Overview

Distribution

New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri) are a non-migratory coastal species. Prior to being driven to near extinction, the population was historically found all around the North and South Islands including many offshore islands and sub-Antarctic islands. Today, they are found in New Zealand, around South Island, Big Green Island, Open Bay Islands, West Coast, Cape Foulwind, Cascade Point, Wekakura Point, Three Kings Islands, eastern Bass Strait, the Nelson-northern Marlborough region, Fjordland, New Zealand's sub-Antarctic islands Snares, Campbell, Chatham Islands, Antipodes, Bounty Islands, Stewart Island, the islands of the Foveaux Strait, a small colony at Cape Palliser near Wellington on the North Island and near the continental shelf edge of Otago Peninsula. There is also a population in southern and western Australia, Kangaroo Island, Tasmania and Victorian coastal waters, although the two New Zealand and Australian populations rarely overlap. On Australia’s sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island, a population of young non-breeding males was discovered. They are believed to have originated from New Zealand. The distribution of seals across this range is largely a result of the distribution of their food source. When New Zealand fur seals migrate it’s during the breeding season. However, during the summer, they stay closer to the rookery (70 to 80 km) then they do during the fall and winter seasons (162 to 178 km).

Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native ); oceanic islands (Native ); indian ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

  • Boren, L. 2005. New Zealand fur seals in the Kaikoura region: colony dynamics, maternal investment and health. University of Canterbury: University of Canterbury. Biological Sciences. Accessed February 02, 2012 at http://hdl.handle.net/10092/1270.
  • Boren, L. 2010. Diet of New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri). DOC Research & Development Series 319, Series 319: 1-20.
  • Bradshaw, C., L. Davis, C. Lalas, R. Harcourt. 2000. Geographic and temporal variation in the condition of pups of the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri): evidence for density dependence and differences in the marine environment. Journal of Zoology, 252/1: 41-51.
  • Crawley, M., G. Wilson. 1976. The natural history and behaviour of the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri). Tuatara : Journal of the Biological Society, 22/1: 1-28.
  • Goldsworthy, S., N. Gales. 2011. "Arctocephalus forsteri" (On-line).
    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    . Accessed January 31, 2012 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/41664/0.
  • Harcourt, R. 2001. Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990–2000:. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 31/1: 135-160.
  • MarineBio.org, 2011. "New Zealand fur seals, Arctocephalus forsteri at MarineBio.org" (On-line). MarineBio.org. Accessed January 31, 2012 at http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=308.
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Range Description

In New Zealand, this species occurs around both the North and South Islands, with newly formed breeding colonies now established on the North Island (Bouma et al. 2008) and established and predominantly expanding breeding colonies around the entire South Island (Boren et al. 2006a). There are well established and expanding colonies also found on Stewart Island and all of New Zealand's sub-Antarctic islands. In Australia, the species occurs in the coastal waters and on the offshore islands of South and Western Australia, from just east of Kangaroo Island west to the southwest corner of the continent, and also in southern Tasmania. Small populations are establishing in Bass Strait and Victorian and southern New South Wales coastal waters (Kirkwood and Goldsworthy 2013).

The range of New Zealand Fur Seals extends south to Australias Macquarie Island, where males mate with Antarctic and Subantarctic Fur Seals and produce hybrid pups (Lancaster et al. 2006). Vagrants have been recorded in New Caledonia and a bone was found in a 14th century archaeological site in the Cook Islands.
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Physical Description

Morphology

New Zealand fur seals have a pointed nose, long whiskers and ear flaps. The adult coat consists of two layers, a topcoat that is a dark grey-brown on the dorsal side, which gradually lightens to a lighter gray-brown underside, provides a sense of camouflage, and a thick undercoat. Seals dark appearances comes from their deep chestnut undercoat and the dark gray coarse guard hairs of the topcoat. When the fur is wet, it appears darker, but when it is dry the white tipped guard hairs give off a silvery sheen.  At five months, the pups shed their black coats for their more adult silvery-grey coats. The bulls have long, thick guard hairs that make up their coarse mane. The females do not develop this mane. New Zealand fur seals are sexually dimorphic. The males are three times the females’ weight and 1.3 times longer. Bulls are massive throughout their neck and shoulders, while females possess an overall slender physique. Even male pups are significantly larger than female pups, which is due the high lipid reserves of female pups, while the male pups consist of more lean muscle tissue.  Adult males average 1.5 to 2.5 m long and weigh 120 to 180 kg. Adult females average 1 to 1.5 m long and 30 to 50 kg. The largest male on record weighed 250 kg and the largest female weighed 90 kg.  Physically there are no differences between the New Zealand fur seal and the Australian fur seal. Only genetic differences distinguish them.

Range mass: 30 to 250 kg.

Average mass: Males: 120 to 180, Females: 30 to 50 kg.

Range length: 1 to 2.5 m.

Average length: Males: 1.5 to 2.5, Females: 1 to 1.5 m.

