Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>

TraitBank assembles data records from many providers. Select a row for more details about the record, or search within Ursus maritimus.

Distribution

Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>
  • Geographic distribution
    A description of the geographic distribution, or range, of the taxon. Includes descriptions of global, regional, or political aspects of range and whether the taxon is native or introduced in portions of the range and endemicity.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/ontology/voc/SPMInfoItems#Distribution
Geographic distribution
Additional detail European waters (ERMS scope) World Register of Marine Species  
Additional detail North West Atlantic World Register of Marine Species  
Additional detail Spitsbergen World Register of Marine Species  
  • Latitude
    The geographic latitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are north of the Equator, negative values are south of it. Legal values lie between -90 and 90, inclusive.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLatitude
Latitude min
Additional detail 63.1 degrees OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 78 degrees OBIS Environmental Information  
  • Longitude
    The geographic longitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are east of the Greenwich Meridian, negative values are west of it. Legal values lie between -180 and 180, inclusive.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLongitude
Longitude min
Additional detail -94.9 degrees OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 17 degrees OBIS Environmental Information  

Physical Description

Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>
Body length (VT) average
Additional detail 1.99 m adult PanTHERIA  
Body mass average
Additional detail 371.7 kg adult PanTHERIA  
average Additional detail 670.48 g newborn animal PanTHERIA  
average Additional detail 8.5 kg weanling PanTHERIA  
Teat number average
Additional detail 4 PanTHERIA  
Weight
Additional detail 27.0 kg weanling AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail 475.0 kg adult AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail 665 g neonate stage AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  

Ecology

Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>
Habitat
Additional detail marine habitat
  • Marine habitat
    A habitat that is in or on a sea or ocean containing high concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids (typically >35 grams dissolved salts per litre).
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000569
IUCN  
Additional detail terrestrial habitat
  • Terrestrial habitat
    A habitat that is on or at the boundary of the surface of the Earth.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002009
IUCN  
Habitat
Additional detail archipelago
  • Archipelago
    A group of geographically or geologically associated islands.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000220
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail back-arc basin
  • Back-arc basin
    A depression in the sea floor that results from the collision of continental plates; the weight of the sinking plate causes the overlying plate to stretch and thin, causing a basin in the overlying plate. Sometimes, the Earth's crust in these basins stretches so much it cracks, allowing magma through from the mantle beneath. Hence, basins often contain active volcanoes and hydrothermal vents.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002277
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail bay Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail biome
  • Biome
    A major class of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and other organisms. Biomes are defined based on factors such as plant structures (such as trees, shrubs, and grasses), leaf types (such as broadleaf and needleleaf), plant spacing (forest, woodland, savanna), and other factors like climate. Unlike ecozones, biomes are not defined by genetic, taxonomic, or historical similarities. Biomes are often identified with particular patterns of ecological succession and climax vegetation.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000428
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail cold temperature habitat
  • Cold temperature habitat
    A biome characterized by an average temperature of 15deg C or lower. Inhabited by psychrophilic (cryophilic) organisms.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002026
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail continental shelf
  • Continental shelf
    The extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow sea.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000223
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail drainage basin
  • Drainage basin
    A regions or area bounded by drainage divides and occupied by a drainage system; specifically the tract of country that gathers water originating as precipitation and contributes it to a particular stream channel or system of channels, or to a lake, reservoir, or other body of water.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000291
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail fjord
  • Fjord
    A long and narrow sea inlet with high steeply sloped walled sides. A fjord is a landform created during a period of glaciation.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000039
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail hill
  • Hill
    A rounded elevation of limited extent rising above the surrounding land with local relief of less than 300m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000083
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail ice sheet
  • Ice sheet
    A mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km2.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000132
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail island
  • Island
    Area of dry or relatively dry land surrounded by water or low wetland.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000098
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail marine habitat
  • Marine habitat
    A habitat that is in or on a sea or ocean containing high concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids (typically >35 grams dissolved salts per litre).
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000569
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail mountain
  • Mountain
    A landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill, but there is no universally accepted standard definition for the height of a mountain or a hill although a mountain usually has an identifiable summit and a local relief of more than 300m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000081
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail polynya
  • Polynya
    Any enclosed water area in pack ice other than a lead, not large enough to be called open water. When frozen over, a polyna becomes an ice skylight from the point of view of the submariner.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000484
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail saline water Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail sea
  • Sea
    A large expanse of saline water usually connected with an ocean.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000016
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail sea ice Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail shoreline
  • Shoreline
    The line of contact between a body of water and the land.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000486
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail strait
  • Strait
    A narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000394
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail tundra
  • Tundra
    Treeless, level, or gently rolling plains characteristic of arctic or subarctic regions, having a permanently frozen subsoil, and usually supporting low growing vegetation such as lichens, mosses, and stunted shrubs.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000112
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail upwelling
  • Upwelling
    An oceanographic feature that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-deplete surface water.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_01000005
Environments - EOL project  
Trophic level
Additional detail Omnivore
  • Omnivore
    An animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals.
    http://www.owl-ontologies.com/unnamed.owl#Omnivore
PanTHERIA  
Feeds on
Additional detail Beluga Global Biotic Interactions  
Additional detail Birds Global Biotic Interactions  
Additional detail Mammals Global Biotic Interactions  
Additional detail Narwhal Global Biotic Interactions  
Additional detail Ray-finned Fishes Global Biotic Interactions  
Additional detail Spotted Seal Global Biotic Interactions  
Additional detail True Seals Global Biotic Interactions  
Habitat breadth
Additional detail 1 PanTHERIA  
Diet breadth
Additional detail 3 PanTHERIA  
Water nitrate concentration min
Additional detail 0.7 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 2.39 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
Water temperature min
Additional detail 0.3 degrees Celsius OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 0.75 degrees Celsius OBIS Environmental Information  
Water silicate concentration min
Additional detail 1.93 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 4.63 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
Water phosphate concentration min
Additional detail 0.53 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 0.58 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
Water dissolved O2 concentration min
Additional detail 7.93 mL/L OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 8.11 mL/L OBIS Environmental Information  
Water O2 saturation max
Additional detail 103.42 percent OBIS Environmental Information  
min Additional detail 97.39 percent OBIS Environmental Information  
  • Has predator
    is consumed for energetic or other nutritional needs (by another organism)
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/HasPredator
Has predator
Additional detail Human Global Biotic Interactions  
Additional detail Polar Bear Global Biotic Interactions  
Additional detail Polar Bear Global Biotic Interactions  
Water salinity min
Additional detail 32.12 PSU OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 32.92 PSU OBIS Environmental Information  

