Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>

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Distribution

Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>
  • Geographic distribution
    A description of the geographic distribution, or range, of the taxon. Includes descriptions of global, regional, or political aspects of range and whether the taxon is native or introduced in portions of the range and endemicity.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/ontology/voc/SPMInfoItems#Distribution
Geographic distribution
Additional detail European waters (ERMS scope) World Register of Marine Species  
Additional detail North West Atlantic World Register of Marine Species  
Additional detail Spitsbergen World Register of Marine Species  
  • Latitude
    The geographic latitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are north of the Equator, negative values are south of it. Legal values lie between -90 and 90, inclusive.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLatitude
Latitude min
Additional detail 63.1 degrees OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 78 degrees OBIS Environmental Information  
  • Longitude
    The geographic longitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are east of the Greenwich Meridian, negative values are west of it. Legal values lie between -180 and 180, inclusive.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLongitude
Longitude min
Additional detail -94.9 degrees OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 17 degrees OBIS Environmental Information  

Physical Description

Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>
Body length (VT) average
Additional detail 1.99 m adult PanTHERIA  
Body mass
Additional detail 145 kg White and Seymour, 2014  
average Additional detail 371.7 kg adult PanTHERIA  
average Additional detail 670.48 g newborn animal PanTHERIA  
average Additional detail 8.5 kg weanling PanTHERIA  
Teat number average
Additional detail 4 PanTHERIA  
Weight
Additional detail 27.0 kg weanling AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail 475.0 kg adult AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail 665 g neonate stage AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  