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; sexes shaped differently

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
New Zealand Fur Seals are sexually dimorphic, with adult males reaching twice the length and more than 2.1 times the weight of adult females. In South Australia, females reach 95% of their mean asymptotic length (137 cm) and mass (48.8 kg) by 7 and 12 years, respectively. Males reach 95% of their mean asymptotic length (170 cm) and mass (104.3 kg) by 10 and 12 years, respectively (McKenzie et al. 2007). The largest males weighed in South Australia and at the Open Bay Islands of New Zealand, were 147 kg (187 cm length, 13.5 years old), and 154 kg, respectively. Pups at birth weigh 3-4 kg and are 40-55 cm long. Males double their mass in 60100 days and females in 8090 days, and weigh 1316 kg at weaning which occurs when they are 9-10 months old (Goldsworthy 2006). Pups moult into adult pelage at 3-4 months. Females become mature at 4-6 years of age, males at 8-10 years (Dickie and Dawson 2003; McKenzie et al. 2005, 2007). Generation time is 9.9 years (Wickens and York 1997).

New Zealand Fur Seals are polygynous. Males arrive at colonies in late October before females and acquire and defend territories with vocalizations, ritualized displays, and fighting. Male territories include an average of 5-8 females with the ratio of females to males varying between different colonies. The number of animals ashore at rookeries declines rapidly in January. Male vocalizations include a bark or whimper, a guttural threat, a low-intensity threat, a full threat, and a submissive call. Females growl and have a pup-attraction call that is a high-pitched wail (Crawley and Wilson 1976, Ling 1987).

Pups are born from mid-November to January, with most born in December. Oestrous occurs 7-8 days after a female gives birth, and they usually spend another 1-2 days ashore with their pup before departing and beginning a cycle of foraging trips and periods of pup attendance ashore (Goldsworthy and Shaughnessy 1994, Goldsworthy 2006). Shore attendance bouts (when pups are nursed) last ~1.7 days while foraging trips to sea increase in duration from ~3-5 days in early lactation, to 8-11 days late in lactation. However, foraging trips lasting more than 20 days are not uncommon (Goldsworthy 2006).

New Zealand Fur Seals are considered non-migratory. At sea they actively groom and raft in a variety of postures typical of southern fur seals including the jug handle position while sleeping at the surface. They often porpoise out of the water when travelling rapidly at sea. Rocky shoreline habitat with shelter, and locations more exposed to wind and weather, are preferred for haul-outs and rookeries. When hauled out in New Zealand they readily enter areas of coastal vegetation behind the shoreline (Crawley and Wilson 1976, Ryan et al. 1997).

New Zealand Fur Seals prey on a large variety of cephalopods, fishes, and birds (Fea et al. 1999, Goldsworthy et al. 2003, Lalas and Webster 2014). In South Australia, key cephalopod prey include Southern Ocean Arrow Squid and Goulds Squid; key fish species include Redbait, Ocean Jackets, Swallowtail, and myctophids; and the most frequently taken bird species are Little Penguins and Short-Tailed Shearwaters (Page et al. 2005a). Satellite tracking studies in South Australia indicate marked spatial separation in foraging regions used by juvenile, adult female, and adult male seals. In early lactation (December to March), adult females undertake short foraging trips to mid-outer shelf waters (70-90 km from the colony), in regions associated with localized upwelling (Page et al. 2006, Baylis et al. 2008a). However, in April and May most females switch to foraging in distant oceanic waters associated with the Subtropical Front, 700-1,000 km to the south of breeding colonies, and continue foraging in these waters up until the weaning of their pups in September/October (Baylis et al. 2008a,b; Baylis et al. 2012). In contrast, adult males focus their foraging over the continental slope. Juvenile seals forage in oceanic waters where they target nocturnal surface-migrating myctophid fish (Baylis et al. 2005). Adult female and male seals both forage in the water column in relative shallow depths and near or on the bottom in deeper water. For females, benthic dives on the continental shelf in South Australia are typically to 60-80 m, while those of males on the continental slope are 100-200 m. The maximum dive durations and depths recorded for adult females are 9.3 min and 312 m, and 14.8 min and 380 m for males (Page et al. 2005b).

Predators include Killer Whales, Sharks, male New Zealand Sea Lions and possibly Leopard Seals at sub-Antarctic islands (Shaughnessy 2006).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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The New Zealand fur seals often inhabit rocky coastlines and offshore islands that provide protection from the strong ocean waves. They seem to prefer beaches with large rocks, reefs just off the coast and smooth rocky ledges to gain easy access to the sea. Warmer islands tend to have rock pools that the seals use for cooling.  Areas of vegetation that contain tussock and scrub are the usual sanctuaries of breeding seals and their young. Non-breeding colonies are more flexible in their choice of habitat Females are mid-water feeders with the distance and depth depending on the season and the age of their pups. During the breeding season, they will feed just beyond the continental shelf. During the fall and winter seasons, they will venture out for longer periods of time and dive further depths. Adult males feed over the continental slope and the juvenile seals forage in areas specifically containing the migrating lanternfish. Both the adult males and females will forage in shallow waters (0 to 20 m), but most often do benthic dives off the continental slope (females 60 to 80 m and males 100 to 200 m). The longest dive and deepest depth recorded for the females are 9.3 minutes and 312 m, whereas for males they are 14.8 minutes and 380 m.

