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The current groupings are based on a not entirely satisfactory attempt at synthesis of several sources. Different authors recognize different circumscriptions of Plebejus: Tuzov et al. (1997) consider many of the "subgenera" to be distinct genera; Lamas (2004) views Aricia as distinct but subsumes most others, and Butterflies of America (Pelham) makes Aricia a synonym of Plebejus. It is not even completely clear that these different circumscriptions make a congruent division of species between Plebejus s. l. and Polyommatus s. l., particularly for the MANY central Asian taxa that have been described in recent years.