The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1995. "Muskox (Ovibos moschatus)" (On-line). Wildlife Species Information: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Accessed November 18, 2004 at http://species.fws.gov/species_accounts/bio_musk.html.
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • Applied Microsystems, Inc. 1996. "Oomingmak: Musk Ox Producer's Co-operative" (On-line). Accessed November 18, 2004 at http://www.qiviut.com/store/index.cfm?target=home&CFID=341026&CFTOKEN=87725359.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Bernhard Grzimek (1990) Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. McGraw-Hill: New York.
  • C. Frick. 1937. Horned ruminants of North America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 69:1-669
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Chambers, W. 1993. Qiviuq. Spin Off, Summer: 48-55.
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • De, M. 1998. Husbandry and breeding of North American Ungulates at Burnet Park Zoo, Syracuse, and Thompson Park Conservancy, Watertown. International Zoo Yearbook 36:234-246.
  • Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
  • Gray, D. 1990. Muskox Biology. Pp. 23-48 in B Holst, ed. International Studbook for Muskox: Ovibos moschatus .
  • Groves, P. 1997. Muskox. Alaska Geographic, 23/4: 56-86.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Jones, M. L. 1993. Longevity of ungulates in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook 32:159-169.
  • Klein, D. R. 1992. Comparative ecological and behavioral adaptations of Ovibos moschatus and Rangifer tarandus. Rangifer 12:47–55.
  • Lee, P. C., P. Majluf, and I. J. Gordon. 1991. Growth, Weaning and Maternal Investment from a Comparative Perspective. Journal of Zoology 225:99-114.
  • Lent, P. C. 1988. Ovibos moschatus. Mammalian Species 302:1-9.
  • MacDonald, D. 2001. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Original description: Zimmermann, E.A.W., 1780.  Geographische Geschichte des Menschen, und der allgemein verbreiteten vierfüssigen Thiere. Zweiter Band. Enthält ein vollständiges Verzeichniss aller bekannten Quadrupeden.  Weygandschen Buchhandlung, Leipzig, (2nd volume) pp. 86-88.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Reynolds, P., K. Wilson, D. Klein. 2001. "Arctic Refuge Coastal Plain Terrestrial Wildlife Research Summaries" (On-line). Accessed November 18, 2004 at http://www.absc.usgs.gov/1002/section7part1.htm.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Rowell, J. 1990. The Muskox. Pp. 2-22 in B Holst, ed. International Studbook for Muskox: Ovibos moschatus .
  • Schaller, G. B. 1977. Mountain Monarchs. Wild Sheep and Goats of the Himalaya. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Weckerly, F. W. 1998. Sexual-size dimorphism: Influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 79:33-52.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • Wilson, Don E., and Sue Ruff, eds. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals
  • Wilson, Don E., and Sue Ruff, eds. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. xxv + 750
  • Woodward, S. 1997. "The Tundra" (On-line). Major Biomes of the World. Accessed November 12, 2004 at http://www.radford.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/tundra/tundra.html.

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