Range elevation: Sea Level (low) m.

Range depth: 0 to 380 m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: reef ; coastal

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Trophic Strategy

The New Zealand fur seals are opportunistic foragers and will vary their diet according to what is available in the season and their location. They prey on several different cephalopods, fish, and birds throughout the year. The New Zealand fur seals can use their whiskers to feel underwater vibrations to help them to locate their food. Some of the animals they have been found to eat are: small penguins like the rockhopper penguins, short-tailed shearwaters, arrow squid, broad squid, warty squid, Antarctic flying squid, butterfish, New Zealand octopus, krill, lamprey, blind eel, ling, ahuru, crayfish, crab, lanternfish (Myctophidae, Symbolophonts, Lampanyctodes hectoris, Gymnoscopelus, Electrona), juvenile red cod, blue cod, flounder, whiptail, kahawai, horse mackerel, redbait, anchovy, ocean jackets, hagfish, spiny dogfish, school shark, sprat, silverside, lightfish, hoki, rattail, tarakihi, opalfish , Graham's gudgeon, barracouta, rostfish, warehou, lemon sole, sole, wary fish, dory, yelloweyed mullet, dwarf cod, Oliver's rattail, yellow weever, silver warehou, Southern blue whiting, javelin fish, deepsea smelt, common roughy, seaperch, and pilchard. Very few of these species are commercially important.

Animal Foods: birds; fish; mollusks; aquatic crustaceans; other marine invertebrates

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates, Piscivore , Molluscivore , Eats other marine invertebrates)

  • Carey, P. 1992. Fish prey species of the New Zealand fur seal. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 16/1: 41-46.
  • Nyree, F., R. Harcourt, C. Lalas. 1999. Seasonal variation in the diet of New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri) at Otago Peninsula, New Zealand. Wildlife Research, 26/2: 147-160.
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Associations

New Zealand fur seals host bacteria such as Mycobacteria tuberculosis and Campylobacter jejuni along with a few parasites. Lungworms such as Parafilaroides normani and Otostrongylus spp. also have been found along with respiratory mites (Orthohalaracne). New Zealand fur seals may also have blubber-cysts, which are the larvae of the cestode, Phyllobothrium enclosed in a cyst. Hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) and large roundworms such as Contracaecum, Psuedoterranova, Phocascaris and Anisakis are the most common parasites found in fur seals. Large amounts of these roundworms have been known to cause stomach ulcers.

Commensal/Parasitic Species:

  • Parafilsroides species
  • Otostrongylus species
  • Orthohalaracne
  • Phyllobothrium
  • Uncinaria species
  • Contracaecum
  • Psuedoterranova
  • Phocascaris
  • Anisakis

  • Bernardelli, A., R. Bastida, J. Loureiro, H. Michelis, M. Romano, A. Cataldi, E. Costa. 1996. Tuberculosis in sea lions and fur seals from the south-western Atlantic coast. Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE, 15/3: 985-1005.
  • Dailey, M. 2009. A New Species of Parafilaroides (Nematoda: Filaroididae) in Three Species of Fur Seals (Carnivora: Otariidae) From the Southern Hemisphere. Journal of Parasitology, 95/1: 156-159.
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Known predators include sharks, orcas, leopard seals, New Zealand sea lions, and humans. The only primary anti-predator adaptation the New Zealand fur seal has acquired through evolution is its coat color that blends into its rocky land surroundings, its ability to swim swiftly through water, and its ability to climb onto shore.

Known Predators:

  • orcas (Orcinus orca)
  • leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx)
  • New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri)
  • humans (Homo sapiens)
  • sharks (Chondrichthyes)

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

  • Bradshaw, C., C. Lalas, S. Mcconkey. 1998. New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater, 32/1: 101-104.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

New Zealand fur seals communicate through posture and physical movement. Territory boundaries and readiness to fight can be recognized through these actions.  Status of males can be assessed and established by the full neck display, where the smaller-necked males avoid the confrontation. The full neck posture is described as sitting in an upright, vertical position. The chest is protruding out, head is tilted back and nose is pointed up towards the sky. If the two males are the same size, the full neck display is done for much longer where the male’s chests keep in contact with the other. In order to prolong the display, while maneuvering for an attack position neck waving is conducted. When they carry their neck and head low dipped position, it’s to indicate submission; either after losing a full neck display or to avoid a fight in general. The male seal that has lost the full neck display faces away to appease the winner.  The alert posture shows general awareness, where an open-mouth display is used as an aggressive and a submissive display. Young pups have also been seen doing these displays during play-fighting with one another, however as the pups get older, they are more aggressive and skilled.

