Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

A powerful digger (3), the large hairy armadillo either builds simple burrows for temporary shelter or more complex branching burrows where it resides for longer periods (4). Activity varies between the seasons, being mostly nocturnal in the summer to avoid the heat of the day, but changing to diurnal during the winter. A variety of prey is taken, using a range of unusual foraging techniques including forcing its head into the ground and turning its body to make a conical hole, thereby exposing subterranean invertebrates. It has also been observed to pounce upon small snakes, slicing them with the bottom edge of the body shell. When threatened, the large hairy armadillo will run towards the nearest hole, or attempt to burrow into the ground. If, however, it is unable to escape, this species will draw up its feet, so that the bottom of the shell is level with the ground. When pursued into its burrow, the large hairy armadillo will wedge itself tightly against the walls, by bending its back and thrusting out its feet (3). Although the large hairy armadillo is known to breed during September in Argentina (3), most information about its reproductive biology currently comes from observations of captive animals (4). After a gestation period of 60 to 75 days, the female usually gives birth to two young, which are suckled for a further 50 to 60 days (3) (4). The large hairy armadillo reaches sexual maturity at around 9 months old, and has been known to live for over 23 years in captivity (3).
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Description

The largest representative of the genus Chaetophractus (2), the large hairy armadillo is the most common armadillo species in Argentina (1). Like all armadillos, the body and head of this species are extensively armoured with thick bony plates (3), with the head plate being particularly large (2).The central portion of the body shell is divided by bands of skin that provide flexibility to the otherwise rigid upperparts (3). More hairy than most armadillo species (hence its common name), the underparts of this species are densely covered with whitish or light brown hairs, while long, coarse hairs project from the body armour plates (3).
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Distribution

Range Description

C. villosus is present in the Gran Chaco of Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina as far south as Santa Cruz, Argentina and Magallanes, Chile (Gardner 2005). It has been introduced in Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina (Poljak et al. 2007, Poljak et al. 2010). It ranges from sea level up to 1,500 m asl (Argentina).
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Geographic Range

Chaetophractus villosus inhabits northern Paraguay and southern Bolivia to central Argentina (Nowak, 1999).

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

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Range

The large hairy armadillo is found in the Gran Chaco region of Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina, and also occurs south through Argentina to the provinces of Santa Cruz and Magallanes (1). It is also found in eastern Chile from the provinces of Bío-bío, south to Aisén (2), and has been introduced to Tierra del Fuego (1). This species ranges from sea-level, up to elevations of 1,300 metres (1).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Armadillos have a double layer of horn and bone over the majority of their dorsal side. This protective layer consists of bands and plates which are surrounded by flexible skin (Nowak, 1999). A small shield on the head protects the ears and back of the neck. The carapace protects the shoulders, back and side of the body and consists of approximately 18 bands, 7 to 8 of which are movable (Nowak, 1999). The ventral area is covered by soft skin. Hair extends from between the scales and also covers this soft ventral skin. The skin is brown to pinkish in color and the hair is grayish brown to white (Nowak, 1999). The skulls of C. villosus are flattened dorsoventrally and have peglike teeth, which are evergrowing (Nowak, 1999).

Average mass: 2 kg.

Range length: 220 to 400 mm.

Average mass: 2000 g.

Average basal metabolic rate: 4.508 W.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
C. villosus is present in a wide variety of habitats, among them grasslands (including pampas and chaco), savanna, and forest. It is also found in cultivated landscapes (Abba et al. 2005, Abba et al. 2007, Abba 2008).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Chaetophractus villosus is best adapted to open, semidesert environments.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: desert or dune ; scrub forest

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Occupying a wide variety of habitats, the large hairy armadillo can be found in grasslands, savanna, forest and agricultural areas (1).
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Chaetophractus villosus is an omnivore that feeds on insects, invertebrates, small vertebrates, plants and carrion (Nowak, 1999). The hairy armadillo burrows under carcasses to obtain maggots and grubs. During the winter over half its food consumption consists of vegetation (Nowak, 1999). However, the majority of the year they feed on a variety of small vertebrates, rodents, lizards, etc. (Nixon, 2001).

