The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • "Division of Endangered Species, Species Information" (On-line). Accessed Dec 5, 2001 at http://endangered.fws.gov/wildlife.html.
  • 1. IUCN Red List (September, 2007) http://www.iucnredlist.orghttp://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. International Association for Bear Research and Management (February, 2004) http://bearbiology.comhttp://bearbiology.com External link.
  • 3. Macdonald, D.W. (2001) The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 4. Polar Bears International (February, 2004) http://www.polarbearsinternational.org/bear-facts/http://www.polarbearsinternational.org/bear-facts/ External link.
  • 5. Buchanan, R. (2006) Pers. Comm.
  • 6. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) Report (February, 2004) http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/essay_schliebe.htmlhttp://www.arctic.noaa.gov/essay_schliebe.html External link.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Berta, A.; Churchill, M. (2013). Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=137085
  • Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P. 1998. Towards comprehensive phylogenies: examples within the Carnivora (Mammalia). Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
  • Carbone, C., and J. L. Gittleman. 2002. A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science 295:2273-2276.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • DeMaster, D., I. Stirling. 1981. *Ursus maritimus*. Mammalian Species, 145: 1-7.
  • Fiala, Anthony, 1869-1950. 1907. Fighting the Polar Ice. London : Hodder and Stroughton; Facing Page 227
  • Freedman, B. 1999. Encyclopedia of Endangered Species. Gale Research International, Detriot, London.
  • Gittleman, J. L. 1982. The behavioural ecology of carnivores. University of Sussex.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Hilton-Taylor, C. 2000. "The 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Accessed Dec 5, 2001 at http://www.redlist.org/search/details.php?species=22823.
  • Kathy Kranking. 2001. Bear Necessities: How Polar Bears Survive the Deep Freeze. National Geographic Kids Magazine [Internet], Accessed 9/24/2007.
  • Lindsay, David Moore. 1911. Voyage to the Arctic in the Whaler Aurora. Boston, MA : Dana Estes and Company Publishers; Facing page 116
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at http://animaldiversity.org. http://www.animaldiversity.org
  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • One Species at a Time is brought to you by the Encyclopedia of Life, hosted by Ari Daniel Shapiro and produced by Atlantic Public Media
  • Original description: Phipps, C.J., 1774.  A voyage towards the North Pole, p., 185.  J. Nourse, London, 253 pp.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Preciado JA; Rubinsky B; Otten D; Nelson B; Martin MC; Greif R. 2002. Radiative properties of polar bear hair. Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. BED-53: 1-2.
  • R. F. Ewer. 1973. The Carnivores. Ithaca; Cornell University Press, 1973
  • Ramsey, M., I. Stirling. 1988. Reproductive biology and ecology of female polar bears (*Ursus maritimus*). Journal of Zoology, 214: 601-634.
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4. ix + 231
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Ronald Nowak (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
  • Shields, GF, Adams, D, Garner, G, Labelle, M, Pietsch, J, Ramsay, M, Schwartz, C, Titus, K, Williamson, S. 2000. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 15:319-326.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Stirling, I. 1974. Midsummer observations on the behavior of wild polar bears (*Ursus maritimus*). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 52: 1191-1198.
  • Stirling, I., E. McEwan. 1975. The caloric value of whole ringed seals (*Phoca hispida*) in relation to polar bear (*Ursus maritimus*) ecology and hunting behavior. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 53: 1021-1027.
  • Talbot, S., G. Shields. 1996. Phylogeography of Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) of Alaska and Paraphyly within the Ursidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 5: 477-494.
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
  • V. S. Summerhayes and C. S. Elton, Contributions to the ecology of Spitsbergen and Bear Island, J. Ecol. 11:214-286, from p. 232 (1923).
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204

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