New Zealand fur seals also produce vocalizations, to give low intensity threatening calls. Territorial males will often bark to demonstrate their status or give a loud, deep, throaty, gruff call known as a choke call. The bark can also show sexual interest, where both males and females will whine or squeal to be more submissive. Male fur seals also whine or squeal to appease the winning male after a fight, while females threaten others by producing a high-pitched raspy growl.  When a female needs to locate her pup she uses both vocalization and vision. Once the female leaves the water she holds her body upright, extends and arches her head and neck forward searching, producing a high-pitched, rising screech. The returned call from the pup is also a high-pitched screech, but more monotone. To confirm recognition the female uses her olfactory senses to either accept or reject the pup as they sniff each other’s faces and noses.  The seal’s whiskers are useful in sensing, underwater vibrations and therefore locate food.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: pheromones

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; vibrations ; chemical

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Life Expectancy

In the wild, the oldest observed New Zealand fur seals were a 25 year-old female and a 19-year-old male. The average lifespan in the wild is assumed to be 15 years for a male and 12 years for a female.  However, the first year is the hardest - during the first 300 days, pup mortality is approximately 40%. The only captive age recorded was 23.1 years.

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
Female-25, Male-19 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
Female-12, Male-15 years.

Range lifespan

Status: captivity:
23.1 (high) years.

  • de Magalhaes, J., J. Costa. 2009. A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits.. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 22/8: 1770-1774.
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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Observations: Little is known about the longevity of these animals, but one specimen was about 23.1 years old when it died in captivity (Richard Weigl 2005). Males are socially mature about 10-12 years of age (Virginia Hayssen et al. 1993).
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Reproduction

New Zealand fur seals have a polygynous system, in which the male defends his territory with his harem of 5 to 8 females. As an island-hopper, a male fur seal will choose an island as his breeding site. When they arrive at an island, males will compete with each other to establish their territories a full two weeks before pregnant females come ashore.  Successful males with established territories are typically those between 7 and 15 years of age. Both male and female seals that aren’t breeding find other hauling grounds to rest upon during that season. The ideal territory has many shaded areas for the male and his group of females to cool themselves. These sheltered areas near the sea are frequently fought over throughout the breeding season and seldom left unoccupied by the territory holder. Seals appear on the hauling grounds, which allow easy access to and from the sea, around late October and stay until at least early February. As the breeding season progresses and the number of territorial males increases, the size of an individual’s territory decreases.  Most communication during the breeding season is aggressive. The males will herd the females to keep them on their territory and away from the other males. The longer the female is on a male’s territory, the higher the chances are that she will mate with him. Each male performs his herding techniques slightly different from the others. Females are allowed to move about the hauling grounds, but the herding territorial males make it difficult by blocking access for up to an hour at times.  Smelling is another key part of their mating behaviors. Males will smell the face and perineal regions of females to determine if the female is ready to mate. If the female is not ready to receive the male she displays aggressive behaviors such as growling, snapping and moving away. Females become more aggressive right before and after birth. Around eight days after giving birth, the female again goes into estrous. When the female is in estrous she will show interest in the male who occupies the territory she gave birth in by rubbing up against him and displaying very little aggression. The male detects the female’s sexual readiness by olfaction primarily. Copulation consists of mutual touching, and the male mounting and biting. When the female begins to the resist the male, he soon ejaculates and dismounts the female. The entire copulation can take from 5 to 30 minutes.

Mating System: polygynous

The breeding season for the New Zealand fur seal starts in late October and ends by early February. To increase breeding opportunities, males will remain ashore for as long as possible, surviving off energy reserves. The male will not eat for two to three months of breeding season. Cows typically mate once a year and have a gestation period of nine months. After fertilization the embryo goes through a 2 to 4 month delayed implantation. This allows females to birth and mate in the same breeding season. It also allows her body recovery time between birthing and the development of her next pup. The pups are born between late November and mid-January, with an average length of 40 to 55 cm. These pups are precocial, and can start suckling within 60 minutes. At 9 to 10 months of age the pups are weaned. There is significant weight variation in the pups at birth, which may be explained by the considerable sexual dimorphism between the two sexes. Male pups weigh on average 3.9 to 5.6 kg at birth and females at birth weigh 3.3 to 4.8 kg. At 290 days old the male pups weighed 14.1 kg and the females were 12.6 kg. From birth to 240 days of age the pups gained on average 24 g and 0.86 cm a day, but this rate slowed as they continued to age. Both male and female New Zealand fur seals reach sexual maturity around four to five years of age. Females will deliver their first pup at this time, but males don’t become territorial until 8 to 10 years because their body size does not compete with other males. Seven to eight days after giving birth, the cows will mate with the bull closest to her. Usually this will end up being the bull in whose territory they reside. Females breed anytime throughout the breeding season. However, only females breeding for the first time or females that didn't birth and rear a pup the year before are early season breeders.

Breeding interval: The New Zealand fur seal breeds once yearly.

Breeding season: The New Zealand fur seal breeding season is between late October and early February.

Range number of offspring: 0 to 1.

Average gestation period: 9 months.

Average weaning age: 9 to 10 months.

Average time to independence: 9 to 10 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 4 to 8 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 5 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 4 to 5 years.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization ; viviparous ; delayed implantation

Average birth mass: 3833.33 g.

Average gestation period: 236 days.

Average number of offspring: 1.

