Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Eleutherodactylus bresslerae is a small frog, with adult males measuring up to 30 mm and the larger females up to 46 mm. The dorsum is smooth to lightly shagreened, while the belly and the throat are smooth. The body disc is well developed. Vomerine teeth, behind the choanae, are present in a long series. Supraxillary and inguinal glandular areas are absent. The digital discs are large. There is no webbing between the toes (Schwartz 1960; Schwartz and Henderson 1985; Schwartz and Henderson 1991).

The dorsum of this species is yellowish tan anteriorly, grading posteriorly to reddish brown on thigh and pes. The scapular region and the sides show dense brown spotting. Towards the posterior, the spots become relatively discrete and circular brown dots. There is a dark brown interocular bar and a pair of prominent dorsolateral lines. The concealed surfaces of the hind limbs are dark brown and the venter is creamy (Schwartz, 1960; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985; Schwartz and Henderson, 1991)[3471][3934][3935].

Eleutherodactylus bresslerae is a member of the Eleutherodactylus ricordii group (subgenus Euhyas). Related species include Eleutherodactylus ricordii and E. acmonis (Heinicke et al. 2007).

Etymology- Named for Miss Sandra L. Bressler, who drew Cuban frogs for the species author (Schwartz 1960).

  • Schwartz, A. (1960). ''Nine new Cuban frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus.'' Science Publishers Reading Public Museum Art Gallery, 11, 1-50.
  • Heinicke, M. P., Duellman, W. E., and Hedges, S. B. (2007). ''Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal.'' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(24), 10092-10097.
  • Schwartz, A., and Henderson, R. W. (1985). A Guide to the Identification of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies Exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Museum, Inland Press, Milwaukee.
  • Schwartz, A., and Henderson, R. W. (1991). Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. Descriptions, Distributions, and Natural History. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
  • Vales, M., Álvarez, A., Montes, L., and Ávila, A. (1998). Estudio Nacional sobre la Diversidad Biológica en la República de Cuba. CESYTA, Madrid.
  • Hedges, S. B. and Díaz, L. M. (2004). Eleutherodactylus bresslerae. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/. Downloaded on 10 November 2007.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is known only from two isolated locations on the Maisi Peninsula in extreme eastern Cuba, including from the mouth of the Río Yumuri. Its altitudinal range is from 30-221m asl.
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Distribution and Habitat

This species is endemic to Cuba and is known only from the easternmost tip of the island. It is found between 30-221 m above sea level (Schwartz and Henderson 1991; Hedges and Diaz 2004).

  • Schwartz, A. (1960). ''Nine new Cuban frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus.'' Science Publishers Reading Public Museum Art Gallery, 11, 1-50.
  • Heinicke, M. P., Duellman, W. E., and Hedges, S. B. (2007). ''Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal.'' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(24), 10092-10097.
  • Schwartz, A., and Henderson, R. W. (1985). A Guide to the Identification of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies Exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Museum, Inland Press, Milwaukee.
  • Schwartz, A., and Henderson, R. W. (1991). Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. Descriptions, Distributions, and Natural History. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
  • Vales, M., Álvarez, A., Montes, L., and Ávila, A. (1998). Estudio Nacional sobre la Diversidad Biológica en la República de Cuba. CESYTA, Madrid.
  • Hedges, S. B. and Díaz, L. M. (2004). Eleutherodactylus bresslerae. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/. Downloaded on 10 November 2007.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is found on rocks and cliffs in closed hardwood forest, habitat within which it is moderately common. It breeds by direct development.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Blair Hedges, Luis Díaz

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Critically Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 100 km2, the distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat on Cuba.
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Population

Population
There are only a few records of this species, despite extensive efforts to locate it.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Little is known about this frog. The specimens collected for the type-series were taken on rocks in a coastal broadleaf forest at night (Schwartz 1960).

  • Schwartz, A. (1960). ''Nine new Cuban frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus.'' Science Publishers Reading Public Museum Art Gallery, 11, 1-50.
  • Heinicke, M. P., Duellman, W. E., and Hedges, S. B. (2007). ''Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal.'' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(24), 10092-10097.
  • Schwartz, A., and Henderson, R. W. (1985). A Guide to the Identification of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies Exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Museum, Inland Press, Milwaukee.
  • Schwartz, A., and Henderson, R. W. (1991). Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. Descriptions, Distributions, and Natural History. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
  • Vales, M., Álvarez, A., Montes, L., and Ávila, A. (1998). Estudio Nacional sobre la Diversidad Biológica en la República de Cuba. CESYTA, Madrid.
  • Hedges, S. B. and Díaz, L. M. (2004). Eleutherodactylus bresslerae. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/. Downloaded on 10 November 2007.
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Threats

Major Threats
The primary threats to the species include habitat degradation and loss due to subsistence agriculture and wood collecting, and moderate impacts from touristic activities.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Habitat modification is considered the principal threat to this species, particularly habitat degradation and deforestation due to agriculture and subsistence farming. Moderate impacts on habitat also occur from tourist activities (Vales et al. 1998; Hedges and Diaz 2004).

  • Schwartz, A. (1960). ''Nine new Cuban frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus.'' Science Publishers Reading Public Museum Art Gallery, 11, 1-50.
  • Heinicke, M. P., Duellman, W. E., and Hedges, S. B. (2007). ''Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal.'' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(24), 10092-10097.
  • Schwartz, A., and Henderson, R. W. (1985). A Guide to the Identification of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies Exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Museum, Inland Press, Milwaukee.
  • Schwartz, A., and Henderson, R. W. (1991). Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. Descriptions, Distributions, and Natural History. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
  • Vales, M., Álvarez, A., Montes, L., and Ávila, A. (1998). Estudio Nacional sobre la Diversidad Biológica en la República de Cuba. CESYTA, Madrid.
  • Hedges, S. B. and Díaz, L. M. (2004). Eleutherodactylus bresslerae. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/. Downloaded on 10 November 2007.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in the Protected Landscape Maisi-Yumuri, but maintenance of other existing habitat within the range of this species is required.
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Wikipedia

Eleutherodactylus bresslerae

Eleutherodactylus bresslerae is a species of frog in the Leptodactylidae family endemic to Cuba. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and rocky areas. It is threatened by habitat loss.

References

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