The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2001. website, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program-03/01
  • Allen, T.B., ed. 1979. Wild Animals of North America. The National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Bensettiti, F. & Gaudillat, V. 2004. Cahiers d'habitats Natura 2000. Connaissance et gestion des habitats et des espèces d'intérêt communautaire. Tome 7. Espèces animales. La Documentation française. 353 pp.
  • Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P. 1998. Towards comprehensive phylogenies: examples within the Carnivora (Mammalia). Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
  • Calvignac, S, Hughes S, Tougard C, Michaux J, Thevenot M, Philippe M, Hamdine , Hanni C. 2008. Ancient DNA evidence for the loss of a highly divergent brown bear clade during historical times. Molecular Ecology 17(8):1962-1970.
  • Carbone, C., and J. L. Gittleman. 2002. A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science 295:2273-2276.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • D. L. Pattie and N. A. M. Verbeek, Alpine birds of the Beartooth Mountains, Condor 68:167-176 (1966); Alpine mammals of the Beartooth Mountains, Northwest Sci. 41(3):110-117 (1967).
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn M. Reeder (eds.), Mammal Species of the World,Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, 2005.
  • Gittleman, J. L. 1982. The behavioural ecology of carnivores. University of Sussex.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • INPN 2003-2014. Fiche descriptive de : Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. Service du Patrimoine naturel. http://inpn.mnhn.fr/espece/cd_nom/60826/tab/fiche.
  • Kelt, D. A., and D. H. Van Vuren. 2001. The Ecology and Macroecology of Mammalian Home Range Area. American Naturalist 157:637-645.
  • Lectotype: Baird, S. F. 1857. Mammals: General report upon the zoology of the several Pacific railroad routes. Reports of explorations and surveys to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. 8(1): 224.
  • Lectotype: Merriam, C. H. 13 Apr 1896 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 10: 74.
  • Lectotype: Merriam, C. H. 13 Apr 1896 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 10: 76.
  • Linnaeus, C., Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classis, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis,Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classis, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, 17581.
  • Miller CR and Waits LP. 2003. The history of effective population size and genetic diversity in the Yellowstone grizzly (Ursus arctos): Implications for conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 100(7):4334-4339.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at http://animaldiversity.org. http://www.animaldiversity.org
  • Nowak, R.M. and J.L Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. 4th edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
  • Original description: Linnaeus, C., 1758.  Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classis, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tenth Edition, Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, 1:47, 824 pp.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Promislow, D. E. L., and P. H. Harvey. 1990. Living Fast and Dying Young - a Comparative-Analysis of Life- History Variation among Mammals. Journal of Zoology 220:417-437.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Ronald Nowak (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Shields, GF, Adams, D, Garner, G, Labelle, M, Pietsch, J, Ramsay, M, Schwartz, C, Titus, K, Williamson, S. 2000. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 15:319-326.
  • Sibly, R. M., D. Collett, D. E. L. Promislow, D. J. Peacock, and P. H. Harvey. 1997. Mortality rates of mammals. Journal of Zoology 243:1-12.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Taberlet P, Bouvet J. 1994. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism, phylogeography, and conservation genetics of the brown bear Ursus arctos in Europe. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 255:195-200.
  • Talbot, SL, Shields, GF. 1996. Phylogeography of brown bears (Ursus arctos) of Alaska and paraphyly within the Ursidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5:477-494.
  • Tubarek, G. 1993. Survivors in the Shadows: Threatened and Endangered Mammals of the American West. Northland Publishing Company, Flaggstaff, Arizona.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Apr 1896 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 10: 69.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Apr 1896 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 10: 71.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Apr 1896 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 10: 73.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 175.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 176.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 177.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 178.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 179.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 180.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 181.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 182.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 183.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 184.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 185.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 186.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 187.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 188.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 189.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 190.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 191.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 192.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 193.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 194.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 195.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 13 Aug 1914 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 27: 196.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 15 Jun 1929 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 42: 173.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 2 Sep 1910 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 23: 127.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 22 Mar 1902 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 15: 78.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Oct 1904 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 17: 153.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Oct 1904 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 17: 154.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 134.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 135.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 136.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 137.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 139.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 140.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 141.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 143.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 144.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 145.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 146.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 148.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 149.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 150.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 151.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 6 Sep 1916 . Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 29: 152.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 132.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 21.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 22.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 33.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 37.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 38.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 40.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 46.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 49.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 50.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 51.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 54.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 55.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 56.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 64.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 65.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 66.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 81.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 82.
  • Type: Merriam, C. H. 9 Feb 1918 . North American Fauna. 41: 90.
  • Valdiosera, CE, Garcia-Garitagoitia, JL, Garcia N, Doadrio I, Thomas MG, Hanni C, Arsuaga JL, Barnes I, Hofreiter M, Orlando L, Gotherstorm A. 2008. Surprising migration and population size dynamics in ancient Iberian brown bears (Ursus arctos). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 105(13):5123-5128.
  • WANG Sung, CHINA RED DATA BOOK OF ENDANGERED ANIMALES - MAMMALIA,CHINA RED DATA BOOK OF ENDANGERED ANIMALES - MAMMALIA, 1998.
  • Waits, LP, Talbot, SL, Ward, RH, Shields, GF. 1998. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the North American brown bear and implications for conservation. Conservation Biology 12(2):408-417.
  • Wilson, D., S. Ruff. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • 汪松, 中国濒危动物红皮书·兽类,北京:科学出版社, 1998: 1-417.

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