When New Zealand fur seal cows have have pups they protect and nurse it. Six to twelve days after giving birth, cows will leave their pup with other pups and start the feeding/weaning cycle. Mothers will go to sea and feed for three to eight days before returning to their pup and let it suckle for two to seven days. As the pup gets older, the foraging trips the cow takes gradually become longer and her time ashore becomes shorter. Harems occur when multiple females loyal to territorial bulls return to the bull’s territory. When several of the mothers simultaneously leave their pups for longer periods on feeding trips, the pups gather into small groups called pods until each hears the call of its mother and returns to her to suckle. The older the pups get, the more adventurous they become. They swim in water pools, play with the other pups, and mimic battles. The birth mass of the pup is related to the changes in yearly conditions such as place of birth, the mother’s age, her experience, prey abundance, and the mother’s foraging efficiency.

Parental Investment: precocial ; female parental care ; pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

  • Bradshaw, C., L. Davis, C. Lalas, R. Harcourt. 2000. Geographic and temporal variation in the condition of pups of the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri): evidence for density dependence and differences in the marine environment. Journal of Zoology, 252/1: 41-51.
  • Crawley, M., G. Wilson. 1976. The natural history and behaviour of the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri). Tuatara : Journal of the Biological Society, 22/1: 1-28.
  • Gales, N., B. Haberley, P. Collins. 2000. Changes in the abundance of New Zealand fur seals, Arctocephalus forsteri, in Western Australia. Wildlife Research, 27/2: 165 - 168.
  • Goldsworthy, S., N. Gales. 2011. "Arctocephalus forsteri" (On-line).
    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    . Accessed January 31, 2012 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/41664/0.
  • Harcourt, R. 2001. Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990–2000:. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 31/1: 135-160.
  • Lloyd, S. 2003. "Seals - New Zealand fur seal" (On-line). Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Accessed March 16, 2012 at http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/seals/5.
  • MarineBio.org, 2011. "New Zealand fur seals, Arctocephalus forsteri at MarineBio.org" (On-line). MarineBio.org. Accessed January 31, 2012 at http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=308.
  • McKenzie, J., B. Page, P. Shaughnessy, M. Hindell. 2007. Age and reproductive maturity of New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri). Journal of Mammalogy,, 88/3: 639-648.
  • Miller, E. 1974. Social behaviuor between adult male and female New Zealand fur seals, Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson) during the breeding season. Australian Journal of Zoology, 22/2: 155 - 173.
  • Stirling, I. 1970. Observations on the behavior of the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri). Journal of Mammalogy, 51/4: 766-778.
  • Stirling, I. 1971. Studies on the behaviour on the South Ausralian fur seal, Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson) I. Annual cycle, postures and calls, and adult males during breeding season. Australian Journal of Zoology, 19/3: 243-266.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Arctocephalus forsteri

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ATGTTCGTAAATCGATGATTATTCTCCACAAACCATAAAGATATTGGCACCCTCTATTTACTATTCGGTGCATGAGCTGGAATGGCTGGCACCGCCCTTAGCCTATTGATCCGCGCGGAGTTAGGCCAACCAGGCACTCTACTAGGAGATGACCAAATCTACAACGTAATTGTCACCGCCCACGCATTCGTAATAATCTTTTTTATGGTAATACCTATTATAATTGGGGGCTTTGGAAATTGATTAGTACCCCTAATAATTGGAGCCCCCGACATGGCATTTCCTCGAATAAACAACATAAGTTTCTGACTTCTACCCCCCTCCTTTCTACTACTACTAGCCTCTTCTCTAGTTGAAGCCGGCGCAGGTACCGGATGAACAGTTTACCCTCCTCTAGCAGGAAATCTAGCCCATGCAGGAGCTTCCGTAGACTTAACTATTTTCTCCCTTCACCTGGCAGGAGTATCATCCATTCTGGGAGCCATCAACTTTATTACTACTATTATCAACATGAAACCCCCTGCTATATCCCAATACCAAACCCCTTTATTCGTGTGATCCGTACTAATCACAGCGGTACTACTTCTGCTATCCCTACCAGTCCTGGCAGCTGGTATCACTATATTACTCACGGACCGAAATCTAAACACAACCTTCTTTGATCCAGCCGGAGGGGGTGACCCTATCCTATATCAACACCTATTCTGATTCTTCGGACACCCAGAAGTGTATATTCTCATCCTACCAGGATTCGGGATAATCTCACACATCGTCACCTATTACTCAGGAAAAAAGGAACCCTTTGGTTATATGGGAATAGTCTGAGCAATAATATCAATCGGCTTCTTAGGCTTTATCGTATGAGCACACCATATATTCACCGTAGGAATAGATGTTGACACACGAGCATACTTCACCTCAGCCACTATAATTATCGCCATCCCTACTGGAGTAAAAGTATTTAGCTGACTAGCTACTCTGCATGGTGGTAACATCAAATGATCTCCTGCCATACTATGAGCCTTAGGATTTATCTTCCTATTCACAGTAGGAGGCCTCACAGGCATTGTGTTAGCAAACTCATCATTAGATATCGTCCTCCACGATACATACTACGTGGTGGCACACTTTCATTACGTATTATCAATAGGAGCAGTGTTTGCTATTATGGGCGGATTCGTTCATTGATTCCCCTTATTTTCAGGATTCATGCTCGATAGTACCTGGGCGAAAATCCACTTCACAATCATATTTGTTGGGGTCAATATGACATTCTTCCCACAACATTTTTTAGGCCTATCCGGAATACCACGACGATACTCTGACTACCCAGACGCCTACACAACATGAAATACAATCTCCTCTATAGGCTCGTTCATCTCACTTACGGCAGTGATACTTATGGTCTTCATAATCTGAGAAGCCTTTGCGTCCAAACGAGAGGTAGAGACGATTGAACTGACATCGACTAATATGGAGTGACTTCACGGATGTCCTCCTCCCTATCATACATTCGAAGAACCTACCTATATTGTATCGAAATAA
-- end --

