The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2000. "Seal (mammal)" (On-line). Accessed 12/1/01 at http://encarta.msn.com.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Bernhard Grzimek (1990) Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. McGraw-Hill: New York.
  • Berta, A.; Churchill, M. (2014). Phoca largha Pallas, 1811. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=255021
  • Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P. 1998. Towards comprehensive phylogenies: examples within the Carnivora (Mammalia). Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
  • Burns, J. 1973.. Marine Mammal Report. Alaska Dep. Fish and Game, Pittman - Robertson Proj. Rep.: W - 17 - 3 to 5.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn M. Reeder (eds.), Mammal Species of the World,Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, 2005.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Lee, P. C., P. Majluf, and I. J. Gordon. 1991. Growth, Weaning and Maternal Investment from a Comparative Perspective. Journal of Zoology 225:99-114.
  • Lowry, L. 1984. The spotted seal. Alaska Dep. Fish and Game marine mammal species accounts, Vol. 1. Juneau, Alaska.: Pp. 1 - 11.
  • Lowry, L., K. Frost, R. Davis, R. Suydam, D. Demaster. 1994. Movements and behavior of satellite - tagged spotted seals in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. NOAA Technical Memo, U. S. Department of Commerce.
  • Lowry, L., V. Burkanov, K. Frost. 1996. Importance of walleye Pollock (*Theragra chalcogramma*) in the diet of Phocid seals in the Bering Sea and northwestern Pacific Ocean. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Report, NMFS 126: p 141-151.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at http://animaldiversity.org. http://www.animaldiversity.org
  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. 5 edition. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London.
  • Original description: Pallas, P.S., 1811.  Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, 1:113.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Pallas, P. S., Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, sistens omnium Animalium in extenso Imperio Rossico et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicillia, mores et descriptiones, anatomen atque icones plurimorum.,Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, sistens omnium Animalium in extenso Imperio Rossico et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicillia, mores et descriptiones, anatomen atque icones plurimorum., 1811[1831]1: 1-568.
  • Quackenbush, L. 1988. Spotted seal. Pp. 107 -124 in J Lentfer (ed.), ed. Selected marine mammals of Alaska. Species accounts with research and management recommendations. Washington, D. C.: Marine Mammal Commission.
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4. ix + 231
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Seal Conservation Society, 2001. "Species Information Pages: Spotted Seal (Phoca largha)" (On-line). Accessed December 27, 2001 at www.pinnipeds.fsnet.co.uk/species/spotted.htm.
  • Shaughnessy, P., F. Fay. 1977. A review of the taxonomy and nomenclature of North Pacific Harbor seals. J. Zool. (Lond.), 182: 385 - 419.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Type: Allen, J. A. 12 Dec 1902 . Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 16: 483.
  • Weckerly, F. W. 1998. Sexual-size dimorphism: Influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 79:33-52.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • Wolfe, R., C. Mishler. 1996. The subsistence harvest of harbor seal and sea lion by Alaska natives in 1995. Draft final report for year four, subsistence study and monitor system. Prepared for NMFS by Alaska Dept. Fish and Game, Juneau, Alaska.
  • 汪松, 中国濒危动物红皮书·兽类,北京:科学出版社, 1998: 1-417.

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