Ecology

Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>
Habitat
Additional detail administrative region Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail anthropogenic habitat
  • Anthropogenic habitat
    A habitat that is in or on an environmental feature or material derived from human activity.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002031
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail archipelago
  • Archipelago
    A group of geographically or geologically associated islands.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000220
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail bay Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail carcass Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail carcass Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail cave
  • Cave
    Naturally formed, subterranean open area or chamber.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000067
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail city Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail cliff Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail coast
  • Coast
    The general region of indefinite width that extends from the sea inland to the first major change in terrain features.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000303
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail coast
  • Coast
    The general region of indefinite width that extends from the sea inland to the first major change in terrain features.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000303
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail coast
  • Coast
    The general region of indefinite width that extends from the sea inland to the first major change in terrain features.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000303
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail coast
  • Coast
    The general region of indefinite width that extends from the sea inland to the first major change in terrain features.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000303
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail coast
  • Coast
    The general region of indefinite width that extends from the sea inland to the first major change in terrain features.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000303
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail cold temperature habitat
  • Cold temperature habitat
    A biome characterized by an average temperature of 15deg C or lower. Inhabited by psychrophilic (cryophilic) organisms.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002026
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail continental shelf
  • Continental shelf
    The extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow sea.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000223
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail drainage basin
  • Drainage basin
    A regions or area bounded by drainage divides and occupied by a drainage system; specifically the tract of country that gathers water originating as precipitation and contributes it to a particular stream channel or system of channels, or to a lake, reservoir, or other body of water.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000291
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail forest
  • Forest
    An area with a high density of trees. A small forest may be called a wood.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000111
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail glacier
  • Glacier
    A large, slow moving river of ice, formed from compacted layers of snow, that slowly deforms and flows in response to gravity.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000133
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail ice sheet
  • Ice sheet
    A mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km2.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000132
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail ice sheet
  • Ice sheet
    A mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km2.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000132
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail ice sheet
  • Ice sheet
    A mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km2.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000132
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail iceberg
  • Iceberg
    A large mass of detached land ice in the sea or stranded in shallow water.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000298
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail iceberg
  • Iceberg
    A large mass of detached land ice in the sea or stranded in shallow water.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000298
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail island
  • Island
    Area of dry or relatively dry land surrounded by water or low wetland.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000098
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail island
  • Island
    Area of dry or relatively dry land surrounded by water or low wetland.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000098
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail Large river biome Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail marine biome
  • Marine biome
    An aquatic biome that comprises systems of open-ocean and unprotected coastal habitats, characterized by exposure to wave action, tidal fluctuation, and ocean currents as well as systems that largely resemble these. Water in the marine biome is generally within the salinity range of seawater: 30 to 38 ppt.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000447
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail marine habitat
  • Marine habitat
    A habitat that is in or on a sea or ocean containing high concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids (typically >35 grams dissolved salts per litre).
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000569
IUCN  
Additional detail ocean
  • Ocean
    Continuous saline-water bodies that surround the continents and fill the Earth's great depressions.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000015
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail oil
  • Oil
    A viscous liquid state at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic and lipophilic.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002985
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail oil spill
  • Oil spill
    The result of the unintentional release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment as a result of human activity.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002061
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail oil spill
  • Oil spill
    The result of the unintentional release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment as a result of human activity.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002061
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail peninsula
  • Peninsula
    A body of land jutting out into and nearly surrounded by water.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000305
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail peninsula
  • Peninsula
    A body of land jutting out into and nearly surrounded by water.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000305
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail permafrost
  • Permafrost
    Soil at or below the freezing point of water (0C or 32F) for two or more years. Ice is not always present, as may be in the case of nonporous bedrock, but it frequently occurs and it may be in amounts exceeding the potential hydraulic saturation of the ground material.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000134
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail polynya
  • Polynya
    Any enclosed water area in pack ice other than a lead, not large enough to be called open water. When frozen over, a polyna becomes an ice skylight from the point of view of the submariner.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000484
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail quarry
  • Quarry
    An open-pit mine from which rock or minerals are extracted.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000284
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail saline water Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail sea
  • Sea
    A large expanse of saline water usually connected with an ocean.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000016
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail sea
  • Sea
    A large expanse of saline water usually connected with an ocean.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000016
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail sea ice Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail sea ice Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail shore
  • Shore
    That part of the land in immediate contact with a body of water including the area between high and low water lines.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000304
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail shoreline
  • Shoreline
    The line of contact between a body of water and the land.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000486
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail slope
  • Slope
    The part of an elevation or depression between the relatively flat surrounding area and the peak of a mount or the bottom of a depression.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002000
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail sound
  • Sound
    A large sea or ocean inlet larger than a bay, deeper than a bight, wider than a fjord, or it may identify a narrow sea or ocean channel between two bodies of land.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000393
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail subterrestrial habitat
  • Subterrestrial habitat
    A habitat that is below the surface of the earth.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000572
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail terrestrial biome
  • Terrestrial biome
    A biome that applies to the terrestrial realm.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000446
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail terrestrial habitat
  • Terrestrial habitat
    A habitat that is on or at the boundary of the surface of the Earth.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002009
IUCN  
Additional detail tropical Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail tundra
  • Tundra
    Treeless, level, or gently rolling plains characteristic of arctic or subarctic regions, having a permanently frozen subsoil, and usually supporting low growing vegetation such as lichens, mosses, and stunted shrubs.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000112
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail tunnel Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail upwelling
  • Upwelling
    An oceanographic feature that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-deplete surface water.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_01000005
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail waste Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail zoological garden
  • Zoological garden
    A facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00010625
Environments - EOL project  
Trophic level
Additional detail Omnivore
  • Omnivore
    An animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals.
    http://www.owl-ontologies.com/unnamed.owl#Omnivore
PanTHERIA  
  • Interacts with
    an organism has an effect on another organism in the community.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/interactsWith
Interacts with
Additional detail Bears GloBI  
Additional detail Beluga GloBI  
Additional detail Birds GloBI  
Additional detail Bony Fishes GloBI  
Additional detail Humans GloBI  
Additional detail Mammals GloBI  
Additional detail Narwhal GloBI  
Additional detail Spotted Seal GloBI  
Additional detail True Seals GloBI  
Feeds on
Additional detail Bearded Seal GloBI  
Additional detail Beluga GloBI  
Additional detail Beluga GloBI  
Additional detail Birds GloBI  
Additional detail Bony Fishes GloBI  
Additional detail Mammals GloBI  
Additional detail Narwhal GloBI  
Additional detail Ringed Seal GloBI  
Additional detail Spotted Seal GloBI  
Additional detail True Seals GloBI  
Additional detail Walrus GloBI  
Habitat breadth
Additional detail 1 PanTHERIA  
  • Interacts with
    an organism has an effect on another organism in the community.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/interactsWithreverse
Interacts with
Additional detail Barnacle Goose GloBI  
Additional detail Bearded Seal GloBI  
Additional detail Beluga GloBI  
Additional detail Harp Seal GloBI  
Additional detail Hooded Seal GloBI  
Additional detail Humans GloBI  
Additional detail Narwhal GloBI  
Additional detail Polar Bear GloBI  
Additional detail Polar Bear GloBI  
Additional detail Reindeer GloBI  
Additional detail Ringed Seal GloBI  
Additional detail Spotted Seal GloBI  
Diet breadth
Additional detail 3 PanTHERIA  
Water nitrate concentration min
Additional detail 0.7 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 2.39 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
Water temperature min
Additional detail 0.3 degrees Celsius OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 0.75 degrees Celsius OBIS Environmental Information  
Water silicate concentration min
Additional detail 1.93 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 4.63 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
Water phosphate concentration min
Additional detail 0.53 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 0.58 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
Water dissolved O2 concentration min
Additional detail 7.93 mL/L OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 8.11 mL/L OBIS Environmental Information  
Water O2 saturation max
Additional detail 103.42 percent OBIS Environmental Information  
min Additional detail 97.39 percent OBIS Environmental Information  
  • Has predator
    is consumed for energetic or other nutritional needs (by another organism)
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/HasPredator
Has predator
Additional detail Greenland Shark GloBI  
Additional detail Humans GloBI  
Additional detail Polar Bear GloBI  
Additional detail Polar Bear GloBI  
Water salinity min
Additional detail 32.12 PSU OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 32.92 PSU OBIS Environmental Information  