Animal Foods: mammals; reptiles; carrion ; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods

Plant Foods: fruit

Primary Diet: omnivore

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Associations

Predation

The hairy armadillo is an efficient burrower, which helps it escape predators (Nowak, 1999). C. villosus is preyed upon most often by canines, aves, and humans (Nixon, 2001). When threatened, the armadillo draws its feet under its body and flattens its body to the ground, leaving only its armor exposed.

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Known prey organisms

Chaetophractus villosus preys on:
non-insect arthropods
Arthropoda
Insecta
Reptilia
Mammalia

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

The maximum lifespan of a captive hairy armadillo is 30 years (Nixon, 2001).

Range lifespan

Status: captivity:
30 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
20.0 years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
19.0 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 25.2 years (captivity) Observations: There is an unverified claim of one captive animal living over 30 years.
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Reproduction

Mating takes place in September and gestation lasts for 60 to 75 days (Nowak, 1999). There is more than one litter per year. Litters are generally composed of two young (Nixon, 2001).

Breeding season: September (mating) to December (birth)

Average number of offspring: 2.

Average gestation period: 2 months.

Range weaning age: 50 to 60 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 9 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 9 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); fertilization ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 128 g.

Average gestation period: 67 days.

Average number of offspring: 2.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)

Sex: male:
273 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
273 days.

At birth C. villosus weighs 155 g. Young open their eyes at 16-30 days (Nixon, 2001). Chaetophractus villosus is born with a soft, leathery skin which hardens with age (Nowak, 1999). The hairy armadillo is weaned 50 to 60 days after birth and is sexually mature at nine months of age (Nowak, 1999).

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chaetophractus villosus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Abba, A.M. Superina, M.

Reviewer/s
Bolkovic, M.L. & Poljak, S.

Contributor/s

Justification
Chaetophractus villosus is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, its presence in a number of protected areas, its tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2006
    Least Concern
    (IUCN 2006)
  • 2006
    Least Concern
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US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Status

Classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1).
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Population

Population
This is one of the most common armadillo species in Argentina (Abba 2008).

Population Trend
Increasing
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Threats

Major Threats
In some parts of its range, C. villosus is locally used for food and charangos (musical instruments; Aguiar and Fonseca 2008). It is also persecuted as a pest species in agricultural areas, and is subject to sport hunting. Animals may also be killed on roads and by dogs (Abba et al. 2007, Abba 2008).
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Despite being hunted locally for sport, food and for making musical instruments, as well as being deliberately persecuted as an agricultural pest, there appears to be little threat to the large hairy armadillo's survival at present. Although comprehensive surveys are lacking, the extremely wide distribution of this species is indicative that it has a large population, which is resilient against its exploitation (1).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is present in many protected areas.
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Conservation

While there are currently no specific conservation measures in place for the large hairy armadillo, it is known to occur in many protected areas (1).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Chaetophractus villosus burrow extensively and can cause damage to crops (Nowak, 1999).

Negative Impacts: crop pest

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Chaetophractus villosus is hunted for food by humans.

Positive Impacts: food

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Wikipedia

Big hairy armadillo

The big hairy armadillo or large hairy armadillo, Chaetophractus villosus, of the family Dasypodidae, is one of the largest and most numerous armadillos in South America. It lives from sea level to altitudes of up to 1,300 meters across the southern portion of South America, and can be found in grasslands, forests, and savannahs, and has even started claiming agricultural areas as its home. It is an accomplished digger and spends most of its time below ground. It makes both temporary and long-term burrows, depending on its food source.[1] The armadillo can use specially evolved membranes in its nose to obtain oxygen from the surrounding soil particles without inhaling any of the soil itself.[2] Armadillos are protected from predators by a series of thin, bony plates along the head and back. They reach sexual maturity at around 9 months and have been known to live over 30 years in captivity. Though this animal is routinely harvested for its meat and its shell, or simply killed for pestering farmers, it has shown amazing resiliency, and populations seem to be handling this exploitation well. Currently, no protective practices are in place for this armadillo, but it does live in many protected areas. This species of armadillo is a preferred research animal due to its adaptability to laboratory settings, and relative hardiness in situations of stress.[3]

Description and taxonomy[edit]