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Arctocephalus forsteri

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2015

Assessor/s
Chilvers, B.L. & Goldsworthy, S.D.

Reviewer/s
Lowry, L.

Contributor/s
Gales, N.J.

Justification
Presently the majority of New Zealand Fur Seal populations are increasing, and there is no evidence for sustained declines anywhere within their range. The breeding range of the species is still expanding in both New Zealand and Australia. Although the species is subject to some commercial fisheries bycatch in both New Zealand and Australia, those takes do not appear to be inhibiting broad scale population recovery. The species is therefore assessed as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • 1996
    Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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New Zealand fur seals are listed as a low risk on the IUCN Red List, because they were once harvested by the native Polynesian culture and European sealers in the 1900s. In 1972, fur seals were given national protection. Trawling nets have been a source of drowning and entanglement to more than 10,000 New Zealand fur seals from 1989 to 1998. Hence, environmental groups are advocating for the creation of a trawl net that will not catch marine mammals. Environmentalists are also advising fish farms to build seal-proof barriers or away from fur seal habitats. Tourism also causes disturbances for the seals. They will often abandon those areas for quieter island shores. New Zealand fur seals are now protected by laws in Australia and New Zealand. All marine mammals of New Zealand are protected by the Marine Mammals Protection Act of 1978. In 2004, the Department of Conservation established a 5-year Conservation Plan. The Australian Commonwealth Government and the State Government each have their own jurisdiction over all marine animals that are within 4.8 km of the coast. New Zealand fur seals are protected by the Marine Mammal Sanctuary that was created in the Auckland Islands and by UNESCO in 1998 when they granted the New Zealand’s subantarctic islands “World Heritage” status. In 1999 a Conservation Action Plan was published for all Australian seals. On the eastern side of Macquarie Island in 2000, a 16 million hectare Marine Park was established. The Tasmanian government then encompassed all of Tasmania’s waters and 5.6 km adjoining Tasmania into the Macquarie Island Nature Reserve.  These parks, reserves, laws, conservation plans and environmentalist groups successfully protect New Zealand fur seals. Since conservation efforts went into effect, seal population numbers have been on the rise.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix ii

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Population

Population

Before human arrival, New Zealand Fur Seals bred around all the New Zealand mainland and subantarctic islands. Maori subsistence hunting reduced their range in New Zealand and commercial sealing in the 1700s and 1800s took seal numbers to near extinction with over 930,000 skins known to have been exported from New Zealand and Australian harbours. Currently, populations are increasing in both Australia and New Zealand (Brothers and Pemberton 1990, Shaughnessy and Gales 1990, Shaughnessy and Goldsworthy 2007, Boren et al. 2006a, Bouma et al. 2008, Shaughnessy et al. 2014).

In 2005-2006, New Zealand Fur Seal pup production at the 40 known Australian breeding colonies was estimated at 17,600 pups, equivalent to approximately 35,000 breeding females. For New Zealand, the largest breeding colony is at Bountys Island, last surveyed in 1980 with 4,380 pups born and increasing (Taylor 1996).

Apart from a few colonies like Open Bay Islands that are in decline, the overall trend throughout New Zealand is for an increasing population but there are no comprehensive data available for a total population estimate.

At 28 breeding sites surveyed in South Australia in 2013/14, 20,426 pups were recorded, with most on Kangaroo Island (10,133 pups) and the Neptune and Liguanea Islands off the southern Eyre Peninsula (9,711 pups; Shaughnessy et al. 2014). At 17 breeding sites off the southern coast of Western Australia, 3,518 pups were recorded in 2011/12 (Campbell et al. 2014). At four breeding sites in Victoria, 276 pups have been recorded; at four breeding sites in southern Tasmania, 399 pups have been recorded and at one site in southern New South Wales 36 pups have been recorded. The maximum pup numbers recorded between 2008/09 and 2013/14 across all sites in Australia is 24,656. South Australia (83%) and Western Australia (14%) have the bulk of Australias New Zealand Fur Seal population. Based on a pup to total population multiplier of 4.76 (Goldsworthy and Page 2007) the Australian segment of the population is currently estimated to number ~ 117,400.

