The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1. IUCN Red List (March, 2009) http://www.iucnredlist.orghttp://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. Kingdon, J. (1997) The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • 3. Stuart, C. and Stuart, T. (1997) Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town.
  • 4. African Wildlife Foundation (September, 2007) http://www.awf.org/content/wildlife/detail/buffalohttp://www.awf.org/content/wildlife/detail/buffalo External link.
  • 5. Mills, G. and Hes, L. (1997) The Complete Book of Southern African Mammals. Struik Publishers, Cape Town.
  • 6. Macdonald, D.W. (2006) The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 7. Rodwell, T.C., Kriek, N.P., Bengis, R.G., Whyte, I.J., Viljoen, P.C., Vos, V. and Boyce, W.M. (2001) Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo at Kruger National Park. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 37 (2): 258 - 264.
  • 8. UNEP-WCMC: Serengeti National Park, Tanzania (March, 2009) http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/pdf/Serengeti.pdfhttp://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/pdf/Serengeti.pdf External link.
  • 9. UNEP-WCMC: Kilimanjaro National Park, Tanzania (March, 2009) http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/pdf/Kilimanjaro.pdfhttp://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/pdf/Kilimanjaro.pdf External link.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • Dunham, K. M. 1994. The Effect of Drought on the Large Mammal Populations of Zambezi Riverine Woodlands. Journal of Zoology 234:489-526.
  • East, R. 1999. IUCN African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
  • Emmons, L. H., A. Gautierhion, and G. Dubost. 1983. Community Structure of the Frugivorous Folivorous Forest Mammals of Gabon. Journal of Zoology 199:209-222.
  • Estes, R. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press. Berkeley, Los Angles, and London.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Jones, M. L. 1993. Longevity of ungulates in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook 32:159-169.
  • Kelt, D. A., and D. H. Van Vuren. 2001. The Ecology and Macroecology of Mammalian Home Range Area. American Naturalist 157:637-645.
  • Lee, P. C., P. Majluf, and I. J. Gordon. 1991. Growth, Weaning and Maternal Investment from a Comparative Perspective. Journal of Zoology 225:99-114.
  • MacDonald, D. 2001. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Mloszewski, M. 1983. The Behaviour and Ecology of the African Buffalo. Cambridge University Press. U.S.A.
  • Nowak, R.; Paradiso, J. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, 4th Edition. The John Hopkins University Press. Baltimore and London.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Promislow, D. E. L., and P. H. Harvey. 1990. Living Fast and Dying Young - a Comparative-Analysis of Life- History Variation among Mammals. Journal of Zoology 220:417-437.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Ronald Nowak (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Sibly, R. M., D. Collett, D. E. L. Promislow, D. J. Peacock, and P. H. Harvey. 1997. Mortality rates of mammals. Journal of Zoology 243:1-12.
  • Skinner, J. D., and R. H. N. Smithers. 1990. The mammals of the southern African subregion. University of Pretoria, Pretoria.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Weckerly, F. W. 1998. Sexual-size dimorphism: Influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 79:33-52.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204

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