Chaetophractus villosus or the big hairy armadillo is the most abundant species of armadillo in Argentina. The armadillo’s head and body are covered by protective bony plates, with its head plate being the most prominent. Along its back, flexible bands that encircle the torso allow flexibility in this otherwise stiff armor. The underside of this armadillo is densely covered in hair and this trait is how it got its common name. Long, coarse hairs also project from the bony plates, making this armadillo much hairier than other related species. The average individual grows from 26 to 34 cm (10 to 13 in) in body length, 22–40 cm (8.7–15.7 in) in extreme cases, and weighs 2 kg (4.4 lb), with a range of 1–3 kg (2.2–6.6 lb) by the time it reaches maturity. The tail measures 9 to 17 cm (3.5 to 6.7 in) long.[4] Powerful front claws are used for both foraging and avoiding predators.[5][6]

The genus Chaetophractus consists of two species, C. vellerosus (screaming hairy armadillo) and C. villosus. These species are recognized by the large amount of hair that extends all over their bodies, but especially on their undersides. The skulls follow the same patterns as other dasypodids, but females exhibit longer bones in the rostrocaudal plane, which is one of the key characteristics that shows the sexual dimorphism of these species. Not much is known about the cranial morphology of these species, especially bone descriptions. More research is being done to better describe these species and the skeletal differences between them. For now, body size, habitat, and behaviors are the best way to discern the differences.[7]

Diagnosis[edit]

When trying to determine the differences between these species, a few noticeable traits stand out. The first difference is size; C. villosus is the larger species. It can grow to a length of 34 cm (13 in). C. vellerosus is much smaller, being able to fit in the palm of a hand when fully grown, usually weighing only a kilogram. Both species are covered with much more hair than any other armadillos, mostly sprouting from its underside or between the bony plates along its back. When C. villosus is sexually aroused with an erect penis, species determination is easier. Its penis can be as long as 35 mm, and usually remains completely withdrawn inside a skin receptacle. The lesser hairy armadillo can usually be found in higher altitudes because its smaller size and slower metabolic rate helps it survive in areas with less food.[8]

Fossil record[edit]

The presence of a carapace containing osteoderms is one of the very distinctive features of armadillos, and is true for fossil taxa as well. These elements are evident frequently in the paleontological record due to their resilience. Three distinct areas are recognized in these hardened plates. The outer and inner parts are made of thin, compact bone, while the middle zone is thicker and contains tissues for hair follicles and sweat glands. The presence of red bone marrow is rare in members of Chaetophractus, but widespread in Dasypus novemcinctus osteoderms. These findings propose an early split of both subfamilies and maintain the hypothesis that the Euphractinae are more derived than the Dasypodinae.[9]

C. villosus earliest known fossils were found in the Pampean region, which suggests this is where the species originated. Fossil records then indicate the migration into Patagonia as the main dispersal route, which most likely occurred after the Pleistocenic glaciations. Using molecular dating, scientists estimated the first armadillos emerged around the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. This was followed by the divergence of anteaters and sloths in the Early Eocene era.[10]

Geographic distribution[edit]

The C. villosus home range encompasses the Pampas and Patagonia as far south as Santa Cruz, Argentina and Magallanes, Chile. It is found in the Gran Chaco Province of Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina, and is starting to migrate south into the Tierra del Fuego province of Argentina, as well. It can be found in the Bio-Bio province and south to Aisén Province province, both in eastern Chile. Climate change and the opportunistic tendencies of this armadillo are allowing them to live in more areas. Unlike some other armadillos, the big hairy armadillo has not experienced s drastic change in its territory. It has not migrated as far north as some other species.[11]

Ecology[edit]

Members of Dasypodidae, including C. villosus, have evolved very interesting and specific traits to help them survive. The most recognizable of these are the bony plates that cover the armadillos' heads and backs. These protective plates allow the individual a fair measure of protection against its natural predators. This species also has a remarkable respiratory adaptation when the nostrils are completely covered in soil. It is able to maintain sufficient respiratory movements due to a mechanism that allows it to use air that fills the space between soil particles, without inhaling the particles themselves. This, along with its powerful digging claws and high surface area to mass ratio, contributes to this fossorial, or subterranean, lifestyle. Even with the added challenge of burrowing, this armadillo maintains similar ratios as nonfossorial species and suggests it has adapted to a burrowing lifestyle as a way to avoid extreme temperatures and predators, rather than any help it could receive from foraging.[12]