Life History and Behavior

Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>
Home range average
Additional detail 77,270.47 km^2 PanTHERIA  
average Additional detail 82,990.48 km^2 PanTHERIA  
Clutch/brood/litter size average
Additional detail 1.66 individuals PanTHERIA  
Additional detail 2 AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Behavioral circadian rhythm
Additional detail diurnal PanTHERIA  
Age at first birth average
Additional detail 5.0 years female PanTHERIA  
Dispersal age average
Additional detail 2.25 years PanTHERIA  
Gestation period duration average
Additional detail 64.66 days PanTHERIA  
Inter-birth interval
Additional detail 2.05 years AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
average Additional detail 2.28 years female PanTHERIA  
Litters per year
Additional detail 0.4 per year AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
median Additional detail 0.72 PanTHERIA  
Total life span max
Additional detail 43.8 years AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
max Additional detail 38.2 years PanTHERIA  
Age at eye opening average
Additional detail 34.12 days PanTHERIA  
Population group size average
Additional detail 1 individuals PanTHERIA  
Onset of fertility
Additional detail 4.75 years female AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail 4.75 years male AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
average Additional detail 5.07 years PanTHERIA  
Terrestriality
Additional detail fossorial and/or ground dwelling only
  • Fossorial and/or ground dwelling only
    An organism that spends most of its time on the ground or underground.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/groundDwelling
PanTHERIA  
Weaning age average
Additional detail 205.17 days PanTHERIA  
Additional detail 303 days AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Growth rate
Additional detail 0.0022 per day AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
  • Prenatal development duration
    The duration of the development from fertilized, deposited or implanted egg to hatching/birth. Corresponds to egg incubation duration in oviparous animals and to gestation period duration in viviparous animals.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/PrenatalDevelopmentDuration
Prenatal development duration
Additional detail 65 days AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  

Physiology and Cell Biology

Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>
Metabolic rate average
Additional detail 44,346 mL/hr O2 PanTHERIA  
  • Body temperature
    The degree of heat in the body of a living organism, temperature is measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter, expressed in terms of units or degrees designated on a standard scale.
    http://purl.bioontology.org/ontology/CSP/2871-4249
Body temperature
Additional detail 36.8 degrees Celsius AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  

Conservation

Data about <i>Ursus maritimus</i>
Iucn red list category
Additional detail vulnerable
  • Vulnerable
    A taxon is Vulnerable when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Vulnerable, and it is therefore considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/vulnerable
IUCN  
Population trend
Additional detail Decreasing IUCN  
Animal population density average
Additional detail 0.00705 individuals per square kilometer PanTHERIA  

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!