Life History and Behavior

Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>
Home range average
Additional detail 77,270.47 km^2 PanTHERIA  
average Additional detail 82,990.48 km^2 PanTHERIA  
Clutch/brood/litter size average
Additional detail 1.66 individuals PanTHERIA  
Additional detail 2 AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Behavioral circadian rhythm
Additional detail diurnal PanTHERIA  
Age at first birth average
Additional detail 5.0 years female PanTHERIA  
Dispersal age average
Additional detail 2.25 years PanTHERIA  
Gestation period duration average
Additional detail 64.66 days PanTHERIA  
Inter-birth interval
Additional detail 2.05 years AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
average Additional detail 2.28 years female PanTHERIA  
Litters per year
Additional detail 0.4 per year AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
median Additional detail 0.72 PanTHERIA  
Total life span max
Additional detail 43.8 years AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
max Additional detail 38.2 years PanTHERIA  
Age at eye opening average
Additional detail 34.12 days PanTHERIA  
Population group size average
Additional detail 1 individuals PanTHERIA  
Onset of fertility
Additional detail 4.75 years female AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail 4.75 years male AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
average Additional detail 5.07 years PanTHERIA  
Terrestriality
Additional detail fossorial and/or ground dwelling only
  • Fossorial and/or ground dwelling only
    An organism that spends most of its time on the ground or underground.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/groundDwelling
PanTHERIA  
Weaning age average
Additional detail 205.17 days PanTHERIA  
Additional detail 303 days AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Growth rate
Additional detail 0.0022 per day AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
  • Prenatal development duration
    The duration of the development from fertilized, deposited or implanted egg to hatching/birth. Corresponds to egg incubation duration in oviparous animals and to gestation period duration in viviparous animals.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/PrenatalDevelopmentDuration
Prenatal development duration
Additional detail 65 days AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  

Evolution and Systematics

Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>
First Appearance (Older Bound)
Additional detail 0.13 million years ago The Paleobiology Database  
First Appearance (Younger Bound)
Additional detail 0.0117 million years ago The Paleobiology Database  
Last Appearance (Older Bound)
Additional detail 0.0117 million years ago The Paleobiology Database  
Last Appearance (Younger Bound)
Additional detail 0 million years ago The Paleobiology Database  

Physiology and Cell Biology

Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>
Metabolic rate average
Additional detail 44,346 mL/hr O2 PanTHERIA  
  • Body temperature
    The degree of heat in the body of a living organism, temperature is measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter, expressed in terms of units or degrees designated on a standard scale.
    http://purl.bioontology.org/ontology/CSP/2871-4249
Body temperature
Additional detail 36.8 degrees Celsius AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Systolic blood pressure mean
Additional detail 145.3 mm Hg White and Seymour, 2014  

Conservation

Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>
Population trend
Additional detail Decreasing IUCN  
Animal population density average
Additional detail 0.00705 individuals per square kilometer PanTHERIA  
Extinction status
Additional detail extant The Paleobiology Database  

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>
Conservation status
Additional detail vulnerable
  • Vulnerable
    A taxon is Vulnerable when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Vulnerable, and it is therefore considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/vulnerable
IUCN  

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