Little is known about the haemostasis of this species. Platelet counts are similar between sexes and they seem to remain similar even when in captivity. They are comparable to most other mammals and react in the same manner to proven agonists. More studies in this area could reveal biomedical advances, but little more is known now.[13]

Scientists conducting studies on the C. villosus penis muscles revealed this species' very long penis exhibits variability. During its waking hours, it remains hidden beneath a skin receptacle, until it becomes erect and it projects outside in a rostral direction. During its slow wave sleep phase, penile protrusion makes some very complex movements. The penis during this phase is not erect, but remains outside of its receptacle. During paradoxical sleep, no erections occur, and the penile muscles share the characteristics of the rest of the body.[14]

Life history and behavior[edit]

Chaetophractus villosus spends most of its time burrowing in the ground and looking for insects or worms as its main foraging method. Its powerful front claws and snout allow it to rout through the sediment with relative ease. When the armadillo detects a predator, it will run to the nearest burrow and wedge itself in using its legs; only the bony plates are exposed to predators. When it cannot get to one of its burrows, it will lay down flat on the ground to better protect its softer underside.[15]

Most of this armadillo’s activity occurs starting at dusk and continues on into the night. It can be seen active in the day, however, when enough food cannot be found during the night. It uses its sense of smell to find prey, and shovels soil away to reach it. Most individuals breed in the late winter or spring, but in captivity they have been known to conceive year round. After a gestation period of 60 to 75 days, the female will usually give birth to a litter of one to two young which are suckled for another 50 to 80 days.[16]

C. villosus seems to be able to burrow through most sediment, but tends to shy away from rockier terrains. They tend to burrow into the side of a hill rather than on flat ground. Their temporary burrows (in search of food or safety) are usually shallower and not as complex as their home burrows, which are usually much deeper and can be quite complex, with many escape tunnels and dens. The orientation of their burrows depends largely on the wind direction. This allows them to be well adapted to arid desert terrain.[17]

Conservation[edit]

C. villosus is rated as a least concern species, due to its large population and widespread habitat range. It also has a remarkable ability to adapt to many changing environments. It is considered a least concern species because it is not predicted to decrease into any of the threatened categories any time soon. In fact, the population seems to be increasing.[18]


References[edit]

  1. ^ "Journal of Mammology" Brian K. McNab
  2. ^ "The vomeronasal organ of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus vilosus (Xenarthra, Mammalia): anatomy, histology and ultrastructure" P.D. Carmanchahi, et al.
  3. ^ "Effects of land use on the distribution of three species of armadillos in the Argentinean Pampa." Agustin M Abba, et al
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ "Effects of land use on the distribution of three species of armadillos in the Argentinean Pampa." Agustin M Abba, et al
  6. ^ Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 0789477645
  7. ^ "Evolutionary trends of the histological pattern in the teeth of edentata (xenarthra)" J Ferigolo, e al
  8. ^ "New data on armadillos (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) for Central Patagonia, Argentina." Agustin M. Abba, et al.
  9. ^ "American Society of Mammalogists" Brian K. McNab
  10. ^ "American Society of Mammalogists" Brian K. McNab
  11. ^ "Effects of land use on the distribution of three species of armadillos in the Argentinean Pampa." Agustin M Abba, et al
  12. ^ "Evolutionary trends of the histological pattern in the teeth of edentata (xenarthra)" J Ferigolo, et al
  13. ^ "Fibrinolytic system of the armadillo Chatophractus villosus (Xenarhra, Dasypodidae)"Juan Tentoni, et al.
  14. ^ "Absence of penile erections during paradoxical sleep. Peculiar penile events during wakefulness and slow wave sleep in the armadillo." Jorge M. Affanni, et al. [2]
  15. ^ "American Society of Mammalogists" Brian K. McNab
  16. ^ "American society of mammalogists" Brian K. McNab
  17. ^ "Effects of land use on the distribution of three species of armadillos in the Argentinean Pampa." Agustin M Abba, et al
  18. ^ "New data on armadillos (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) for Central Patagonia, Argentina." Agustin M. Abba, et al.


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