Between the 1989/90 and the 2013/14 breeding season, the Fur Seal population in South Australia has increased 3.6 fold, with the average annual increase in pup production being 5.3% (Shaughnessy et al. 2014). However, rates of increase at some sites have been much greater. For example, in the Cape Gantheaume Wilderness Protection Area on Kangaroo Island, annual monitoring of pup production demonstrates a remarkable recovery over a 26 year period from 1988/89 (457 pups) to 2013/14 (5,333 pups), an 11.7 fold increase at an average rate of 10% per year (Goldsworthy et al. 2014). In contrast, pup production at the Neptune and Liguanea Islands appears to have peaked in the mid-2000s, with most of the available breeding habitat now full (Shaughnessy et al. 2014). The centre of population expansion in Australia in now on Kangaroo Island. The growth of New Zealand Fur Seal populations since the 1970 and 1980s in Australia is attributable to recovery from 19th century sealing (1800-1830) and subsequent take.

Overall, the total population of New Zealand Fur Seals across both New Zealand and Australia is estimated to be approximately 200,000.


Population Trend
Increasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Humans in both Australia and New Zealand have likely harvested New Zealand Fur Seals for subsistence since first contact. There is evidence that Polynesian colonization of New Zealand and harvest of seals led to declines and loss of colonies on the coast of the North Island. European sealers nearly exterminated the species in the 19th century (Crawley and Wilson 1976), but due to protection it has rebounded to occupy most of its former range.

Trawl and other fisheries are a source of entanglement and drowning for Fur Seals (Page et al. 2004, Thompson and Abraham 2010, Shaughnessy et al. 2003). Tourism and disturbance at colonies can lead to disruption of breeding behaviour and site abandonment, although most colonies are on offshore islands and are relatively inaccessible. Marine debris entanglement is also known to be an increasing problem (Page et al. 2004, Boren et al. 2006b).

Like all fur seals, New Zealand Fur Seals are vulnerable to oil spills because of their dependence on their thick pelage for thermoregulation (Gales 1991). They share most of their range with several other regularly occurring pinniped species and they also come in close contact with domestic and feral animals and in some areas wild carnivores. Thus, they are at risk from transmission of infectious diseases such as morbilliviruses, brucellosis, leptospirosis, and tuberculosis (MacKereth et al. 2005).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is protected by law in both Australia and New Zealand. In New Zealand all marine mammals are protected by the Marine Mammals Protection Act of 1978. The New Zealand Fur Seal was listed as a Least Concerned for New Zealand Species in 2010 under the New Zealand threat classification system (Baker et al. 2010, Townsend et al. 2008).

In Australia, State Governments have jurisdiction over marine mammals within 4.8 km of the coast and each state has its own conservation legislation. The Australian Commonwealth Government has jurisdiction from 4.8 km offshore throughout the rest of the countrys 322 km Exclusive Economic Zone. Under the Australian Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, New Zealand Fur Seals are listed as protected marine species. An action plan for conservation of Australian seals was published in 1999 (Shaughnessy 1999). New Zealand Fur Seals are listed on CITES Appendix II.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

New Zealand fur seals cause negligible economic harm to humans. They often get caught in fishery nets and squid trawls, which could cause a negative economic impact. As seal populations grow, collisions with motor vehicles are on the rise.

  • Boren, L., M. Morrissey, N. Gemmell. 2008. Motor vehicle collisions and the New Zealand fur seal in the Kaikoura region. MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, 24/1: 235-238.
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New Zealand fur seals were a popular source of food and clothing to the Polynesian culture. When the European sealers arrived in the 19th century, they nearly caused the extinction of fur seals. Today, New Zealand fur seals also have become a popular modern day tourist attraction. To increase the profit of tourism, the tourist operations have created swim-with-seal programs.

Positive Impacts: food ; body parts are source of valuable material; ecotourism ; research and education

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Wikipedia

Arctocephalus forsteri

Arctocephalus forsteri, the New Zealand fur seal or southern fur seal, is a species of fur seal found around the south coast of Australia, the coast of the South Island of New Zealand, and some of the small islands to the south and east of there.[1] Male-only colonies are also located on the Cook Strait coast of the North Island near Wellington and vagrants are found as far north as New Caledonia.[citation needed] The English name New Zealand fur seal is used by English speakers in New Zealand (kekeno is used in the Māori language), and southern fur seal by English speakers in Australia.[citation needed] Although the two populations show some genetic differences, their morphologies are very similar, and thus they remain classed as a single species.[1]

Although the seals look docile, they can move surprisingly quickly and it is advisable never to approach a female with young or get between a seal and the water, cutting off its escape route to the sea.

