur is blue-gray in color overall and brownish gray on the underside. It has an erect noseleaf about 10 millimeters long.

Distribution[edit]

This bat is widespread throughout South Asia and Southeast Asia. It occurs in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam.[1]

Biology[edit]

This species is carnivorous, its diet including bats, small birds, reptiles, and fish, and large insects.

This is a gleaning bat, one which captures prey from the ground and from water surfaces. It takes advantage of many habitat types. Adults hunt from dusk to dawn, commuting up to 4 kilometers.

M. lyra uses a combination of hunting strategies. About 85% of prey is captured during short searching flights in which it flies about half a meter above the ground. It also utilizes a sit-and-wait strategy, perching about two meters above the ground to wait for prey. It uses echolocation. It has also been observed catching prey in complete darkness without echolocation.

Females segregate themselves from males after mating. Gestation lasts 150 to 160 days, and the female bears one or two pups. Females carry small pups with them during foraging, but leave larger pups in the roost. Young nurse for 2 to 3 months.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Csorba, G., et al. 2008. Megaderma lyra. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.

References[edit]

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