The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

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  • 1997. "Thinkquest: Library" (On-line). Wild Habitat: Leopard (Panthera pardus). Accessed March 18, 2009 at http://library.thinkquest.org/11234/leopard_any.html.
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2001. website, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program-03/01
  • 2009. "African Wildlife Foundation" (On-line). Leopard. Accessed March 18, 2009 at http://www.awf.org/content/wildlife/detail/leopard.
  • Arhin, C. 2003. "Biodiversity Reporting" (On-line). The Wisdom of the Leopard. Accessed April 01, 2009 at http://www.biodiversityreporting.org/article.sub?docId=751&c=Ghana&cRef=Ghana&year=2003&date=May%202003.
  • Breitenmoser, U., C. Breitenmoser-Wursten, P. Henschel, L. Hunter. 2008. "IUCN Red List" (On-line). Panthera Pardus. Accessed March 18, 2009 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/15961.
  • C. Linnaeus. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus I. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae (Stockholm)
  • C.Michael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund. 2013. ''Hindu Kush alpine meadow. Encyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC ed. Peter Saundry
  • Carbone, C., and J. L. Gittleman. 2002. A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science 295:2273-2276.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Corbet, G. B., and J. E. Hill. 1992. The Mammals of the Indomalayan Region: A Systematic Review. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn M. Reeder (eds.), Mammal Species of the World,Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, 2005.
  • Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Freedman, B. 1999. Encyclopedia of Endangered Species. Gale Research International, Detriot, London.
  • Friedman, H., V. Case. 2002. "Davidson" (On-line). Leopard (Panthera Pardus). Accessed March 25, 2009 at http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/vecase/behavior/Spring2002/Friedman/friedman.html.
  • Gittleman, J. L. 1982. The behavioural ecology of carnivores. University of Sussex.
  • Guggisberg, C. 1975. Wild Cats of the World. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Hayward, M., P. Henschel, J. O'Brien, M. Hofmeyr, G. Balme, G. Kerley. 2006. Prey Preferences of the Leopard (Panthera pardus). Journal of Zoology, 270/2: 298-313. Accessed April 08, 2009 at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/journal/118623979/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0.
  • Hunter, L., G. Hinde. 2005. Cats of Africa: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. United Kingdom: New Holland Publisher.
  • Kelt, D. A., and D. H. Van Vuren. 2001. The Ecology and Macroecology of Mammalian Home Range Area. American Naturalist 157:637-645.
  • Laman, T., C. Knott. 1997. An Observation of Leopard (Panthera pardus Linnaeus) mating behavior in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology, 35/2: 165-167. Accessed April 08, 2009 at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/cgi-bin/fulltext/119170005/PDFSTART.
  • Linnaeus, C., Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classis, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis,Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classis, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, 17581.
  • M., Basuony., F. Gilbert., & S. Zalat.   (2010).  Mammals of Egypt: Atlas, Red Data Listing & Conservation, Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs, Cairo..  
  • Macaskill, S. 2009. "Wildlife Pictures Online" (On-line). Leopard Information. Accessed March 25, 2009 at http://www.wildlife-pictures-online.com/leopard-information.html.
  • Miththapala S, Seidensticker J, O'Brien SJ. 1996. Phylogeographic subspecies recognition in leopards (Panthera pardus): molecular genetic variation. Conserv. Biol. 10:1115–32.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at http://animaldiversity.org. http://www.animaldiversity.org
  • Ngoprasert, D., A. Lynam, G. Gale. 2007. Human disturbance affects habitat use and behaviour of Asiatic leopard Panthera pardus in Kaeng Krachan National Park, Thailand. ORYX, 41(3): 343-351. Accessed April 09, 2009 at http://journals.cambridge.org.proxy.lib.umich.edu/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1383712.
  • Nowak, R., E. Walker. 1999. Walker's mammals of the World. Baltimore, MD: JHU Press.
  • Nowell, K., P. Jackson. 1996. Wild Cats: status survey and conservation action plan. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Patton, S., A. Rabinowitz. 1994. Parasites of Wild Felidae in Thailand: a Coprological Survey. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 30(3): 472-475. Accessed April 08, 2009 at http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/content/abstract/30/3/472.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Spong, G., M. Johansson and M. Björklund. 2000. High genetic variation in leopards indicates large and long-term stable effective population size. Molecular Ecology 9(11):1773-1782.
  • Stander, P., P. Haden, G. Kaqece. 1997. The Ecology of Associality in Namibian Leopards. Journal of Zoology, 242: 343-364. Accessed April 08, 2009 at http://apps.isiknowledge.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/full_record.do?product=WOS&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=4&SID=2F21jJFPOHbMGP5IDa9&page=1&doc=1.
  • Sunquist, M.E. and F.C. Sunquist. 2009. Family Felidae (Cats). Pp. 54-168 in: Wilson, D.E. and R.A. Mittermeier (eds.). Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 1. Carnivores. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
  • Type: Heller, E. 1913 Nov 08. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 61 (19): 5.
  • Type: Heller, E. 1913 Nov 08. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 61 (19): 6.
  • Uphyrkina, O., D. Miquelle, H. Quigley, C. Driscoll, and S. J. O'Brien. 2002. Conservation genetics of the far eastern leopard (P.p. orientalis). J. Hered. 93:303–11.
  • Uphyrkina, O., W. E. Johnson, H. Quigley, D. Miquelle, L. Marker, M. Bush, and S. J. O'Brien. 2001. Phylogenetics, genome diversity and origin of modern leopard, Panthera pardus. Molecular Ecology 10(11):2617-2633.
  • WANG Sung WANG JiaJun and LUO YiNin, MAMMALIAN NAMES(LATIN, CHINESE AND ENGLISH),Beijing:Science Press, 1994.
  • WANG Sung, CHINA RED DATA BOOK OF ENDANGERED ANIMALES - MAMMALIA,CHINA RED DATA BOOK OF ENDANGERED ANIMALES - MAMMALIA, 1998.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • 汪松, 中国濒危动物红皮书·兽类,北京:科学出版社, 1998: 1-417.

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