The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • Blue water big game. 2001. "East Caucasian tur" (On-line ). Accessed 11/24/02 at
  • Conservation International. 2002. "Caucasus" (On-line ). Accessed 11/24/02 at
  • Huffman, B. 1999. "East Caucasian tur" (On-line). Ultimate Ungulate. Accessed May 04, 2004 at
  • IUCN. 2002. "Capra cylindricornis" (On-line ). Accessed 11/24/02 at
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Nowak, R. 1991. Capra cylindricornis. Pp. 1486-1489 in Walker's Mammals of the World, Vol. 2, 5th Edition. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Parker, S., S. Parker. 1990. East Caucasian Tur. Pp. 512-513 in Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 5. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Ronald Nowak (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Weinberg, P. 2002. Capra caucasica cylindricornis. Pp. 1-9 in Mammalian Species, Vol. 696. American Society of Mammalogists.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Zeitschriftenverlag, P. 2002. "Ostkaukasischer Tur Capra cylindricornis" (On-line ). Accessed 11/24/02 at


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!