Physical characteristics[edit]

Males have been reported as large as 250 kg; their average weight is about 126 kg.[1][2] Males can be 2 meters long. Females are between 30–50 kg on average, and can be as long as 1.5 meters. Pups are 3.3-3.9 kg on average, and between 40 and 55 cm long. At 290 days old males are about 14.1 kg, and females are about 12.6 kg.[1] They have external ears and hind flippers that rotate forward, which visibly distinguish them from other seals.[3] They have a pointy nose with long pale whiskers.[3] The fur seals are covered by two layers of fur. The coat is grey-brown on their back, and lighter on their belly.[3] Some have white tips on longer upper hairs, which can give them a silver-like appearance.[3]

Behavioral characteristics[edit]

Diving[edit]

New Zealand fur seals "porpoise" out of the water when traveling quickly at sea.[1] They can dive deeper and longer than any other fur seal.[3] Females can dive for about 9 minutes and to a depth of about 312 meters, and can dive deeper and longer in autumn and winter. Males can dive for about 15 minutes to a depth of about 380 meters.[1] On average New Zealand fur seals only dive for 1–2 minutes.[3] When they dive for food they dive deeper during the day but shallower at night, because during the day their prey typically migrates to deeper depths and migrates back up during the night.[3]

Communication[edit]

Males vocalize through a bark or whimper, either a gluttural threat, a low-intensity threat, a full threat, or a submissive call. Females growl and also have a high-pitched pup attraction wail call.[1]

Breeding[edit]

Female New Zealand fur seals mature between 4 and 6 years old, and males mature between 8 and 10 years old.[1] These seals are polygynous.[1][3] Males obtain and guard territory in late October before females arrive.[1] Often females only mate once a year, and this usually occurs eight days postpartum for about 13 minutes on average. Females have a delayed implantation of the fertilized egg, so that implantation on the uterine wall does not occur for 3 months.[3] Gestation occurs for 9 months[3] Females are more aggressive near the time of birth, and do not like to be approached right after birth.[2] Female New Zealand fur seals will continue to reproduce until their death which is on average between 14 and 17 years of age.[3]

Parenting[edit]

Pups are born between November and January.[1] Females stay close to the birth site for up to ten days. Pups are fairly mature at birth, and within 60 minutes they start suckling for about 7 minutes. Eventually the suckling can exceed 33 minutes.[2] Suckling can occur for about 300 days. Pups start to eat solid food just before weaning.[3] Pups are eventually weaned around September, and they disperse.[2][3]

Diet[edit]

Their diet includes cephalopods, fish, and birds.[1] Stomach contents have been analyzed and shown to include anchovy, barracuda, flounder, hagfish, lamprey, red cod, school shark, and many other species.[4] There are different factors that affect their diet, such as season, sex, breeding, surrounding colony, oceanography, and climatic patterns.[4]

Predators[edit]

New Zealand fur seals’ known predators are killer whales, sharks, male New Zealand sea lions, and possibly leopard seals.[1] New Zealand sea lions are also known to target pups as their prey.[5]

Human impact[edit]

These seals were widely hunted from shortly after the European discovery of New Zealand until the late 19th century. The population of the New Zealand seal fell to levels under 10% of the original numbers. Today trawls and fisheries are one of the main sources of death in New Zealand fur seals. They cause entanglement and drowning.[1] It has been estimated by the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society that over 10000 seals could have drowned in nets between 1989 and 1998.[2] They are also known to be shot by commercial and recreational fishermen, because they sometimes interfere with fishing gear. How often these shootings occur is unknown, but the conflict between the seals and commercial fisheries is expected to increase.[6] On August 21 2014, two decomposing animals were found beheaded near Louth Bay in South Australia. The circumstances of their deaths were considered suspicious and an investigation followed their discovery.[7]

Legislative protection[edit]

New Zealand fur seals received protection by the creation of a 16 million hectare Marine Park located on the eastern side of Macquarie island in 2000. The Tasmanian government has also extended to Macquarie Island Nature Reserve by 3 nautical miles surrounding the island.[6] In New Zealand, the species is protected by the Marine Mammals Protection Act of 1978, which works to conserve marine animal species.[1] In Australian Commonwealth waters, Arctocephalus forsteri is protected under the Environment Protection Biodiversity Conservation (EPBC) Act 1999 under which it is listed as a protected marine species.[8]

RegionListed asLegislation
NSWVulnerableThreatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales)[8]
SAMarine mammalNational Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia)[9]
TASRareThreatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania)[8]
WAOther protected faunaWildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia)[8]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Goldsworthy, S. & Gales, N. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) (2008). Arctocephalus forsteri. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 14 January 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d e Harcourt, R.G., (2001). "Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990-2000: Pinnipeds". Journal of The Royal Society of New Zealand, Downloaded October 6, 2011
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Department of Conservation. "New Zealand fur seal/kekeno" Found October 6, 2011
  4. ^ a b Boren, L. (2010) "Diet of New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri): a summary", Downloaded October 6, 2011
  5. ^ Bradshaw, C.J.A., Lalas, C., & McConkey, S. (1998). “New Zealand sea lion predation on New Zealand fur seals”. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. Downloaded October 6, 2011
  6. ^ a b MarineBio.org (2011). "New Zealand Fur Seals, Arctocephalus forsteri at MarineBio.org" Found October 6, 2011
  7. ^ "Headless fur seals found on beach in SA treated as suspicious". ABC. 2014-08-25. Retrieved 2014-08-26. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Arctocephalus forsteri". Species profile and threats database. Australian Government - Department of the Environment. 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-26. 
  9. ^ National Parks & Wildlife Act 1972. Government of South Australia. 2014. 

Sources[edit]

  • Randall R. Reeves, Brent S. Stewart, Phillip J. Clapham and James A. Powell (2002). National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 0375411410. 
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