The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (June, 2009) http://www.redlist.org External link.
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. The Ultimate Ungulate Page (January, 2006) External link.
  • 3. WhoZoo – Animals of the Fort Worth Zoo (January, 2006) External link.
  • 4. Ministry of Information: Sultanate of Oman (January, 2006) External link.
  • 5. University of California, San Diego: School of Medicine (January, 2006) External link.
  • 6. BirdLife International (January, 2006) External link.
  • 7. The Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature (RSCN) (January, 2006) External link.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Fraser, A. 1986. Reproductive behavior in ungulates. London: Academic Press.
  • Gross, J., P. Alkon, M. Demment. 1995. Grouping patterns and spatial segregation by Nubian ibex. Journal of Arid Environments, 30: 423-439.
  • Grubb, P. 1993. Order Artiodactyla. Pp. 405-406 in D Wilson, D Reeder, eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic Reference. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Hochman, V., B. Kotler. 2006. Effects of food quality, diet preference and water on patch use by Nubian ibex. Oikos, 112: 547-554.
  • Jones, M. L. 1993. Longevity of ungulates in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook 32:159-169.
  • Jordan, E. 1969. Animal Atlas of the World. New Jersey: Hammond Incorporated.
  • Kingdon, J. 1982. East African Mammals: an atlas of evolution in Africa. London and New York: Academic Press.
  • Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon field guide to African Mammals. London and New York: Academic Press.
  • Kohlmann, S., D. Muller, P. Alkon. 1996. Antipredator constraints on lactating Nubian ibex. Journal of Mammalogy, 744: 1122-1131.
  • Levy, N., G. Bernadsky. 1991. Creche behavior of Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) in the Negev Desert Highlands, Israel.. Israel Journal of Zoology, 37: 125-137.
  • M., Basuony., F. Gilbert., & S. Zalat.   (2010).  Mammals of Egypt: Atlas, Red Data Listing & Conservation, Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs, Cairo..  
  • Mendelssohn, H. 1990. Nubian Ibex. Pp. 525-527 in B Grzimek, ed. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Publishing Company.
  • Muller, D., S. Kohlman, P. Alkon. 1995.
    A Nubian ibex nursery: crèche or natural trap?
    . Israel Journal of Zoology, 41: 163-174.
  • Nowak, R. 1990. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Osborn, D., J. Osbornová. 1998. The mammals of ancient Egypt.. England: Aris and Phillips Ltd..
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Ropiquet, A., A. Hassanin. 2006. Hybrid origin of the Pliocene ancestor of wild goats. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 41: 395-404.
  • Schaller, G. 1977. Mountain Monarchs: Wild Sheep and Goats of the Himalaya. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Schaller, G. B. 1977. Mountain Monarchs. Wild Sheep and Goats of the Himalaya. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • Shackleton, D. 1997. Wild Sheep and Goats and their Relatives: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Switzerland and Cambridge: IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group IUCN.
  • Shkedy, Y., D. Saltz. 2000. Characterizing Core and Corridor Use by Nubian Ibex in the Negev Desert, Israel. Conservation Biology, 14 (1): 200-206.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Stüwe, M., K. T. Scribner and P. U. Alkon. 1992. A comparison of genetic diversity in Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) and Alpine ibex (Capra i. ibex). Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 57:120–123.
  • Uerpmann, H. 1987. The ancient distribution of ungulate mammals in the Middle East. Naturwissenschaften, 27: 1-173.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • Yosef, R., D. Yosef. 1991. Tristram's grackles groom Nubian ibex. The Wilson Bulletin, 103 (3): 518-520.


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