The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1. IUCN Red List (November, 2008) http://www.iucnredlist.orghttp://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. Macdonald, D. (2001) The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 3. Culik, B.M. (2002) Review on Small Cetaceans: Distribution, Migration and Threats. UNEP/CMS Secretariat, Bonn, Germany. Available at www.cms.int/reports/small_cetaceans/index.htmwww.cms.int/reports/small_cetaceans/index.htm External link.
  • 4. MarineBio.org (April, 2005) http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=336http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=336 External link.
  • 5. CITES (April, 2005) http://www.cites.orghttp://www.cites.org External link.
  • 6. CMS (April, 2005) http://www.cms.inthttp://www.cms.int External link.
  • 7. Berne Convention (April, 2005) http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/conventions/bern/default_en.asphttp://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/conventions/bern/default_en.asp External link.
  • 8. Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. (2008) Pers. Comm.
  • 9. Cetaceans of the World (May, 2005) http://www.sci.tamucc.edu/tmmsn/29Species/MoreSpec/narwhal.htmlhttp://www.sci.tamucc.edu/tmmsn/29Species/MoreSpec/narwhal.html External link.
  • Arkive link
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Burton, J. A., and B. Pearson. 1987. Rare Mammals of the World, WIlliam Collins Sons & Co. ltd.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Forsyth, A. 1999. Mammals of North America: temperate and arctic regions. Firefly Books, Buffalo.
  • Hay, K. A. and Mansfield, A. W. 1989. Narwhal Monodon monoceros Linneaus, 1758. In: S. H. Ridgway and R. Harrison (eds), Handbook of marine mammals, pp. 145-176. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • Hay, K. A. and Mansfield, A. W. 1989. Narwhal Monodon monoceros Linneaus, 1758. In: S. H. Ridgway and R. Harrison (eds), Handbook of marine mammals, pp. 145-176. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • Klinowska, M. 1991. Dolphins, Porpoises and Whales. The IUCN Red Data Book. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
  • Laidre, K.L., Heide-Jørgensen,M.P., & Dietz, R. 2002. Diving behaviour of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) at two coastal localities in the Canadian High Arctic. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80, 624-635.
  • Laidre, K.L., Heide-Jørgensen,M.P., & Dietz, R. 2002. Diving behaviour of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) at two coastal localities in the Canadian High Arctic. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80, 624-635.
  • Linda Geddes. 2005. What's the point of the narwhal's tusk?. New Scientist. 188(2531/2532):
  • Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp.   http://www.marinespecies.org/echinoidea/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=8 External link.
  • M. J. Dunbar, Arctic and subarctic marine ecology: immediate problems, Arctic 7:213-228, from p. 223 (1954).
  • M. S. W. Bradstreet and W. E. Cross, Trophic relationships at High Arctic ice edges, Arctic 3(1)5:1-12, from p. 9 (1982).
  • Margaret Klinowska (1991) Dolphins, Porpoises and Whales. The IUCN Red Data Book. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland.
  • Mead, James G., and Robert L. Brownell, Jr. / Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Order Cetacea. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vol. 1
  • Mead, James G., and Robert L. Brownell, Jr. / Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Order Cetacea. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vol. 1. 723-743
  • Minasian, S. 1986. The World's Whales. New York: Academic Press.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at http://animaldiversity.org. http://www.animaldiversity.org
  • Original description: Linnaeus, C., 1758.  Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classis, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tenth Edition, Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, 1:75, 824 pp.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Perrin, W. (2014). Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758. In: Perrin, W.F. (2014) World Cetacea Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=137116
  • Reeves, R., S. Tracey. 1980. *Monodon monoceros*. Mammalian Species, 127: 1-7.
  • Reeves, Randall R., and Sharon Tracy. 1980. Monodon monoceros. Mammalian Species, no. 127
  • Reeves, Randall R., and Sharon Tracy. 1980. Monodon monoceros. Mammalian Species, no. 127. 1-7
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4. ix + 231
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • True, Frederick W. 1885. Suggestions to the keepers of the U. S. Lifesaving stations, light-houses, and light-ships, and to other observers, relative to the best means of collecting and preserving specimens of whales and porpoises. Washington, DC : Government Printing Office. Report of the Commissioner (United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries), 1883; Plate V-15
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204
  • Wilson, Don E., and Sue Ruff, eds. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals
  • Wilson, Don E., and Sue Ruff, eds. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. xxv + 750

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