The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1996. database, U. S. Dept. Interior
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2001. website, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program-03/01
  • Academic American Encyclopedia. 1994. Grolier Incorporated. Danbury, CT.
  • Arriaga, L., Espinoza, J. M., Aguilar, C., Gómez, L. & Loa, E. 2000. Regiones Terrestres Prioritarias de México. 1-609. CONABIO. México.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P. 1998. Towards comprehensive phylogenies: examples within the Carnivora (Mammalia). Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
  • CITES. 2002. Convención sobre el Comercio Internacional de Especies Amenazadas de Fauna y Flora Silvestres. E.U.A. Consultado: 2002
  • Carbone, C., and J. L. Gittleman. 2002. A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science 295:2273-2276.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Collier's Encyclopedia. 1993. Collier Incorporated. New York, NY.
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • Doan-Crider, D. 1995. Populations Characteristics and home range dynamics of the black bear in northern Coahuila. 1-117. Tésis de Maestria. Biology Department, Texas A & M University. E.U.A.
  • Encyclopedia Americana. 1994. Grolier Incorporated. Danbury, CT.
  • Gittleman, J. L. 1982. The behavioural ecology of carnivores. University of Sussex.
  • Hall, R. H. 1981. The Mammals of North America. 2:600-1175. John Wiley and Sons. E.U.A.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Hilton, T. C. 2000. 2000 IUCN red list of threatened species. 1-79. IUCN. Glanz, Suiza.
  • Kelt, D. A., and D. H. Van Vuren. 2001. The Ecology and Macroecology of Mammalian Home Range Area. American Naturalist 157:637-645.
  • Lariviere, S. 2001. Ursus americanus. Mammalian Species, 647: 1-11. Accessed September 02, 2006 at http://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/VHAYSSEN/msi/default.html.
  • Larivière, S. 2001. Ursus americanus. Mammalian Species. (647):1-11
  • Leopold, A. S. 1965. Fauna Silvestre de México. 1-600. Instituto Mexicano de Recursos Naturales Renovables. México.
  • Leopold, A. S. 1965. Fauna Silvestre de México. ND. Instituto Mexicano de Recursos Naturales Renovables. México.
  • López, W. R. & López, J. J. 1998. Los mamíferos de México depositados en colecciones de Estados Unidos y Canadá. 1:1-323. Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Iztapalapa. México.
  • Medellín, R., Manterola, C., Valdéz, M., Hewitt, D. G., Doan-Crider, D. & Fulbright, T. E. 2005. History, Ecology and conservation of pronghorn antelope, bighorn sheep and black bear in México. 387-404. In: Cartron, J. L., Ceballos, G. & Felger, R. (eds.). Biodiversity, Ecosystems and Conservation in Northern Mexico. Oxford University Press, USA, 514 pp.
  • Moctezuma, O. En prensa. Oso Negro. Atlas Mastozoológico de México. In: Gerardo Ceballos. ND. CONABIO-UNAM. México.
  • North American Bear Center (Online source)   http://www.bear.org/ External link.
  • Northwest Territories: Resources, Wildlife, and Economic Development Division, August 27, 2001. "Encountering Bears" (On-line). Accessed August 28, 2002 at http://www.nwtwildlife.rwed.gov.nt.ca/Publications/safetyinbearcountry/encounters.htm.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Promislow, D. E. L., and P. H. Harvey. 1990. Living Fast and Dying Young - a Comparative-Analysis of Life- History Variation among Mammals. Journal of Zoology 220:417-437.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Ronald Nowak (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • SEMARNAP. 1995. Reservas de la Biosfera y otras Areas naturales protegidas de México. 1-159. SEMARNAP/Instituto Nacional de Ecología/CONABIO. México, D.F.
  • SEMARNAP. 1999. Proyecto para la Conservación y Manejo del Oso Negro (Ursus americanus) en México. INE-SEMARNAP, México, 105 pp.
  • SEMARNAT. 6/ Marzo/2002. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-ECOL-2001. Diario Oficial de la Federación. 1-81. México, D.F.
  • Sibly, R. M., D. Collett, D. E. L. Promislow, D. J. Peacock, and P. H. Harvey. 1997. Mortality rates of mammals. Journal of Zoology 243:1-12.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • The Carnivores. Ewer, R.F. 1973. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, NY.
  • Walker's Mammals of the World, 4th Ed. Nowak, Ronald, M. and John L. Paradiso. 1983. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
  • Wild Mammals of North America. Chapman, Joseph, A. and George A. Feldhamer. 1982.Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, MD.
  • Wilson, D. E. & Reeder, M. A. 1993. Mammals species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference . In: Wilson, D. E. y D. M. Reeder. ND. Smithsonian Institution Press. E.U.A.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • World Book Encyclopedia. 1994. World Book Incorporated. Chicago, IL.

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