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The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1. IUCN Red List (July, 2007) http://www.iucnredlist.orghttp://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 1983. Elephant Seals. Pp. 1130-1132 in R Nowak, J Paradiso, eds. Walker's Mammals of the World, Vol. 2, 4 Edition. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. Hindell, M.A. (2002) Elephant Seals. In: Perrin, W.F., Würsig, B. and Thewissen, J.G.M. Eds. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • 2002. Elephant Seal. Pp. unknown in P Lagasse, ed. Columbia Encyclopedia, Vol. 1, sixth Edition. New York: Columbia University Press. Accessed February 08, 2004 at http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/e1/elphnt-se.asp.
  • 2002. Elephant Seals. Pp. 370-373 in W Perrin, B Wursig, J Thewissen, eds. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, Vol. 1, 1 Edition. San Diego: Academic Press.
  • 2003. "Southern Elephant Seal" (On-line). Tasmania Online-Parks and Wildlife. Accessed February 08, 2004 at http://www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/BHAN-53K6XV?open.
  • 3. CITES (December, 2004) http://www.cites.orghttp://www.cites.org External link.
  • 4. Jefferson, T.A., Leatherwood, S. and Webber, M.A. (1993) FAO Species Identification Guide. Marine Mammals of the World. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • 5. Macdonald, D.W. (2006) The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 6. Le Boeuf, B.J. and Laws, R.M. (1994) Elephant seals: population ecology, behaviour and physiology. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
  • 7. Reeves, R.R. (2002) Conservation Efforts. In: Perrin, W.F., Würsig, B. and Thewissen, J.G.M. Eds. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • 8. UNEP-WCMC (July, 2007) http://www.unep-wcmc.org/protected_areas/data/wh/macquari.htmlhttp://www.unep-wcmc.org/protected_areas/data/wh/macquari.html External link.
  • Anderson, G. 2003. "Elephant Seals" (On-line). Marine Science. Accessed February 08, 2004 at http://www.biosbcc.net/ocean/marinesci/05nekton/esindex.htm.
  • Baldi, R., C. Campagna, S. Pedraza, B. Le Boeuf. 1996. Social effects of space on the breeding behavior of elephant seals in Patagonia. Animal Behaviour, 51: 717-724.
  • Berta, A.; Churchill, M. (2014). Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus, 1758). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=231413
  • Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P. 1998. Towards comprehensive phylogenies: examples within the Carnivora (Mammalia). Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
  • Bradshaw, C., M. Hindell, N. Best, K. Phillips, G. Wilson, P. Nichols. 2003. You are what you eat: Describing the foraging ecology of southern elephant seals using blubber fatty acids. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 270: 1283-1292.
  • Briggs, K., G. Morejohn. 1976. Dentiton, cranial morphology and evolution in elephant seals. Mammalia, 40: 199-222.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Carroll, P. 2002. "The Kerguelen Island, Southern Indian Ocean" (On-line). Accessed December 04, 2002 at http://www.btinternet.com/~sa_sa/kerguelen/kerguelen_islands.html.
  • Crown. 1997. "Southern Elephant Seal (Sea Elephant)" (On-line). Department of Conservation (New Zealand). Accessed February 04, 2004 at http://www.doc.govt.nz/Conservation/001~Plants-and-Animals/003~Marine-Mammals/Southern-Elephant-Seal-(Sea-Elephant).asp.
  • ESRG - Filippo Galimberti & Simona Sanvito. 2002. "The Elephant Seals page" (On-line). Accessed February 08, 2004 at http://www.eleseal.org/index.html.
  • Eisenberg, J. E., and K. H. Redford. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Englehard, G., A. Baarspul, M. Broekman, J. Creuwels, P. Reijnders. 2002. Human disturbance, nursing behaviour, and lactational pup growth in a declining southern elephant seal population. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80/11: 1876-1886.
  • Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
  • Galimberti, F., A. Fabiani, L. Boitani. 2003. Socio-spatial levels of linearity analysis of dominance hierarvhies: a case study on elephant seals. Journal of Ethology, 21/2: 131-136.
  • Gaskin, D. 1972. Whales Dolphins and Seals. London: heinemann Educational Books.
  • Gordon DP, Beaumont J, MacDiarmid A, Robertson DA, Ahyong ST. 2010. Marine Biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand. PLoS ONE 5(8): e10905. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010905
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Hindell, M. 1991. Some life-history parameters of a declining population of southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina . Journal of Animal Ecology, 60: 119-134.
  • Hindell, M., B. McConnell, M. Fedak, D. Slip, H. Burton. 1999. Environmental and physiological determinants of successful foraging by native southern elephant seal pups during their first trip to sea. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77: 1807-1821.
  • Le Boeuf, B., L. Petrinovich. 1974. Elephant seals: Interspecific comparisons of vocal and reproductive behavior. Mammalia, 38: 16-32.
  • Lee, P. C., P. Majluf, and I. J. Gordon. 1991. Growth, Weaning and Maternal Investment from a Comparative Perspective. Journal of Zoology 225:99-114.
  • Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Fish (Online source)   http://www.demogr.mpg.de/longevityrecords External link.
  • Lydekker, R. 1909. On the skull-characters in the Southern Sea-Elephant. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1909. 600-606
  • McCann, T. 1980. Population structure and social organization of southern elephant seals. Journal of the Linnaen Society, 14: 133-150.
  • McCann, T. 1982. Aggressive and maternal activites of female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). Animal Behavior, 30: 268-276.
  • McConell, B., M. Fedak, H. Burton, G. Englehard, P. Reijnders. 2002. Movements and foraging areas of naive, recently weaned southern elephant seal pups. Journal of Animal Ecology, 71/1: 65-78.
  • Muñoz-Pedreros A & J Yáñez (2000) Mamíferos de Chile. CEA Ediciones, Chile. 463 p.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at http://animaldiversity.org. http://www.animaldiversity.org
  • N. A. Mackintosh, A survey of antarctic biology up to 1945. In: Biologie antarctique, R. Carrick, M. Holdgate, J. Prevost, Eds. (Hermann, Paris, 1964), pp. 3-38.
  • Nowak, R. 2003. Walker's Marine Mammals of the World. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. 5 edition. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Raymond B, Shaffer SA, Sokolov S, Woehler EJ, Costa DP, et al. 2010. Shearwater Foraging in the Southern Ocean: The Roles of Prey Availability and Winds. PLoS ONE 5(6): e10960. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010960
  • Rice, D. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World-Systematics and Distribution. Lawrence, Kansas: Allen Press Inc..
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4. ix + 231
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Ronald Nowak (2003) Walker's Marine Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Seal Conservation Society. 2001. "Southern Elephant Seal" (On-line). Seal Conservation Society. Accessed February 04, 2004 at http://www.pinnipeds.org/species/selephnt.htm.
  • Slip, D. 1995. The diet of southern elepahant seals (Mirounga leonina) from Heard Island. Candian Journal of Zoology, 73: 1519-1528.
  • Slip, D., M. Clippingdale. 2002. "Elephant Seals" (On-line). Australian Antarctic Division. Accessed February 04, 2004 at http://www.antdiv.gov.au/default.asp?casid=1733.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
  • Van Der Toorn, J. 1999. "Elephant Seals" (On-line). Accessed December 02, 2002 at http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/jaap/elepseal.htm.
  • Weckerly, F. W. 1998. Sexual-size dimorphism: Influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 79:33-52.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204

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