The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1. IUCN Red List (September, 2007) http://www.iucnredlist.orghttp://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 10. IUCN Otter Specialist Group (September, 2007) http://otterspecialistgroup.org/Species/Enhydra_lutris.htmlhttp://otterspecialistgroup.org/Species/Enhydra_lutris.html External link.
  • 11. US Fish and Wildlife Service. (2003) Final Revised Recovery Plan for the Southern Sea Otter. USFWS, Portland, Oregon. Available at http://ecos.fws.gov/speciesProfile/SpeciesReport.do?spcode=A0A7http://ecos.fws.gov/speciesProfile/SpeciesReport.do?spcode=A0A7 External link.
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. Jefferson, T.A., Leatherwood, S. and Webber, M.A. (1993) FAO species identification guide. Marine mammals of the world. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
  • 3. CITES (September, 2007) http://www.cites.orghttp://www.cites.org External link.
  • 4. Estes, J.A. and Bodkin, J.L. (2002) Otters. In: Perrin, W.F., Wursig, B. and Thewissen, J.G.M. Eds. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, London.
  • 5. SEA OTTERS: THE CLAM BUSTERS (Wildlife on One) (BBC tx. 16th January, 1995)
  • 6. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Alaska (September, 2007) http://alaska.fws.gov/fisheries/mmm/index.htmhttp://alaska.fws.gov/fisheries/mmm/index.htm External link.
  • 7. Perrin, W.F. (2002) Geographic Variation. In: Perrin, W.F., Wursig, B. and Thewissen, J.G.M. Eds. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, London.
  • 8. A SEA OTTER STORY (Nature: Waddlers and Paddlers) (PBS tx. 17th March, 1994)
  • 9. Kruuk, H. (2006) Otters. In: Macdonald, D.W. Ed. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Bernhard Grzimek (1990) Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. McGraw-Hill: New York.
  • Berta, A.; Churchill, M. (2013). Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=242598
  • Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P. 1998. Towards comprehensive phylogenies: examples within the Carnivora (Mammalia). Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
  • C. A. Simenstad, J. A. Estes, K. W. Kenyon, Aleuts, sea otters, and alternate stable-state communities, Science 200:403-411, from p. 404 (1978).
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Chai, H; Lee, JJ-W; Constantino, PJ; Lucas, PW; Lawn, BR. 2009. Remarkable resilience of teeth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106(18): 7289-7293.
  • Cohn, J. March 1998. Understanding sea otters. BioScience, 48: 151-155.
  • DOF-semarnap. 2000. Proyecto de la Norma Oficial Mexicana PROY-NOM-059-ECOL-2000. Diario Oficial de la Federación. México.
  • Estes, J. 1980. Enhydra lutris. Mammalian Species, 133: 1-8.
  • Estes, J., D. Duggins. 1995. Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation in a communtiy ecological paradigm.. Ecological Monographs, 65: 75-100.
  • Estes, J., J. Palmisano. 1974. Sea otters: their role in structuring nearshore communities. Science, 185: 1058-1060.
  • Estes, J., K. Underwood, M. Karmann. 1986. Activity-time budgets of sea otters in california. Journal of wildlife management, 50: 626-636.
  • Estes, J., M. Tinker, T. Wiliams, D. Doak. 1998. Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science, 282: 473-476.
  • Estes, J., N. Smith, J. Palmisano. 1978. Sea otter predation and community organization in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Ecology, 59: 822-833.
  • Estes, J.A. 1990. Growth and equilibrium in sea otter populations. Journal of Animal Ecology. 59 (2) : 385-401.
  • Fisher, E. 1939. Habits of the southern sea otter. Journal of Mammalogy, 20: 21-36.
  • Gallo-Reynoso, J.P. 1997. Situación y distribución de las nutrias en México, con énfasis en Lontra longicaudis annectens Major, 1897. Revista Mexicana de Mastozoología. 2: 10-32.
  • Gallo-Reynoso, J.P. y Rathbun, G.B. 1997. Status of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in México. Marine Mammal Science . 13: 332-340.
  • Gittleman, J. L. 1982. The behavioural ecology of carnivores. University of Sussex.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Hilton-Taylor, C. 2000. "The 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Accessed Dec 5, 2001 at http://www.redlist.org/search/details.php?species=7750.
  • Huey, L.M. 1964. The Mammals of Baja California, México. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 13 (7) : 85-168.
  • J. W. Nybakken, Marine Biology: An Ecological Approach (Harper and Row, New York, 1982), from p. 242.
  • Kelt, D. A., and D. H. Van Vuren. 2001. The Ecology and Macroecology of Mammalian Home Range Area. American Naturalist 157:637-645.
  • Kenyon, K.W. 1969. The sea otters in the eastern Pacific Ocean. North American Fauna. 68: 1-352.
  • Leatherwood, J.S., Harrington, J. y Hubbs, C.L. 1978. Relict survival of the sea otter in Central California and evidence of redispersal south of Point Concepción. Bull. So. Cal. Acad. Sci. 77: 109-115
  • Limbaugh, C. 1961. Observations on the California sea otter. Journal of Mammalogy, 42: 271-273.
  • Lovegrove, B. G. 2000. The Zoogeography of Mammalian Basal Metabolic Rate. American Naturalist 156:201-219.
  • López, R. y López, J.J. 1998. Los mamíferos de México depositados en colecciones de los Estados Unidos y Canadá. Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana. México.
  • McShane, L., J. Estes, M. Riedman, M. Staedler. 1995. Repertiore, structure, and individual variation of vocalizations in the sea otter. Journal of Mammalogy, 76: 414-427.
  • Merriam, C.H. 1904. A new sea otter from southern California. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 17: 159.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at http://animaldiversity.org. http://www.animaldiversity.org
  • Nelson, E.W. 1921. Lower California and its natural resources. Natural Academy of Sciences. 16: 1-94.
  • Newby, T.C. 1975. A sea otter (Enhydra lutris) food dive record. Murrelet. 56: 19.
  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Ogden, A. 1941. The California sea otter trade, 1784-1848. University of California Press. Berkeley, California, U.S.A.
  • Original description: Linnaeus, C., 1758.  Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classis, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tenth Edition, Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, 1:45, 824 pp.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World. Systematics and Distribution. (4). Estados Unidos.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Riedman, M., J. Estes, M. Staedler, A. Giles, D. Carlson. 1994. Breeding Patterns and reproductive success of California sea otters. Journal of Wildlife Management, 58: 391-399.
  • Rodríguez, M.C y Gendron, D. 1996. Report of a sea otter, Enhydra lutris, off the coast of Isla Magdalena, Baja California Sur, México. Marine Mammal Science . 12: 153-156.
  • Ronald Nowak (2003) Walker's Marine Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
  • Weckerly, F. W. 1998. Sexual-size dimorphism: Influence of mass and mating systems in the most dimorphic mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 79:33-52.
  • Wilson, D., M. Bogan, R. Brownell, Jr., A. Burdin, M. Maminov. 1991. Geographic variation in sea otters, *Enhydra lutris*. Journal of Mammalogy, 72: 22-36.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!